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Jamais of Wyoming 




Official Publication 
of the 



Published Biannually 



Fred W. Marble, Chairman Cheyenne 

Elwood Anderson Gillette 

Mrs. Geraldine Z. Brimmer Rawlins 

Thomas O. Cowgell ....Cody 

Mrs. Esther Mockler Dubois 

Mrs. Leora Peters Wheatland 

Mrs. Bertha Taylor Mountain View 

Earl E. Wakeman Newcastle 

Attorney-General Howard Black, Ex-officio 


President, Frank L. Bowron Casper 

First Vice President, F. H. Sinclair Sheridan 

Second Vice President, W. L. Marion Lander 

Secretary-Treasurer, Miss Maurine Carley Cheyenne 

Executive Secretary, Miss Lola M. Homsher Cheyenne 

Wyoming State Historical Society life membership, $50.00; annual 
membership, $3.50. 



Lola M. Homsher Director 

Henryetta Berry Deputy 

Herbert J. Salisbury Assistant Archivist 

Mrs. Margaret R. Owen Secretary 

Lola M. Homsher JZditor 

The Annals of Wyoming is published semi-annually, in January and 
July, and is the official publication of the Wyoming State Historical 
Society. It is received by all members of that Society as a part of their 
dues. Individual copies of the current issues of the Annals of Wyoming 
may be purchased for $1.00 each. Available copies of earlier issues are 
also for sale. A price list may be obtained by writing to the Editor. 

Communications should be addressed to the Editor. The Editor will 
not assume responsibility for statements of fact or of opinion made by 

Copyright, 1954, by the Wyoming State Archives and Historical 

Mnals of Wyoming 

Volume 26 January 1954 Number 1 

Zable of Contents 


James W. Hook 


Nora H. Dunn 


Harriet Knight Orr 



Jules Farlow 


Dale L. Morgan, editor 

MY PAL, A Poem 81 

Harry Robb 

President's Message by Frank L. Bowron 


By the Editor 


Santee, Lost Pony Tracks 100 

F. H. Sinclair 
Brininstool, Fighting Indian Warriors: True Tales of the Wild 

Frontiers .... 101 

Maurice Frink 
Graham, The Custer Myth 101 

Alfred M. Pence 
Parsons and DuMont, Firearms in the Custer Battle 102 

Richard Ferris 
Athearn, Westward the Briton 103 

Lola M. Homsher 



Cody. Wyoming in 1905-1906 — Looking Northwest from roof 

of Irma Hotel 2 

Cody, Wyoming in 1905-1906 — Looking Northwest 12 

Meanea's Saddle Shop 25 

Cheyenne Buildings, 1868 29 

Lander, Town of 1885 50 

Fremont County Pioneer Association Monument 62 





Seven Months in Cody, 


James W. Hook 


This account of life in Cody, Wyoming, almost fifty years ago 
was written and read at the Dissenters' Club of New Haven in 
1949. It has since been revised and somewhat expanded for my 
children and grandchildren who look upon Buffalo Bill and his 
times with a measure of awe and affection. 

I express thanks to Mrs. Maud Murray of Cody, Wyoming, who 
reviewed the files of the Cody Enterprise and copied the quoted 
news stories and editorials that dealt with the stirring events that 
accompanied the eradication of public gambling in the town. 

New Haven, Connecticut James W. Hook 

April 15, 1953 

My brother, John, discovered Cody, Wyoming, during his 
travels for an eastern manufacturer of paint and brushes. He 
liked the place so well that he moved his family there in 1904. 
His glowing letters about the town and surrounding country per- 
suaded our father to make an exploratory visit. The latter turned 
out to be more than exploratory, because while there (September 
1904) father purchased a quarter section of land on the Germania 
bench about 25 miles east of Cody, near Burlington, and joined 
some 65 others in taking up 116 quarter sections of land on the 
eastern rim of the Big Horn Basin and laying out a townsite. He 
died the next spring and his children, not knowing that oil in 
abundance la) under the acres he had laid claim to, took no 
interest and let them go back to the state. Today the whole sec- 
tion is dotted with oil wells. 

I was just finishing an engineering course in Iowa State College 
when this parental migration was in progress. Father, by public 


sale, in the spring of 1905, disposed of his personal property in 
northern Wapello County, Iowa, rented his fine farm there and 
moved to his Burlington, Wyoming, farm. He was alone. Moth- 
er had died in the autumn of 1897, his second wife was a hopeless 
invalid and permanently hospitalized and all of his children but 
one, a lad of 16, were fully grown. None of these children could 
see why his father at the age of 65 should want to establish a new 
home in such a distant and isolated place as Wyoming appeared 
to them to be. His explanation was that he desired to leave a 
section of new western land to each of them and, considering the 
population growth of the whole country and the rapid advance of 
the science of dry farming and stock raising, he believed that 
Wyoming was a state of great promise. He didn't have much 
time to persuade his children to establish residence on the land 
he had selected for them, a requirement of the Homestead Act, 
because three months after he had settled on his Burlington farm 
and while on a return trip to Iowa he suddenly died. 

I was with him the day he died and during those precious hours 
I learned much from him about the Oregon Basin Proiect near 
Cody. This project was unique but never completed. It's object 
was to divert water from the south fork of the Shoshone River 
into a huge saucer of land, probably an extinct volcanic crater, 
located about ten miles southeast of Cody, and distribute the im- 
pounded water by gravity in irrigation ditches to a wide area of 
adjacent land, mostly eastward. An Iowa State College (my own 
college) engineering graduate, George W. Zorn, was in charge of 
the project. Father thought I might get in on the operation of 
some of the mechanical equipment and I thought so too. 

I talked it over with my sweetheart whom I was not quite sure I 
was engaged to but by the simple procedure of marrying her two 
years later indicated perhaps that I was, and we decided it would 
be a good experience and that I should go. I also persuaded 
Arthur Johnson, a college friend of mine to go with me. And go 
we did in September 1905, riding in one lower berth in the first 
sleeping car (a tourist sleeping car with cane seats) that either of 
us had ever ridden in. 

That was a great trip. At Toluca, Montana, we changed trains 
for Cody, and while waiting the passengers worked up a game of 
one old cat which made the four-hour wait for the Cody train 
endurable. Later the C. B. & Q. Railroad abandoned that junction 
point by moving the southern take off to Billings. 

Down the line away from Toluca the train stopped at a small 
town in the center of the Crow Indian Reservation. A group of 
these Indians, both men and women, were all about offering their 
wares. Johnson and I bought nothing because we had no money 
to squander. Not so, however, with another passenger who 


handed a squaw a five dollar bill for a twenty-five cent purchase 
and lost the whole five. I can still see that bewildered tenderfoot 
leaning out of the car window demanding his change and the 
squaw standing there looking at him with a dead pan expression 
on her face that only an Indian can show. 

We learned on the way down more details about the Cody Bank 
robbery which had occurred about ten months before and which 
still was the main topic of conversation in northern Wyoming. A 
band of desperados had ridden into the little town of Cody, fright- 
ened everyone off the streets with their six shooters and after 
killing I. O. Middaugh, the cashier of the First National Bank, 
made off with a substantial part of the bank's cash. They had not 
yet been apprehended and so far as I know never were. 

My brother, John, was at the station when we arrived (8:00 
P.M., September 11, 1905) and in some magical way found a 
place for us to sleep in his already crowded house. Next day we 
obtained and pitched a tent in his back yard where we lived for 
about three weeks until old Boreas forced us to seek better quar- 
ters which we found in the residence of Mrs. Julia Goodman, elder 
sister of Buffalo Bill. Here we lived for the remainder of our stay 
in Cody, Johnson leaving the following January and I staying on 
until April 17, 1906, when illness forced me to return to my 
native Iowa. 

My first impression of Cody on that early September morning 
was not of the drab little town itself, but of what I saw and heard 
beyond its borders. The town, of course, was interesting enough, 
but in the midst of the larger scene it seemed markedly artificial 
with its low wooden buildings, many just shacks, its unpaved 
streets, weed-infested irrigation ditches and rickety board walks 
where sidewalks existed at all, the whole in a setting of treeless 
and rock strewn terrain. For over and beyond this lay the glories 
of a vast glacial architecture of successive land benches that to me 
resembled risers and treads in a giant staircase. These paralleled 
the primitive water courses and formed a common plateau that 
sloped gently eastward from the foothills of the high Rockies. To 
the west of Cody and punctuating this rugged floor of the great 
plain was tree-covered Cedar and Rattlesnake Mountains and the 
defile of the very beautiful Shoshone River Canyon which sep- 
arates them. Beyond and in the far distance rose the snow cov- 
ered prominences of the Absaroka range and in front of them 
other rocky foothills and plain where, I was to learn later, great 
herds of sheep and cattle graze. Flanking this scene on the right 
and standing alone, stern and rugged Heart Mountain caught and 
held my gaze like a great sorcerer. Following and again to the 
right, lay another quadrant of vast plain that extended to the 
horizon. Then, directly northeast, were the gray, mystical and 


verdureless folds of the McCullough Peaks about which Indians 
had woven legends of tragedy and primitive beauty. To the right 
of these, and on around to the ruggedly carved slopes of Carter 
Mountain directly southwest, laid another wide quadrant of bench 
carved plain over which some 75 miles distant could be seen the 
peaks and defiles of the stately Big Horns. Cutting this scene in 
twain, from west to east, but invisible from Cody itself, was the 
fast flowing Shoshone River whose roar as it rushed over the rocks 
accented the acute stillness of that early morning with a sound of 
weird and distant music. 

I never quite forgot the Cody scene and often recall it when 
earthly troubles get on my nerves. It matches, in memory, those 
early mornings at my boyhood farm home in Iowa when I would 
go quietly to our lower pasture to listen to the boom, boom, boom 
of the prairie chickens in distant meadows. 

Cody was founded in the middle 1890's by George T. Beck and 
others of the Cody Canal Co. Buffalo Bill wanted it located 
farther west near the de Maris Sulphur Springs, where surveys had 
already been made, and, of course, he wanted it named for him. 
He got his way about the name but not about the location. The 
story of how this was brought about is one old timers like to tell. 
Before 1 896 the new town was known as Shoshone, a name not 
acceptable to the Post Office Department since it conflicted with 
another Post Office known as Shoshone Agency. The name 
Richland was then proposed and accepted but very soon there- 
after, by request of a group of citizens, it was changed to Cody. 
The little town was incorporated in 1901. 

The incorporators saw great possibilities in the newly born 
town. It was at the most scenic side of the Yellowston National 
Park. Already occasional parties had been escorted through that 
wonderland by Gus Thompson, Tex Holm and others. It was 
expected that the C. B. & Q. Railroad would extend its lines to 
the place. The cattle and sheep business was growing rapidly 
despite antagonism between sheep herders and cow punchers, the 
latter claiming that cattle could not graze after sheep because of 
the latter's droppings and close cropping. 

In 1899 the railroad did come, after which the town began to 
attract eastern "dudes" and grow rather fast. Buffalo Bill and 
Colonel J. H. Peake established a newspaper in 1898, calling it 
the Cody Enterprise. Peake, an old friend of Col. Cody, came 
originally from Washington, D. C. The Cody Trading Company, 
founded, I believe, in 1 896 was later reorganized and placed under 
the managership of Jacob M. Schwoob. Other stores came and 
in due time two banks, to join the brothel and a half dozen saloons 
and gambling establishments that had earlier been on the scene. 
In 1 902 the Irma Hotel, named after Buffalo Bill's daughter, was 


built to join the Hart Mountain Inn which was occupied and, I 
believe, owned for a time by Dave McFall, known generally as 
Bad Land Dave. 

Cattle men, sheep men, gamblers, dudes, stray men and women 
from no man's land, a reasonable number of Buffalo Bill's rela- 
tives and, believe it or not, an English captain with a retainer and 
a prominent authoress might be seen daily on the streets of this 
lately organized frontier town. 

It was into this scene that I dropped that September of 1905 
with less than $5.00 in my pocket and a million dollars of ambi- 
tion in my head. My brother introduced me to a Mr. Duell, a 
lately arrived carpenter who was engaged in building a small house 
for himself, and I landed a job with him at $15.00. Duell in turn 
introduced Johnson and me to a neighbor who agreed to feed us 
for about 15 cents a meal. This gentleman didn't know what he 
was letting himself in for and soon showed his resourcefulness by 
reducing calories and praying at all meals. His clients lasted only 
a week or two by which time Johnson's money was all gone, forc- 
ing him to go to work in the J. W. Neff and Son's grocery store. 
My $15.00 kept us going until his first stipend came in. 

Duell's house progressed. One day he mentioned the fact that 
he must get the new electric light company to wire his house for 
electricity. That presented me with an opportunity and I em- 
braced it. "I can wire your house," I said. He indicated some 
surprise and a modicum of doubt but told me to go ahead. 

I had never wired a house but knew the principle. As luck 
decreed, Honorable George T. Beck, the President of the electric 
company, was in the little 14 x 20 office and store room of the 
very new Shoshone Electric Light & Power Company of Cody, 
Wyoming, when I called. When he found that I could wire houses 
for electricity he offered me a job right away at $21.00 per week. 
Of course, I accepted but left myself enough time to string the 
wires in Mr. Duell's house at the $15.00 rate. 

That $6.00 addition to my weekly income stirred Johnson's 
ambition also and he managed to negotiate a raise for himself. 
Both of us then repaired to the Dr. M. Chamberlain's boarding 
house for our meals. Mrs. Agnes Chamberlain and her sister 
prepared and served the meals, and they were good and whole- 
some ones, too, while the Doctor talked about hunting mountain 
sheep at Sylvan Pass, and without much advertising or cocaine 
administered to the dental needs of the frontier town. 

I went about my business of wiring up the town. The little 
electric plant had only been installed that summer. It was a 
water driven plant located on the river about a mile away. Every- 
body wanted his house wired so I had plenty to do. In addition 


to myself, the company employed one day and one night man at 
the plant, a bookkeeper and two other outside men who could 
climb poles. One of these outside men also helped me on the 
inside wiring. The superintendent was Frank Stannard. Frank 
was a good electrical engineer but his special claim to local fame 
arose from the fact that he was the owner of the first automobile 
in Cody. It was a high wheeler and one lunger that could nego- 
tiate a two per cent grade if in good humor, but that usually was 
sullen and mad and unwilling to run at all. 

My work brought me one day to the office of the "Cody Enter- 
prise". There I met Colonel Peake who asked me many questions 
about myself. When he learned that I had edited a college paper 
he saw opportunity staring him straight in the face. His health 
was not good, he confided. Wouldn't I like to buy the paper? 

1 immediately thought of my sweetheart back in Iowa. She was 
a newspaper girl herself, holding the position of Society Editor on 
the leading Daily in her home town of Fort Dodge, Iowa. I im- 
agined I could see her beam at the thought of our owning a news- 
paper together in that growing section of northern Wyoming. 

I also thought of the fun I'd had with the college paper, the 
prestige it had given me with the students and faculty, the satis- 
faction it had given me to say things I thought ought to be said, 
and I wondered if I had not wasted my time trying to be an engi- 
neer when editing a paper was so much more to my liking. The 
worst thing about the whole thing was that I had no money. I told 
this to Col. Peake but he thought that small matter could be 
arranged. Didn't I have an uncle or cousin or aunt or somebody 
who would sign my note? I thought of my brother-in-law, H. E. 
Passing of Humboldt, Iowa, and it turned out that he was my man. 

We took over on November 15, 1905. Brother-in-law re- 
mained with me two additional days then returned to Iowa with 
visions (he denied it) of wealth and reflected glory descending 
upon him. He had come to Cody with my brother, Orin, some 
ten days before and while there and before closing the deal for the 
paper, the three of us drove across country to Basin, the county 
seat, about 60 miles eastward taking a heavily bewiskered but 
fine old gentleman named Pulsifer with us. En route we planned 
an over night stop at Burlington and a visit to the farm that our 
late father had purchased which now was tied up in his estate. 
I gave up my job with the Electric Light Company and early next 
morning we took off. 

It was quite a trip. We rode in a farm wagon with no springs 
to soften the jolts except abbreviated ones under the seats. The 
road was only a wagon trail that generally followed the ancient 
water courses, occasionally passing from one to another over steep 
banks to keep going in the right direction. The silence about us. 


the vast depths of blue sky, the shooting warmth of the sun, the 
mystic nakedness of the landscape and the charm of the distant 
views cast their spell upon us and made us reflective and spesch- 
less as we moved snail-like along. We saw prairie dogs, rattle- 
snakes, jack rabbits by the hundreds, coyotes and antelopes occa- 
sionally, and at one place slithering among the rocks, a wild cat. 
At a water hole which we suddenly came upon, we flushed about 
a hundred sage chickens, a close relative of the Iowa prairie 
chicken but only a fraction as wild. They didn't fly far and before 
we even got past the water they were back again, so close in some 
cases that we could have slayed them with sticks. They are not 
very good to eat, however, because of the sage growth they live 
on, so we did not molest them. 

We reached Burlington, the halfway point, late in the afternoon 
and holed up at the Burlington House, the only public sleeping 
place in that town of approximately fifty people. I say "holed up" 
purposely because of all places where I have slept none excelled 
this one in points of crude construction and wild surroundings. 
The first floor was a combined saloon and dining room with a 
roulette wheel going full blast in one corner. Wandering in and 
out were a typical array of western characters whose wit and 
humor deteriorated as the evening advanced. By midnight the 
place was a bedlam as judged by us four horsemen who were 
bunking above, but we heard no shots nor did we note any serious 
arguments. Our twin beds, for we had to sleep double, were 
crowded in under opposite sides of the slanting roof through 
which, in many places in that rainless, arid land, we could see the 
stars. I don't mind confessing that I was scared. About 2:00 
A.M. I heard someone tip-toeing up the steep and narrow stairs 
located on the outside of the building. Here it comes, I thought, 
as I nudged Orin who, like myself, was awake and heard the 
approach. Presently, two figures (a man and a woman) passed 
between the two beds and disappeared behind a thin cloth curtain 
that hung across the room at the head of our beds. They turned 
out to be nothing more than two people going to bed in the ad- 
jacent room isolated from us only by the aforementioned curtain. 

We arose early next morning and were soon on our way, stop- 
ping east of town at the farm so recently occupied by my father. 
An elderly couple residing there in the small one story house 
served us some ham and eggs and prepared some sandwiches for 
our lunch. 

We arrived at our destination just as the glow of a magnificent 
sunset was fading into dusky twilight. We deposited our tired 
horses in a nearby stable and ourselves in the Antler's Hotel which 
was a great improvement over the one at Burlington where we 
had been the night before. 


We remained in Basin for two days. It was a small place much 
like Cody but somewhat more mature, being the county seat. The 
Greybull River ran close by and the magnificent Big Horn Moun- 
tains formed an imposing background of scenic beauty. 

The return trip was much like the going one except that we 
spent the night at a private home in Otto rather than at the public 
house in Burlington. We passed through Burlington, however, 
and had the unique experience of seeing an army of jack rabbits 
descend upon the suburbs of that little town seeking food and 
water. We didn't wait around to see what happened to them. 

The first issue of The Enterprise under my editorship rolled 
from the old hand operated printing press on Thursday, November 
16, 1905. Claude Hooker, the printer's devil, stood on a raised 
platform and turned the press' huge crank. He claimed that it 
was this labor that made him bow graciously to everyone he 
met on Friday, that being the day that followed press day. From 
the day of this first issue to the middle of the following summer 
when we sold out we managed, somehow, to collect enough from 
our chronically delinquent subscribers and customers to keep 
issues coming out regularly week after week. 

The foreman of the shop was a fairly good pressman named 
W. L. Ellswick and under him, in addition to Hooker, was a Mrs. 
Tinkum and a part time worker named Hattie Gardner. George 
Bates also worked for us occasionally. In addition to the news- 
paper press above described the shop had two job presses, several 
limited fonts of badly worn type, some stools and chairs, a paper 
trimmer, plenty of wastebaskets and two or three spittoons. It 
was heated by two round-bellied coal stoves, one in the print shop 
and another in the front office where I labored behind a roll top 
desk that had seen better days. My brother, John, also had a desk 
in the office. It was flanked by a long table where he displayed 
his samples of paint and brushes for the benefit of prospective 
customers. Staring at us from the north wall was a mounted elk 
head with a vicious eye. 

We didn't own the building but leased it from Mrs. Peake for 
$20.00 per month. It was located just north of the First National 
Bank. It faced east and directly toward Dr. Chamberlain's home 
and office across the street. A three room apartment was on the 
second floor, occupied, under my regime, by Ellswick, the press- 
man, and his family. 

About three weeks after I took over, Buffalo Bill came home. 
This was a prime event and the townspeople made the best of it. 
Old timers, including Indians, some from miles away and some 
displaying their best chosen hats, chaps, boots, gloves and revolv- 
ers, rode into town on their best horses, some outfitted in the 
fanciest of leather. 


Bill, as he was affectionately called, waited for them at the Irma 
Hotel. After serving them drinks at the long and ornate Irma bar 
he asked the older ones what they most needed and ordered it 
provided. Some asked for a pair of boots, others for a dress or a 
present for the "good woman'', but most wanted clothing such as 
coats, pants, caps, shirts and undergarments. 

Bill had rooms at the hotel but spent a good deal of time at his 
sister's home where I was rooming. On one or two occasions I 
was kindly invited to dine with them. This not only greatly flat- 
tered me but also gave me good opportunity to see and talk with 
our distinguished guest in a more or less intimate way. Once he 
called on me at the Enterprise Office. Pointing toward the crest 
of Cedar Mountain he said, "There is where I shall be buried. 
The spot is marked by a cairn of stones. Have you seen it?" 
When I confessed that I had not he said, "You must ride up there 
some time." (Buffalo Bill was buried just outside of Denver. I 
have seen his grave. ) 

One of Bill's old friends and cronies managed the Irma Hotel. 
He was Colonel Frank Powell whose long white hair and manly 
bearing despite his stern countenance made him barely less of a 
commanding figure than Bill himself. And Buffalo Bill was, in- 
deed, a commanding figure. He was over six feet tall, straight as 
an arrow and just portly enough to have a stately bearing. His 
well groomed mustache and goatee and long white hair which 
curled upward at the shoulder line with hardly a hair in his entire 
head missing gave him a patriarchal appearance. But it was his 
handsome face with its baby-like skin and pink complexion that 
really set him apart from the ordinary weather beaten denison of 
the great plains. It was not the face of an intellectual but rather 
of an artist or showman bent on glamorizing western life and 
customs and making them appear dramatic and appealing. 

This was the year of the beginning of construction on the great 
Shoshone Dam in the canyon of that name four or five miles west 
of the town. At the banquet given in Bill's honor much was said 
about this and the Orgeon Basin project and what they would do 
for Cody and surrounding country. Bill went into ecstacies about 
them and with artistic gestures envisioned for his audience acres 
upon acres of cactus and stone strewn benches in every direction 
growing lush with crops and fruit trees. 

When he concluded the toastmaster referred to a promising 
young man who had just settled in Cody and called upon me. It 
was my first public speaking appearance and it came without 
warning. I don't remember what I said but have a vague recollec- 
tion of trying to prove beyond question that Cody was, indeed, 
the best town in the west by a "dam site." 


The Shoshone Dam's Chief Engineer, a Government Army 
Officer by the name of Ahern, was the next speaker. He was not 
as enthusiastic as Bill and I had been and took Bill for a terrific 
ride. "He couldn't see," he said, "how in hell the new dam and 
basin project could water more than a fraction of the land that 
Bill had promised unless Bill knew a way to bluff the water into 
running up hill." 

Bill left town about a week later for his well beloved T E Ranch 
and the brisk little town settled down to celebrate Christmas. It 
was to be the first Christmas when electric lights were available. 
Small Christmas trees sprang up in homes and store windows. A 
few street decorations came to life. Saloons and dance halls and 
Mrs. Feeley's brothel had stored their oil lamps in out of way 
places. Sheep herders and cow men for miles around were ex- 
pected in town. And last but not least Frank Stannard, the Light- 
ing Company's Superintendent and Chief Engineer, had left for 
Denver to be gone a month. 

I was sitting in my little office just as the last glow of eventide 
on that Christmas Eve was fading over the mountain tops. I was 
thinking of nothing but home and particularly the home of the one 
and only girl I had left behind me. Suddenly and without warning 
all lights went out all over the town. I knew at once that some- 
thing serious had happened to the main generator at the plant. 

Almost before I could put on my hat and coat George T. Beck, 
the lighting company's president, rushed into my office. Since 
Stannard, the Superintendent, was gone the president looked upon 
me as his last hope. He pleaded with me to do something even 
though I was no longer in his employ. I called the engineer 
(Shyrock) at the generating plant and got the terrible news that 
the armature of the exciter for the one and only generating unit 
had burned out. If that was true then of course the plant would 
have to remain idle until a new armature could be shipped from 
Denver, a four or five day delay. 

I told this to the president, Beck. He shot back, "It musn't be. 
Go the the plant Hook and fix it. I know you can do it." Despite 
the fact that I had no more idea of what to do than a babe in arms, 
I agreed to try. 

Upon arrival at the plant I ordered the water to be turned on 
and the generator started. As the speed of the huge machine 
increased, the little exciter motor began to throw sparks in every 
direction. I noted where the sparks were coming from and 
ordered the water turned off. I suddenly remembered one thing 
I had learned in college about armature winding. It was that in 
one type of winding each commutator bar was connected through 
the armature to another commutator bar exactly opposite. I 


didn't know, of course, if this particular winding was of that kind. 
I decided, however, to take a chance. I examined, by lantern 
light, the spot on the commutator where the sparks had come 
from. Sure enough it showed a burned commutator bar. With 
my pliers I clipped the wires connecting these two bars and put 
the armature back and turned on the water. 

To my great relief it worked. The lights went back on and I 
got a reputation in Cody for being an electrical wizard that was 
far beyond my deserts. A week later 1 was elected a director of 
the Cody Building and Loan Association. It was my first 

1 had now been in Cody long enough to get a feel of the place. 
It had its aristocracy and it had its neer-do-wells, but the greatest 
hiatus existed between the late arrivals from the east, called dudes 
by the natives, with their pious frowning upon frontier ways and 
the old timers who had built up a philosophy of their own as to 
what was right and wrong. The aristocracy, so called, consisted 
for the most part of the better to do families, formerly easterners, 
who secretly sympathized with the natives but having none of 
their bringing up managed to keep in the good graces of the lately 
arrived families by showing up occasionally at church, joining the 
literary clubs and remaining clear of all movements that offered 
the slightest chance of arousing controversy. The natives were 
the sheep and cattle men, the gamblers and saloon keepers and the 
small tradesmen mostly western born who had started their bus- 
inesses when the town was founded some eight or ten years before. 
They had developed among themselves a certain code of honor 
and ethics that was not understood by the dudes, who were accus- 
tomed to order and law and a code of morals sanctioned by 
church, custom and decree. 

The dudes, of course, objected to Feeley's brothel and to the 
saloons and their gambling adjuncts that punctuated the main 
street of the town at many places. The editors of the two papers, 
the Cody Enterprise, for which I was responsible, and the Stock- 
grower and Farmer, edited by J. K. Calkins, were, of course, 
expected to side with them in their fight for reform. Both of us 
were shown laws and recent court decisions against gambling in 
the state that if enforced would, in the words of the reformists, 
put these cess-pools of iniquity out of business. We also knew 
that a crusade against gambling in Montana had driven many of 
the profession into Wyoming. Both Calkins and I were sympa- 
thetic but neither of us were keen about starting a crusade. By 
the very name of his paper Calkins had one up on me in the 
coming battle. His paper was a promoter of farming and stock 
raising methods and, while it contained news items, they were a 
secondary consideration and incidental to the main purpose. 


I wrote an editorial for the February 8, 1906, issue of the 
Enterprise entitled, "Let's Trample Evil". It was an obtuse 
attack upon evil, proving that I was much against it and counsel- 
ling the people to stamp it out, but it was not a direct attack on 
the local issue. It stirred things up, however, and showed between 
the lines that I was on the side of the reformists. In the week's 
interim between this and the next issue of the paper on February 
15, the women of the town circulated a petition that brought the 
issue to a head and forced Mayor Jacob Schwoob to act. A news 
item in the February 15 issue of the Enterprise read as follows — 


"'At the demand of the Mayor occasioned by a petition signed by 
almost every lady in town and another petition signed by some of the 
business men, gambling in the town is a thing of the past. Nothing 
definite has as yet been decided as regards the stipulation in the 
ladies' petition for the entire elimination of the concert hall, that has 
been seeking a license for some time, that would allow them to run 
on the main streets of our town. The women are making a vigorous 
stand and are intent on bringing their beliefs to a successful issue." 

Six weeks passed with tension growing and little effort on the 
part of the town government to take legal action against the law 
violators. I was playing the game cautiously hoping that the 
town would act and relieve me from the necessity of making de- 
mands. Then it happened. I was ill on publication day, April 
5th, and not at my office. Victor G. Lantry, an old timer and a 
good friend, had come to my office with the following article 
prepared by himself and couched in the language of ridicule. 
Finding me away he persuaded Ellswick, my printer, to print it. 


"Count}' authorities say gambling must be closed entirely. 
Arrests are made. Deputy Sheriff Carl Hammitt arrests all 
Cody Saloon men who allow gambling on Their Premises." 

"About 9 o'clock an immense crowd was gathered in front of the 
Cody Opera House, each provided with a piece of broken window 
glass smoked for the occasion, all watching intently for the total 
eclipse of the moon, then only fifteen minutes distant. Not a sound 
could be heard as the vast throng with bated breath focused his glass 
on the little fellow already shaded by cold Mother Earth. Deputy 
Sheriff Carl Hammitt sauntered carlessly along just as the shadow 
was nearing completion, and drawing from his pocket — not a Colts or 
Luger automatic, but a huge bunch of warrants issued from Basin, he 
put under arrest the following named persons; each charged with the 
offence of maintaining a gambling house: Marlow and Gebo, 8 
counts; Jesse Frost, 3 counts; Wm. J. Chapman, 3 counts; George 
Hawkins, 2 counts; Dan Sullivan, 2 counts; James May, 2 counts: 
John Lowe, 2 counts; Hoyle, 3 counts; Frank Parks, 3 counts; John 
Doe, Sr. 246 counts; John Doe, Jr. 247 counts; Mrs. John Doe, Sr. 
248 counts; Miss John Doe, Jr., 249 counts. 

About this time the eclipse suddenly collapsed and the old man in 
the moon could be distinctly seen calmly gazing down with smiling 


face upon the astonished crowd. Each of the above named parties 
when put under arrest, furnished a $500.00 bond to answer at the 
next term of the district court to the charge of either gambling or 
maintaining a gambling house. A careful investigation developed the 
fact that arrests of like character were made at the same hour at 
Garland, Burlington, Basin, Worland and other offending points. It 
also developed the fact that the States Attorney General has caused 
similar proceedings in every offending town in Wyoming. The Su- 
preme Court after a bitter legal fight recently, held that the Wyoming 
statutes on gambling was constitutional and the penalty of $300.00 
for each count was enforcable. 

The fight against gambling in Montana has been waged with bitter- 
ness recently and the result has been to drive from her borders hun- 
dreds of that fraternity, and, hunting for pastures green and victims 
verdant, they swooped down like hives of bees and covered Wyoming. 
But the state has taken action and ere long in our state as well as in 
Montana, the laws must be respected as to open, notorious gambling 
and kindred resorts." 

When the paper came to me late in the afternoon I didn't 
detect the dynamite in it immediately. But next day it was made 
manifest. My roommate, who then was Ed Polk, brought me the 
news of the street and it was not pleasant news to receive. It ran 
from threats of boycott of the paper to threats of driving me out 
of town. One story was that my life was in danger and Polk 
brought that message to me with a good deal of conviction. 1 
was not at all well and had not been for some little time and this 
added strain didn't help my condition any. I at once ordered the 
paper to set nothing in type that did not have my written approval. 

Pondering what next to do, I thought of Jesse Frost. Jesse's 
saloon was one of the best run in the town. Jesse himself was a 
good scout well liked by everybody. He was one of three saloon 
keepers who advertised in my paper. I sent Polk to him with a 
letter. I suggested that he assemble a group of the aggrieved at 
the Irma Hotel the following Monday to talk things over with me. 
I told him to bring any one and everyone he wanted. 

Jesse assented and the meeting was held. I sat alone facing the 
whole group. After chiding me a bit about my willingness to 
accept their liquor advertising and arguing earnestly that the 
saloon business was as legitimate as any other and that the gam- 
bling they permitted was no different than the gambling anybody 
else did who bought something in hopes of selling it at a profit, 
they asked me to say my say. 

Of course I had given previous thought to what I would say 
and had decided, with advice from Victor Lantry and others, that 
1 must not act excited or show fear. The illness that was upon me 
didn't make this easy. As nearly as I can recall this, in essence, 
is what I said to them: 

1 . That I was not the author of the April 5th article that ridi- 
culed them. 


2. That it had been published without my knowledge. 

3. That if I had seen it and considering the facts that the 
arrests had been made, I probably would not have published 

4. That despite these facts and the additional one that 1 had 
accepted some of their saloon and whiskey advertisements, 
I, in honesty, must say that I agreed with what the article 
said; that I did not approve of brothels, saloons or gambling 
and that so long as I lived in Cody I would be on the side of 
law and order and that I intended to say as much in the 
next issue of the paper. 

5. I ended my remarks by mentioning the rumor about my life 
being in danger and said if true I had but one request to 
make. Don't shoot from behind or from a dark alley, but 
in a way give me a chance to defend myself. 

When I finished Jesse spoke to the assemblage, "The kid's all 
right," he said, "he has come clean." Turning to me he assured 
me that my life was not in danger and never had been, and told me 
to go about my business as I always had. We shook hands 
and the meeting ended. 

The next issue of the Enterprise, April 12, 1906, carried the 
following wordy and confused editorial from my pen, calculated 
from my youthful point of view to show where I personally stood 
on the issue and, at the same time, to show my fairness and ob- 
jectivity in dealing with it. Any courage it exuded was so padded 
with extraneous words and phrases as to be lost on any but the 
most careful reader. 


"The truth always hurts," so it is said, and since the last issue of the 
Enterprise has spread its columns before the eyes of the public, we 
surely must say that we believe every word of the good old saying. 
The policy of the Enterprise, as everyone must admit, has been the 
most conservative. We have not made it a point to agitate measures 
and attempt to bring our real beliefs relative to gambling to a 
successful issue. It has been our policy to treat these matters 
sensibly, being sure that we let the public know our exact beliefs upon 
the subject. We have given the news, as much of it as possible, in 
an unprejudiced manner. We have refrained from radically com- 
menting upon any of the issues that have been agitated by the citizens 
of our town relative to the eradication of gambling. We have not 
done this because our beliefs are on the opposite side of the question, 
but because we felt too new in the country to attempt to dictate to 
the people what they should or should not do. We have felt that 
our older brother townsmen who have toiled long and hard to make 
Cody the town that it now is, men who know the conditions and 
understand the West and western customs, we have felt that they 
should do the dictating. Now, after doing this, have our efforts been 
appreciated? We fear not. Last week we had only to print one 
article on the subject; an article of news, pure and simple; an article, 


every word, we might say, of which is public court record, and what 
is the result? Not a voice, only in a few cases, from the men who 
were arrested, but one (many) from an army of outsiders who toler- 
ate and follow the poker business, and who spin the roulette wheel 
every chance they get at different places throughout the town. Now, 
the Enterprise does not particularly care what any of these people 
say in regard to above mentioned article, but it wishes to take the 
opportunity to let the people know that such comment has been 
offered. We feel that we are perfectly able to stand by the things 
we say through this paper, and when a plain, common, every day 
news item is printed, we want to say that we pity the man who is 
narrow enough to take exceptions to it. We are in business to give 
the news, and if you do anything, good or bad, that we consider good 
enough to call news, you need not worry, for it will be in the Enter- 

The editor of the Enterprise admits he is not the author of the 
article referred to, (April 5, 1906) but he wants everyone to know 
that he is the author of this one. It seems sad to relate that in a 
place as large as Cody we must sweeten every article that is written 
with exhortations of "Make Three Guesses" and "Exception taking 
expressions" for fear we will anger some one by publishing the grand 
old truth." 

Meantime, the law had been enforced. The accused mentioned 
in the April 5th story were loaded in wagons and taken across 
country to the county seat at Basin for trial. I stood on the street 
and waved them good bye. I don't remember what punishment 
they got because I returned to Iowa three days after the April 12 
issue appeared, not to return. I was told, however, that the Cody 
saloons thereafter barred gambling and that the professional gam- 
blers all left town. 

Speaking of saloon and gambling houses, I think a short account 
of them as they appeared in frontier Cody of half a century ago 
might be interesting. They all occupied prominent locations on 
the principal streets. Some were saloons exclusively while others 
added gambling and a few served light lunches. The latter were, 
by far, the most intriguing. Upon entering, one found himself 
flanked on one side by the bar. Farther back and beyond the bar 
were square tables with chairs at each for four persons. Some- 
where near the tables were the gambling devices, mostly roulette 
wheels. On the back wall was at least one and sometimes two 
exits. The walls were sparsely decorated mostly with deer, elk, 
mountain sheep and bear heads but never, so far as my memory 
goes, with voluptuous women in scant attire as so many now be- 
lieve. A huge potbellied stove — sometimes two — heated the 
rooms in the winter but were removed and stored during the 
warm months. On the bar barely out of easy reach of a customer 
one usually could find one or two six shooters. These served as a 
warning that one must not buy what he could not pay for. 

During the day time these places were benign enough but as 
night came on, especially Friday and Saturday nights when the 


sheep and cattle men came to town, activity revived, sometimes 
to the embarrassment of a tenderfoot newcomer who happened in 
at the wrong moment. Old Sam Berry, when feeling good, en- 
joyed nothing better than forcing some stranger to dance by shoot- 
ing at the floor near his feet. He never did this to me but I 
always kept well out of his sight fearing that he might. 

I have seen literally dish pans full of gold and silver coins before 
the roulette wheels. Argument and raucous talk was notably 
absent among the gamblers. They placed their bets and accepted 
the verdict of the wheel without comment. But if talk was absent, 
alertness was not. Some carried revolvers in plain sight and as 
they stood there one got the impression that no movement of 
any one of them and no change of expression on anyone's face 
escaped notice by the others. 

The old westerner was a most inarticulate person. Spending 
such a lot of his time alone with himself he learned how to get 
along without talking. But he never gave the impression of being 
a moron. Conversely he appeared to be a man of repressed 
knowledge, an enigmatical person who was taking your measure 
and retaining it for some future use. When he did say anything 
you listened attentively to every word. 

One dark evening I was sitting at my desk in the newspaper 
office talking to Ed Polk when the door suddenly opened and 
admitted a young man whom I knew very well. Without a word 
he strode to where I was sitting, poked a revolver into my face 
and with a terrible oath said, "You have robbed me and I'm going 
to get you." Thinking it a joke I pushed the gun away and smiled. 
Again he moved to put the gun on me and Polk, sensing that the 
fellow was in earnest, grabbed him from behind and together we 
disarmed him. Next morning my assailant came rushing in to 
see me. "Thank God you're all right," he said. "I was afraid I 
had killed you." He then told me what had happened. 

He had just received his month's pay in cash. Thinking to 
have a drink he went into one of the saloons. A stranger seeing 
his roll got into conversation with him and began buying him 
absinth. A friend seeing what was going on slipped up and took 
his money for safe keeping. When he missed the money he was 
pretty far gone. By some twist of fate he looked down the street 
and saw the light in my office window. The notion struck him at 
once, he said, that I had robbed him. He reached over and with- 
out being seen picked up the house revolver and started for my 
office. The scene I have just described followed. I gave him 
back his gun which had one cartridge in its chamber. He took it 
back to the saloon and, of course, I dropped all thought of having 
him arrested. 


The weather in Cody was seldom inclement if the wind were 
ignored. The latter could be quite disagreeable. The native 
called the occasional heavy blows "chinooks" which seemed to me 
to blow straight down from the sky, scattering sand and even 
goodly sized pebbles in all directions. These chinooks could 
convert a cold winter's morning into a tropical afternoon with in- 
credible swiftness. But I liked Cody's weather. It was stimu- 
lating and changeable enough not to get monotonous and the need 
for rubbers and rain coats was almost nil. 

I have in my possession copies of only two issues of the Cody 
Enterprise printed during my proprietorship. They each contain 
8 pages, 6 columns wide. About one-third consists of locally 
prepared copy. Another third is purchased plate. The balance 
is advertising, all local except ads from the McMillan Fur and 
Wool Co. of Minneapolis, purchaser of all kinds of hides, the 
Smith Premier Typewriter Co., Dr. Price's Cream Baking Powder, 
the C, B. & Q. Railroad, The Lederer Novelty Co. of Washington, 
D. C, The Scientific Farmer of Denver, Colorado, and The Win- 
chester Repeating Arms Co. of New Haven, Connecticut. I 
quickly pass over two columns of editorials that tortured page 3 
of each issue, and come directly to the advertisements. It is they 
that deserve the spotlight today. J. W. Neff and Sons, grocers, 
declared in an advertisement appearing in the issue of March 26, 
1906, that "A Stale Ad is Better Than a Stale Egg," a fact, I am 
sure, all Codyites were glad to learn. The Cody Lumber Co. in 
the same issue announced that "We want to Emphatically Say 
that We Believe We Can Serve You as Satisfactorily as any Con- 
cern on Earth," while W. F. Wittich in a mood of civic helpful- 
ness shouted in glaring headlines, "If Your Head Needs Fixing 
Send it to W. F. Wittich." It's only fair to add that Wittich was 
a taxidermist. 

Each issue contained cards of six attorneys-at-law, seven phy- 
sicians and surgeons, two dentists, one engineer, surveyor and 
notary public and a teacher of violin. Sprinkled throughout the 
paper, also, were terse reminders that all subscriptions to the 
Enterprise should be paid for and promptly. 

My brother, John, was a cartoonist of sorts and his drawings of 
local characters were occasionally published. In one of the issues 
in my possession is a cartoon of Ed Cheese, shown putting the 
finishing touches on the new flour mill that the lately organized 
Shoshone Milling Co., of which he was the head, had just built. I 
remember another cartoon of Bad Land Dave McFall. Bad Land 
was very jealous of Buffalo Bill, declaring that he, Bad Land, had 
shot many more buffalo than Bill and couldn't see why he wasn't 
getting as much credit. John drew a cartoon in four parts, the 
first part showing Bad Land running from what appeared to be a 


bear. Ahead of him was a deep but narrow crevice in the rocks. 
The second picture showed him leaping the crevice. The third 
picture showed him landing by the skin of his teeth on the opposite 
bank. The fourth picture showed him sitting up and looking back 
across the crevice only to see that it was not a bear that had been 
chasing him but only a harmless little prairie dog. 

John showed the cartoon to Bad Land and convinced him that 
publishing it would draw much attention to him. Bad Land was 
doubtful if it would enhance his reputation as a great buffalo 
hunter but John pointed out that while that was true the picture 
would show his kindly nature and his unwillingness to hurt even a 
prairie dog and that it might be just the thing to start people talk- 
ing about him and wanting to learn more about his life. The car- 
toon was published and old tall, lank, lean, black whiskered Bad 
Land seemed quite pleased with the comment it engendered among 
his acquaintances. 

There were other interesting characters in Cody at the time but 
it would take too much time and space to more than merely men- 
tion them. Tex Holm was a great guide and one of the early con- 
ductors of private trips to the hunting grounds of the Absorakes 
and to Yellowstone National Park. Others that I remember well 
were Dave McFall, Jesse Frost, Victor G. Lantry and George T. 
Beck already mentioned; Harry Thurston who married Buffalo 
Bill's niece; C. E. Hayden; Fred Chase; Dr. Louis Howe and his 
pretty daughters Anna, Alice and Ruby; Dwight Hollister; Milo 
Harding and his sister Clara; attractive Bess and Jess Hitchcock; 
Dr. H. H. Ainsworth; Hank Fulton; H. T. (Kid) Newell; Jake 
Schwoob; W. B. Kissick; W. L. Walls, attorney; Harry Weston, 
banker; Claude Hooker; F. J. Hiscock the photographer; Jim 
McLaughlin; Dr. J. H. Van Horn; Finley Goodman; Gus Thomp- 
son; Walter Kepford of Ishwooa; Caroline Lockhart a writer of 
note, and Capt. Rudson a remittance man from England; Hud 
Darrah; Harry Wagner; Len Newton; A. C. Newton; Dr. Francis 
Lane; Jim and Brunt Neff; Mr. and Mrs. Tinkham; Dr. F. A. 
Whaples who ran the Cody Hospital; Ex-Governor of Wyoming, 
Frank Houx; Fred Barnett, and J. H. Calkins a brother editor; 
Dave Jones the haberdasher; the McGuffey brothers; Dr. M. 
Chamberlain and his fine wife Agnes, and John Rollinson the 
forest ranger whose book Pony Trails in Wyoming was a recent 
best seller. Another most interesting character was Walter Braten. 
Braten, a noted guide and conductor of camping parties, was born 
in Michigan. When 10 years of age he was captured by the Brule 
Indians of South Dakota, where he then lived, and taken to the 
Red Cloud Agency on Wolf Creek. While there he was stolen by 
the Sioux Indians, with whom he lived for 5 years, meantime 
thoroughly mastering their language and customs. He escaped 
from the Sioux after a perilous ride, with his captors in hot pursuit. 


Later he fell in with U. S. forces, fought the Indians at Fort Rob- 
inson, Nebraska, and was made chief scout by his commander. 
Following this he spent years scouring the Rockies in Wyoming 
as an expert and responsible guide. 

Braten, a typical old-time Westerner, was no waster of words, 
but on trails he could be depended upon to entertain his compan- 
ions with stories, all personal experiences, that were unbeliavably 
vivid and interesting. I was fortunate enough to be with him on 
one or two occasions when he was in a mood to talk, and regret 
now that I didn't record some of the stories he told. 

About 15 miles southwest of Cody, beyond Cedar Mountain, 
was the small settlement of Marquette. Here a pair of enterprising 
old-timers known as McGlashan and McKellar, held sway. Their 
store served the ranchers for miles up and down the south fork of 
the Shoshone on the north and as far as Carter Mountain on the 
south. The little town is now extinct. It lies beneath the 
waters of Shoshone Lake, impounded by the high Cody dam that 
was then in course of construction. 

Marquette was famous in those days for its broncho-busting 
events. McGlashan and McKellar staged these shows in a corral 
in front of their general store. Some of the very best riders in the 
west, notably George Gardner who had ridden in Buffalo Bill's 
show, Dewey Riddle and Carl Sorenson performed. I have seen 
good riding since but never anything to equal that done in the cor- 
ral at Marquette. The Enterprise describes one of these bronco 
busting events in its issue of March 29, 1906. Today the event 
would be called a rodeo. 

Society in Cody of my day consisted of subscription dances, a 
domino club where the game of that name held sway, a discussion 
club, church activities and, as would be expected, riding and big 
game hunting parties. I can remember only two churches, Meth- 
odist and Episcopal, each, as I recall, with a modest church edi- 
fice. I belonged to the discussion club and remember well the 
trimming I got in a debate on the joint statehood bill which pro- 
posed admittance of Arizona and New Mexico to the Union of 
States. I was assigned to the negative side and was all but wiped 
out in the argument that ensued. 

The dances were the real attraction for the younger set. There 
were plenty of pretty girls, none exceeding in class and beauty the 
Howe and Hitchcock girls and the two waitresses at the Irma 
Hotel, both from Denver. As for riding parties I recall vividly 
only two. One was when a party of us got lost in a snow storm 
on Rattlesnake Mountain. The storm was of short duration but 
of blizzard proportions and quickly obliterated the none too clear 
trail. All we could do was to loosen our horses' reins and let 


them go their way which, as usually happens, turned out to be the 
right and nearest way home. 

The other was when a party of five of us tried to find the cairn 
of stones on Cedar Mountain that marked what was expected to 
be the last resting place of Buffalo Bill. It must have been a 
pretty well hidden cairn because after a long search we gave up 
and prepared to return home. From where we then were the 
broad valley of the south fork of the Shoshone spread out before 
us. It looked so near that we foolishly decided to ride down to it 
on the south side of the mountain rather than the safer but longer 
way we had come. We had not gone far before we were in 
trouble. The mountain became steeper and steeper and before 
we knew it we found it impossible to turn back. We dismounted, 
loosened the saddle girths and bridle reins, turned the horses free 
and followed them. 

It was quite a sight to see those horses pick their way down. 
The lead horse would test his footing at every step and seemed 
to keep one hind foot off the ground most of the time. It ap- 
peared to me that he was lame and since it was the horse I was 
riding I had visions of being accused by his owner of disabling 

Our greatest fear, of course, was of being completely rim- 
rocked in which event we would have been forced to abandon 
the horses altogether, retrace our steps up the mountain and re- 
turn the ten or more miles home on foot. Luckily, however, this 
did not happen and after an hour or more of worry and anxiety 
the descent began to flatten out and we were again leading our 
horses instead of letting them lead us. In another fifteen minutes 
we had mounted them and much to my joy my horse began 
galloping on all four legs as if nothing whatever had happened 
to him. 

This experience was a valuable one to me and the others in the 
party. We had learned the hard way that one must stick to the 
trails on a mountain if there are any, that one must never ride a 
horse into an unmarked place where the horse can't turn around, 
and that if one is riding an uncharted course on a mountain he 
must set up certain markings behind that will enable him to find 
his way back. 

For some unknown reason my health deteriorated as the months 
passed in Cody. The doctor blamed the altitude and prescribed a 
heart stimulant. A better doctor, perhaps, would have told me 
I was worrying about my vocation and my future, for, indeed, 
I was. By now I knew I was not trained to be a newspaper 
publisher and that to persist in it was to throw away five years 
of special college training as an engineer. Late in March the 


doctor advised that I go back home to a lower altitude, my 
brother-in-law partner insisted that I comply, and on April 17, 
1906, I did so, leaving the paper in charge of head printer 

It was not a happy retreat, however, because I felt that I was 
letting my brother-in-law down. I wanted more than anything 
in the world to see that he got all of his money back. To do this, 
however, seemed hopeless. It meant, of course, selling the paper 
and how could I do that being in Humboldt, Iowa, a thousand 
miles away from it. 

One day S. A. Nelson of Humboldt, Clerk of the County Court, 
came into my brother-in-law's bank and the idea suddenly struck 
me that he might be interested in buying the paper. Nelson was a 
bachelor, politically minded and ambitious to make a career for 
himself. Moreover, he had some money. I presented the glories 
of Wyoming to him and particularly Cody, Wyoming, and the 
opportunities both offered to young men of ambition and ability. 
I showed him how a newspaper with the Buffalo Bill tradition 
back of it, as ours had, could help. Two months later he bought 
the paper virtually sight unseen, took to himself a wife, and moved 
to Cody, Wyoming, to grow up with the country, leaving us a 
profit on the deal of one Smith-Premier Typewriter in fairly good 
condition. He did succeed in making quite a record for himself 
but not in Cody. He settled, at length, in Powell, Wyoming, 
where he organized a paper and became one of the community's 
leading citizens. 

I've visited Cody three times in recent years. Many of the old 
timers were gone but those who were left greeted me with a 
warmth and friendliness that I shall never forget. The little town 
had grown considerably but not as much as Buffalo Bill had 
predicted. It had become the county seat of the new county of 
Park that came into being when Big Horn County was cut down 
to size. It now claims a population of approximately 4,000 and 
boasts of being the center of the oil industry of Northern Wyo- 
ming. It still basks in the reflected glory of Buffalo Bill whose 
spirit rises from eternity like the genii from the vase. It will 
always be thus I suppose and I'm glad it is so. 

frank iAi Mwtiea, Pioneer 


Nora H. Dunn in collaboration with T. A. Cobry 

and Mrs. James Garrett* 

Meanea's Saddle Shop 
218 West Seventeenth St. 

For more than a half century, wherever horses and saddles are 
used, the name of Meanea has been synonymous of the best in 
saddlery. For three score years or more a sign proclaiming to all 
and sundry that F. A. Meanea is the manufacturer of and dealer 
in saddles, light and heavy harness, quirts, bits, spurs, saddle- 
pockets, and feedbags, has looked out on Cheyenne's streets. The 
original sign, fully six feet square and constructed of extra heavy 
boards, was fastened to a high pole at the edge of the street. It 
showed a lady on horseback. Early day letter-heads carried a cut 
of this lady and the wording, "Don't forget the sign of the lady on 
horseback." In later years this unwieldy billboard was discarded 
for a smaller one without the famous lady. 

* This article was written in 1937 by Nora H. Dunn from information 
given by Mr. Cobry and Mrs. Garrett. Mrs. Garrett, niece of Mr. Meanea, 
obtained some of her information from some remaining records of Mr. 


The Meanea shop sign and the windows behind it have been 
the mecca of youthful longings throughout the length and breadth 
of the rangeland. To desire a Meanea saddle betokened ambition 
and a highly placed goal. To own a Meanea saddle was the mark 
of achievement and the reaching of that goal. To own a complete 
Meanea outfit placed one on a superior plane in the eyes of others 
and lifted the owner to the level of a seventh heaven. 

The man who built up this reputation was Frank A. Meanea. 
He was born of French parents on December 16, 1849, near 
Lexington, Missouri. The year 1867 found him living in Ne- 
braska City, which lies at the junction of the Platte and Missouri 

At that time the Union Pacific was pushing its steel rails ever 
westward and, since much of the work was done with ox or mule 
teams, the demand for harness and wagon repair work was heavy. 
This seemed like a wonderful opportunity to Frank Meanea and, 
boy in age though he was, he opened a small repair shop — prob- 
ably in a tent or a wagon. As the Union Pacific tracks forged 
into the West, Frank Meanea, in keeping abreast of the rails, 
moved from camp to camp. In the vernacular of that era, he 
"ran a little Buckeye". 

In November 1867, the rails reached Cheyenne and work on 
the road was discontinued until spring. Repairs to the equipment 
and the necessary preparation for the spring work, however, con- 
tinued through the winter months. When the steel rails again 
pushed onward Frank Meanea and his "Buckeye" moved with 
them. By fall 1868, he had traveled as far west as Bear River. 

While there a letter reached Frank Meanea from his uncle, 
E. L. Gallatin, a member of the firm of Gallatin and Gallup, in 
Denver. This firm was one of the first saddleries in Colorado 
Territory. (A saddle made by this firm for Colonel Chivington, 
of Sand Creek fame, is now, 1937, in the Colorado State Mu- 
seum.) The letter stated that a branch shop of the firm Gallatin 
and Gallup was being opened in Cheyenne, and offered the posi- 
tion of manager to Frank Meanea. This offer he accepted, and 
at the age of nineteen, he settled down in Cheyenne, Territory of 
Wyoming, which place was to be his home through a long and 
useful career. 

One day not long afterward Dave Cinnamond arrived in Chey- 
enne. He and Frank Meanea were about the same age and 
Frank had boarded with Dave's mother back in Nebraska City. 
The friendship was renewed and Dave worked for Frank for many 

About 1875, the firm of Gallatin and Gallup, in Cheyenne, 
changed its name and became E. L. Gallatin and Company. This 


new firm consisted of E. L. Gallatin, his son, Joe Gallatin, and 
his nephew, Frank Meanea. Frank and Joe were to run the 
business, which was situated at 218 West Seventeenth Street, in 
a one story frame house with a false front. The front end of the 
building was turned over to business but a portion at the rear was 
converted into living quarters for Frank Meanea and his mother. 
Adjoining the saddlery on the west was a book store, in one corner 
of which was the post office. 

Frank Meanea, slight of stature and topping the scales at about 
one hundred and twenty pounds, had a dynamic personality. He 
set to work earnestly to build up the saddle business in this 
locality. So well did he apply himself that he was able, about 
1876, to buy the shop in which he worked and to take over the 
business. The firm of Gallatin and Company then passed from 
local ken and the name of F. A. Meanea began to grow. 

Within a short time the citizens of Cheyenne saw a new building 
rising on the Meanea lot at 218 West Seventeenth Street, for the 
saddle business had outgrown the one story frame building in 
which it was housed. Business was conducted as usual, however, 
in the original house, which had been moved across the street, 
until the new two story brick structure was ready for occupancy. 
This new structure, when completed, had a spacious sales and 
show room on the ground floor with a well equipped work shop 
in the rear. The Cheyenne Leader occupied the second story for 
a time, and later the space was rented to various other enterprises. 
During one of the early sessions of the Territorial Legislature one 
house convened in this upper story, while the other met in the 
hall over Stephen Bon's store at 317 West Sixteenth Street. 

By this time Frank A. Meanea catalogues were being sent all 
over the surrounding country. His first advertising by mail con- 
sisted of actual photographs of certain saddles being mailed to 
prospective buyers. Fancy cuts in the new catalogues displayed 
saddles carrying the triple lure of comfort and service combined 
with the delicate tracery of hand stamped decorations. All sad- 
dles at that time were being equipped with a double cinch rig 
unless an order specifically stated that a single cinch rig was 
desired. All were warranted not to hurt the horse nor to break 
with any kind of fair use. 

Today only roping saddles carry a double cinch rig. The mod- 
ern single cinch rig, however, differs greatly from the original one 
of early days, commonly called the "center-fire" rig. A center-fire 
passed around the middle of a horse's belly. If cinched tight 
enough to hold the saddle in place securely it was more or less 
uncomfortable for the horse. There came a day, however, when 
two Texas trail bosses arrived in Cheyenne and ordered saddles 
with two cinches, one to go in front of the belly bulge and just 


back of the front legs, the other to go back of the belly bulge. The 
advantage of this was instantly recognized and thereafter the 
double cinch rig was greatly in demand. The change brought 
comfort to the rider also since it removed the cinch knot or buckle 
from under the rider's leg. 

Prices quoted in the catalogue ranged from twenty-five dollars 
to fifty-five dollars for men's saddles. Side saddles for ladies cost 
thirty-five dollars. Pack saddles were furnished for eight dollars 
each, while saddle pockets ranged from three dollars for un- 
adorned leather to five dollars for those with hand stamped decor- 
ations. Cantinas, which were saddle pockets that fastened to the 
saddle horn, were more expensive. They were equipped inside 
with loops like a cartridge belt and were used by doctors for 
carrying medicine vials. 

Heavy harness for work teams brought fifty dollars per set, but 
light weight sets for buckboard or spring wagon use could be had 
for thirty-five dollars. Cattle whips twelve feet in length and with 
loaded handles were quoted at three dollars and fifty cents, while 
quirts ranged from seventy-five cents to two dollars each. Feed 
bags were worth one dollar and twenty-five cents. 

Nor did the Meanea shop stop with work equipment only. Ar- 
ticles for the adornment of a rider's person were no small end 
of the business. Frank Meanea was a saddler and inordinately 
proud of his trade, but his love of leather caused him to take 
pride in supplying in leather any article called for. Leather cuffs 
from five to six and a half inches in length, spur straps, cartridge 
belts, and pistol holsters, all ornately hand stamped, ranged in 
price from fifty cents to three dollars. Even leather collars with 
long fronts resembling dickeys were supplied to the public. 

The use of leather chaps drifted into this country with the 
entrance of Texas cattle and Texas cowboys, but here they were 
used mainly during winter months as protection against the severe- 
ly cold winds. Early day chaps were those known as the stove 
pipe variety. The legs were sewed-up from ankle to seat and were 
almost as narrow as trousers legs. Chaps with sealskin, New- 
foundland dog, grizzly bear, or angora fronts in varigated colors, 
commonly termed "hair pants", were used mostly for dress-up 
occasions since they were impracticable for work. They ranged 
in price from twenty dollars to seventy-five dollars per pair. In 
later years bat-winged chaps that fastened with hooks, simplifying 
the manner of donning, made their appearance. 

To make his sales line complete Frank A. Meanea's stock 
included bits, spurs, and conchas in hand forged solid silver, silver 
inlaid, and nickel. He handled saddle blankets of genuine Navajo 
make, of Brussels carpet with leather bindings, and of buffalo 



U. S. Post Office, Masonic Hall, Gallatin & Gallup, and Great 

Western Outfitting House. 

hair. The Meanea shop did not employ a silversmith but it 
handled the best only in that line as in all others. 

At the peak of the leather business the Meanea shop employed 
twenty-two leather workers in addition to many sales clerks, 
bookkeepers, etc. Nineteen hundred was the banner year for the 
Meanea shop. Sales that year included eight hundred high class 
saddles and a proportionate amount of all other lines. 

The term "Meanea saddles" was true in more than one sense, 
for the trees on which they were built were also a Meanea prod- 
uct. T. E. Meanea, a brother of Frank, was a saddle-tree maker, 
with shops in Denver, Colorado. Frank Meanea's shop in Chey- 
enne used T. E. Meanea trees exclusively and the catalogues car- 
ried this declaration, "Trees shown above made by T. E. Meanea, 
Denver, who has made my trees since 1873". Trees on which 
saddles were built varied in length of seat, height of cantle and 
horn, and width of swell, according to individual taste. The Tay- 
lor and Visalia were favorites, though the White River, Nelson, 
and Ladesma were greatly in demand. The Denver Citizen, a 
very light tree, was used on boy's saddles, and after 1906, when 
the women of this country began riding astride, it was a favorite 
with the ladies. 

It is interesting to note that the first saddles used by the 
Canadian Northwest Mounted Police were made by Frank A. 


Meanea in his Cheyenne shop. The first order called for twenty- 
five saddles, and later two smaller orders were received. 

The late George Eastman, of Rochester, Minnesota, head of 
the Eastman Kodak Company, bought several Meanea saddles. 
He would use no other make. 

In 1910, an order reached Cheyenne from Singapore. An 
American, who was manager of a rubber plantation there, needed 
a saddle. Only the best would do and the best in his estimation 
was a Meanea product. In due time the saddle was finished 
according to the given specifications, packed and started on its 
long trip to the other side of the world. 

Saddles frequently appeared in Cheyenne that were valued 
as high as four hundred and fifty dollars each. These usually 
came from Texas, California, or Mexico and were ornately 
stitched in gold or silver thread and ornamented in gold or silver 
conchas after the Spanish custom. Their ornate expensiveness, 
however, made them not one whit better than the plainer product 
bearing the Meanea stamp. In fact, the Meanea stamp was 
generally preferred. 

One of the Meanea shop slogans was, "If it can be made in 
leather, we do it". Gus Gold was the novelty man. He took 
great pride in his work and in the variety of things he was asked to 
make. These included cases for field glasses, picture frames, leg- 
gings for hunting parties and stage drivers, putees for military use 
at the forts near here, and novelties of all kinds. In the early days 
the head of the Sanford Ink Company made frequent visits to 
Wyoming on hunting trips and always used these occasions as 
opportunities to have Gus Gold make many leather articles of 
varied uses and designs according to given specifications. 

Frank Meanea, expert leather worker that he was, always gave 
all repair work brought to his shop his personal attention. He 
continued this custom until his death, for it was a matter of pride 
with him to know that even the smallest job was turned out in 
A-l condition. He had few interests outside his shop and his 
home, but these he met with undying zeal. Each day, even after 
he had passed his sixtieth birthday, and regardless of weather 
conditions, he walked to and from his shop with sprightly, eager 
step and erect shoulders. 

His brother, Theodore, the saddle-tree maker of Denver, loved 
all outdoor sports and was especially fond of hunting and fishing. 
Theodore frequently came to Cheyenne, and through obstinate 
persistence succeeded in dragging Frank off on hunting trips. 

One pleasure trip which Frank Meanea took was a highlight 
in his life. This was the trip to the Calgary (Canada) Stampede, 
made in 1912, as the guest of Percy Hoyt. There were thirteen 


members of the party, namely: Frank Meanea, Charles Hirsig, 
Fred Hirsig, P. S. Cook, Les Snow, Eddie McCarty, Dr. Barber, 
Ed Morgan, Tom O. Jay, Mark T. Cox, R. P. Fuller, Dr. B. F. 
Davis, and the host, Percy Hoyt. The occasion of the trip was 
to see Canada's biggest and best in the line of rodeos, which took 
place that year on September second to seventh inclusive. Percy 
Hoyt chartered two railroad cars, one a combination pullman and 
diner, for himself and guests, and the other for the horses 
which they would need as mounts when they arrived in Canada. 
The coaches were decorated with banners reading, "Cheyenne 
Frontier Cownpunchers, hitting the trail to Calgary Stampede". 
The Cheyenne party found the town of Calgary decorated in flags 
and bunting much as their own town was decorated during Fron- 
tier Days, except that the flags used were the Union Jack and 
not our own Stars and Stripes. The Canadian Mounties took part 
in the parade, riding proudly in spick and span uniforms. Frank 
Meanea recalled that he had once made saddles for just such 
lads as those on parade that day. 

The party was away from Cheyenne ten or twelve days. After 
they reached home again, Percy Hoyt presented each member with 
a souvenir of the trip which he had made. These souvenirs were 
small kodak books which held kodak pictures taken on the trip. 
The one given to Mr. Meanea was in 1937 to be found in the 
shop which carried his name. 

With the influx of homesteaders and the building of wire fences, 
the saddle business began tapering off. The cutting down of the 
vast amount of territory to be covered by men on horseback 
or with wagons and teams lessened the heavy wear and tear oh 
saddles and harness. The real death blow to the saddle business, 
however, came in 1910, or 1912, with the advent of automobiles 
and gasoline. 

In 1927, the F. A. Meanea Saddle Shop was moved from 218 
West Seventeenth Street, where it had been for forty-five years, 
and opened in new quarters at 320 West Seventeenth Street. At 
that time, Mr. Meanea decided to destroy all old ledgers, records, 
etc. belonging to the shop. Arrangements were made with the 
City Light and Power Company to burn the books in that com- 
pany's furnace, and a truck called to haul them away. In order 
to be sure that his wishes in this matter were carried out, Mr. 
Meanea entrusted the job to T. A. Cobry, who stood by until the 
fire had converted the last book to ashes. Those old books held 
orders from practically every early-day cattleman throughout the 

Frank Meanea was married in Cheyenne to Kate Bolander, 
who preceded him in death by many years. They had one adopt- 
ed child, Byrde, who became Mrs. W. J. Holnholz. 


On November 22, 1928, Frank A. Meanea, at the age of 
seventy-nine, died while on a visit to his brother's family in 
Golden, Colorado. The body was returned to Cheyenne and 
funeral services were held in the First Presbyterian Church, with 
Dr. Robert T. Caldwell officiating. Pallbearers were Charles D. 
Carey, Dr. B. F. Davis, Henry Arp, Sr., Stephen Bon, Charles 
Anderson, and T. A. Cobry. Interment was made in Lakeview 
Cemetery. Mr. Meanea was a member of the Elks Lodge. 

Mr. Meanea lived to see his business enterprise grow from "a 
little Buckeye 1 ' to an honored institution. He saw saddles bearing 
his name shipped to every state in the United States, and to many 
foreign countries, including France, England, Australia, Russia, 
Ireland, Scotland, and South Africa. His name will long be 
remembered wherever horses and saddles are used. His reputa- 
tion as a saddler is exceeded only by his reputation for honesty 
and fair dealing. His epitaph is aptly expressed by his friends 
who say, "Frank A. Meanea was always on the square". 

Pioneer Culture 
When Wyoming Was 1/oung 


Harriet Knight Orr 

To one who was born in Wyoming and grew up there during the 
nineteenth century, much of the so-called "historical fiction" 
placed in that time and place seems oddly artificial. Emphasis 
upon frontier hardships and the ruder life of the times has ob- 
scured many of the gentler and more civilized aspects of frontier 
life in the Territory, which was both crossroads and keystone of 
the great westward movement. 

Only in Wyoming, are there portions of all four of the great 
cessions of territory, which extended the borders of these United 
States from ocean to ocean. The eastern part of the State lies 
within the Louisiana Territory; the southwest came to us from 
Mexico; the northwestern part of the State was part of the Oregon 
Territory; and what is now roughly, Carbon County is the north- 
ern end of the Texas cession. If any State in the Union merits 
being called "The Keystone State 1 ', it is certainly the great State 
of Wyoming. Through it the pioneers thronged on their way to 
Utah, to California and to the northwest. Here the trails forked 
and here many of those pioneers unyoked their oxen, unpacked 
their belongings and spent the remainder of their venturesome 
lives. Let us not forget them, especially those whose leadership 
and wisdom constructed the pattern from which the Common- 
wealth developed. 

When what was to become Wyoming was still a part of Dakota 
Territory, the western portion was organized into "Carter County" 
on December 27, 1867, named for its most distinguished citizen, 
Judge William Carter of Fort Bridger. The Territory of Wyoming 
was organized by Act of Congress in 1868 and divided into four 
counties each extending from the Montana border on the north 
to Colorado or Utah on the south. These four counties were 
called, Carter, Carbon, Albany and Laramie. The portions of 
Utah and Idaho territories included within Wyoming Territory 
were unorganized until December 1, 1869. As probate judge in 
this vast dominion, Judge Carter acted with firmness and precision 
in preserving order among a population shifting constantly and 
frequently defying the law. He was also called upon to perform 
marriage ceremonies and grant divorces. Fort Bridger was the 


outpost of civilization against Indians, usually friendly but some- 
times turning hostile over night, against outlaws, and for a time it 
was caught in the conflict between the government and unruly 
Mormon immigrants. 

During all this time, Judge and Mrs. Carter, Virginia aristocrats, 
and their remarkable family made history in old Fort Bridger. 
Many times did Madame Carter, as she was called, cross the 
plains, usually in her own carriage, often with a small baby. Some 
of her children were among the first white children born in Wyo- 
ming. The hospitable, cultured home of the Carters was always 
open to the numerous visitors who passed that way. Here, the 
great geologist, Othniel Charles Marsh, of Yale University, made 
his headquarters while he was pursuing his studies on the abo- 
riginal horse and discovering a wealth of new genera and families 
which were to mark Wyoming as the greatest of the "fossil states". 
There was Joseph Leidy, the famous naturalist, Edward Cope, 
anatomist, and the great geologist and explorer, Ferdinand Hay- 
den. There was Mark Twain, President Arthur, General Sher- 
man, General Harney and many another military notable stationed 
at the Fort or passing through it. There were builders of the 
Union Pacific Railroad, Sidney Dillon and Jay Gould; all these 
and many others shared the hospitality of the Carter home, surely 
a cultural oasis in the wilderness. Gay parties of the pre-Civil 
War period took place and when I first knew it, the old house was 
full of memories of those festive times. In the lovely, chilly old 
library were stately mahogany cases full of fine editions, published 
in the forties and later, atlases, foreign books, autographed by the 
authors and donors, oil portraits, Indian artifacts, pottery and 
fine china. 1 

Of course, James Bridger was often a guest at the Carter table. 
Anne Fauntleroy Carter, Judge Carter's second daughter, assured 
me with indignant tears in her eyes, that the representation of 
James Bridger in "The Covered Wagon" and other western books 
and movies as a dishonest, drunken old squawman was a travesty 
on the James Bridger she well remembered as their guest. "Of 
course, he drank in moderation. Everyone did, the men at least", 
protested Anne Carter. "But he was never drunk, when we knew 
him. As for his Indian wives (one at a time), they were part of 
his own private affairs that he never imposed upon his friends." 
His children he cared for affectionately, sending them east to be 
educated and in every way, he was a reliable citizen and a brave 
frontiersman, worthy of the confidence reposed in him by all 
who knew him. 

1. Before the house burned, some of these treasures were taken to 
Laramie where they were placed in the Hebard Room at the University 
of Wyoming. 


Judge Carter was asked by President Grant to be the first gov- 
ernor of Wyoming Territory, but he refused the honor. When 
the government withdrew the troops from Fort Bridger and other 
western posts in 1878 and the Thornburg Indian massacre re- 
sulted, it was Judge Carter who hurried to Washington and per- 
suaded the War Department to re-establish the post, which was 
not permanently closed until 1890. 

Among the many visitors at the Carter home, and as the legend 
goes, a suitor for the hand of one of the Carter daughters, was 
Joseph M. Carey, the young judge of the district, appointed by 
President Grant. Member of a wealthy manufacturing family of 
Philadelphia, a college graduate, a Territorial judge at about 
twenty-five years of age, Judge Carey, later governor and senator, 
never faltered in his devotion to Wyoming and his determination 
to do his utmost to make it one of the foremost commonwealths 
of the nation. Few men have served their state in as many 
capacities as did Judge Carey; and always, as Governor, United 
States Senator, framer of the Constitution of Wyoming, Mayor of 
Cheyenne, President of the school board, he worked with relent- 
less energy for the betterment of the community. Although asso- 
ciated with the early history of Wyoming, territory and state, 
Joseph M. Carey's distinguished later services, his authorship of 
the Carey Act, under which millions of acres of land have been 
irrigated not only in this but in many other states, make Senator 
Carey seem more a contemporary than an historic figure. 

At the Carey homes" in Cheyenne, and at "Careyl'iurst" near 
Casper, some of the greatest men and women of the century have 
been entertained. From President Grant to President Theodore 
Roosevelt, the chief executives of the nation were friends of the 
Wyoming statesman. Such foreign dignitaries as Sir Horace 
Plunkett, who was deeply concerned with the welfare of the Irish 
people, were faithful friends and correspondents. One of the 
notable services of Senator Carey to the State was bringing to it 
some of our most valued citizens. William Deming, long-time 
editor of the Wyoming State Tribune, later Chairman of the Civil 
Service Commission in Washington and trustee of the University 
of Wyoming, was originally a "Carey find". James Walton, prom- 
inent business man of Cheyenne and his brother-in-law, Frank 
Sumner Burrage, were employed by the Carey interests. Dr. 
Grace Raymond Hebard was once his secretary. Before Dr. 
Hebard became a member of the University of Wyoming faculty 
she was a trustee and, for years, Secretary of the Board of the 
University. Joseph R. Elliott, for years in charge of the Carey 

2. The home built by Gov. Carey in 1884 was razed in the winter and 
spring of 1952. A fireplace and door with a 3 x IVi foot mirror from 
the home can be seen in the Wyoming State Museum at Cheyenne. 


interests in Wheatland, which was one of Judge Carey's ambitious 
projects, became a trustee of the University and a valued citizen. 
These are a few of the builders of the state who were induced to 
come here largely through the efforts of Joseph M. Carey. 

Although devoted to the interests of Wyoming and the West, 
when he was United States Senator, Judge Carey felt that he was a 
servant of the nation rather than any part of it, and he acted 
courageously on this principle. When he voted against the "Free 
Silver 6111", he alone of our western members of Congress was 
consistent and, as it proved later, was right. But his stand was 
not popular with the voters and caused his defeat in the following 
election. Wyoming is not the only state which has sacrificed its 
highest interests and taken from power and influence one of its 
greatest sons, because of political pettiness and lack of political 
understanding on the part of the majority of voters. 

Of the noted men whom I have known, no one more completely 
satisfied my ideal of fine dignity, and stern but merciful justice 
than John Alden Riner. He had not long been a resident of 
Wyoming when it became a State, and President Harrison appoint- 
ed him United States Judge of the newly created Federal District. 
For more than thirty years, Judge Riner served not only his own 
and neighboring states, but he was called upon frequently to sit 
on the Circuit Court in St. Louis, St. Paul and elsewhere, his 
learning and unusual skill as a jurist being nationally recognized. 
He was lecturer in more than one law school and was often called 
to Washington in consultation. After he retired from the bench, 
Judge Riner's greatest interest, outside his family, was in education 
and building up American citizenship in the schools. An ardent 
and influential Mason, the active "thirty-third" for Wyoming, he 
was able to interest the Masonic Order in education and, could 
the movement have retained his direction and leadership, those 
who knew his vision feel that work of great significance might 
have resulted. Under the guidance of its beautiful mistress, the 
Riner home breathed the very spirit of refinement, intellectual 
stimulation and Christian charity. 

One of the frankest and most honest persons it has been my 
fortune to know was Frances Warren Pershing. Although not 
beautiful, her sparkling eyes and humorous mouth gave her a 
charm that was irresistible. Like her delightful mother, Frances 
made friends through her sincerity, intelligence and wit. She, 
also, had much of her father's friendly interest in people, which 
helped to make Senator Warren a powerful politician and valued 
member of the United States Senate for many years. But Frances, 
as a girl, impetuous, loyal, scornful of trivialities was the terror of 
all conservatives. At Wellesley College she was so renowned for 
her escapades that, when a commotion arose on the campus, the 
Dean was wont to exclaim: 


"What is happening? Find Frances Warren and see what she 
is up to." 

During the last days of each month, Frances never had any part 
of her ample allowance left and was forced to the most absurd 
economies, like going without shoe-laces and drawing a check for 
streetcar fare. The hour her allowance arrived, she paid off her 
debts and there was no limit to her generosity. In need of stock- 
ings herself, she was apt to send roses to her chums. These 
friends finally made a practice of drawing up a list of Frances' 
needs and, on the arrival of her check, they would drag her to 
Boston and make her buy the articles on the list. 

As the Senator's popular daughter and, after her mother's in- 
validism, his Washington hostess, later as the wife of a rapidly 
rising army officer, John J. Pershing, and then as the presiding 
hostess of various army posts, Frances Warren Pershing was one 
of the best known and loved of Wyoming native daughters. Her 
tragic death with her three little daughters, on the eve of her 
husband's becoming the most conspicuous figure in the American 
army, brought grief to all who knew her. 

Associated with Senator Warren for many years in Washington, 
was Clarence D. Clark, first Representative from Wyoming and 
for twenty-two years United States Senator. One of my earliest 
remembrances is of being swung to the top of a door by "Cal" 
Clark, my father's friend and our neighbor in Evanston. I firmly 
believed him to be the handsomest man in the world. In the 
intervals of our boisterous play, he remarked one day, 

"Oh, Alice, why can't we have a little girl too?" Not long after 
that, the Clarks began having little girls — three of them. Needless 
to say, I lost my playmate but never my admiration for him and 
his adorable wife, whose beauty and delicate charm outlived many 
years of the strain, excitement and sorrow that came to her. The 
loss of their splendid son took away much of the joy of life for the 
Clarks but their lovely daughters brought them consolation and 
happiness. It is not easy to live in the fierce competition of Wash- 
ington on the modest income of a U. S. Senator. Visiting their 
Washington home and comparing the assured refinement of their 
surroundings with much of the tawdriness around them, remem- 
bering that both had won their way, step by step, to all they pos- 
sessed, one came to the conclusion that the worth-while things of 
this world have less to do with money and power than with brains 
and character. When John B. Kendrick was elected to the senate, 
President Wilson appointed ex-Senator Clark a member of the 
United States International Boundary Commission to adjust dis- 
putes between this country and our neighbors. No one knows 
how many times the wise decisions of this Commission have 
averted war. The victories of peace-making do not make the 


Far different from that of Senator Clark has been the life of one 
of his faithful friends. To be born a citizen of Spain, become a 
citizen of Mexico and later of the United States, without being 
naturalized, always living in what is now Wyoming was the curious 
distinction of Phil Maas, one of the most picturesque characters 
of the west. Phil was a power in his community, a power for law 
and order. Married to a capable Indian woman, his advice to 
her people more than once averted bloodshed. He was deter- 
mined that his children should be a significant part of the rapidly 
changing world, and he hit upon the excellent pedagogic expedient 
of having each of them learn a trade, bringing in teachers to his 
home on Burnt Fork. Is it not a striking tribute to the innate 
intelligence of this un-Nordic, uneducated American that he 
should carry out an earnest ambition to prepare his children to 
hold places in a world of culture totally unlike what he had 
known? The fine loyalty of Phil Maas to his friends is illustrated 
by a story cherished in our family. 

'"Jesse Knight," 1 demanded the old man of my father on one of 
his infrequent trips to Evanston, "Why do you care so little for 
my vote that you do not ask me for it?" 

"'Well, Phil," my father replied, "I'm not asking anyone for his 
vote. I figure that everyone is entitled to decide for himself who 
ought to be judge of this district. I have tried for six years to be 
just and honest. If I have not been a good judge, I deserve to be 
turned down at this election. If I have been a good judge, I 
figure that enough of my friends will turn out and vote for me so 
I'll be elected again. But I won't ask anyone, not even you, to 
vote for me." 

"That's all right, Jesse," chuckled the old man. "I was goin' 
to vote for ye myself, anyway, for old times' sake, but since ye put 
it that way, I be dammed if I don't go back and make the whole 
valley vote fer ye. Ef ye won't work fer yourself to git elected, 
by Heck! Your friends got to do it fer ye." 

Another story I think was told about Phil Maas related to a 
new piano on which one of his daughters was exposing her rather 
meager talent for the benefit of guests. 

"Come down hard on the bass, Maggie," her father encouraged, 
heartily. "Come down hard on the bass, gal! I paid two hundred 
fer it and I like to hear it." 

Across the pages of our lives move many figures, statesmen, 
ranchers, pioneers, hostesses, business men, mothers — all are part 
of our story. I have chosen to chat about a few who have brought 
interest and distinction to Wyoming. We are heirs to their careers 
and it is fitting that now and then in the course of busy days, we 
stop a few moments to pay them honor. 

Stories By 
"Kear" Qeorge & McClellan * 


In the fall of '85 my partner and I were hunting in the Big Horn 
Mountains on the head of a small creek called Otter Creek. We 
had been quite successful that fall, having killed twenty-three bear 
in about six weeks, but I cannot tell you about all of them. It is 
my intention to tell you of our big killing that fall. 

One evening about 4 o'clock, we left camp and went down to 
the head of a canyon on one of the prongs of the creek. After 
wandering around a while, I became tired of that locality and 
suggested that we go over on another creek about two miles 
from there. 

Billie said, "No, we will go on down until we can look over 
into the valley." 

I did not much like the idea, but I went along. We had not 
gone very far when we came in sight of an old silver tip and her 
two cubs feeding in the head of a little coulee. We slipped from 
our horses' backs in the twinkling of an eye, all thought of dispute 
about our route laid aside. We made hasty calculations about 
how to proceed. The bear, when first sighted, were some two or 
three hundred yards away. On peeking over we concluded to 
make for a ridge off to our left, which was about 60 or 75 yards 
from the bear. We crawled up to our position and looked over 

They were all unsuspicious of danger. The old one had a mane 
eight or ten inches long, that gave her the appearance of having 
a hump on her back like a buffalo. 

Will said in a whisper, "Now shoot the old one in the head." 

We were plenty close enough, so we both took deliberate aim, 
counted three, and whang went one gun. I looked and did not 
have any cartridge in the chamber of my Winchester, but when 
that old bear commenced to roar, it did not take me long to get 
the gun loaded. Will had hit too low and struck her on the jaw, 
and how she was bellowing! I fired and she went down. Then we 

* Taken from original manuscripts by Mr. McClellan contributed to the 
Wyoming State Historical Department by his niece, Margaret McClellan. 


went to shooting at the cubs. One of them was getting close to 
the edge of the canyon, and while I was working the lever, I 
turned to look where the old one was. There she was, sitting on 
her haunches, head turned sideways and uttering the worst roars 
it was ever my good fortune to listen to. I turned, drew a fine 
bead on her shoulder, and let her have it. She went down all in 
a heap like she never would move again. She straightened out, 
seemed to wake up, pulled herself together, and was into the 
quaken asp before I could get another shot. The bears were now 
out of sight. 

I asked Will if he got the cub that went into the canyon. He 
said that he had hit it, but it had gone over the edge. We did 
not feel very good. 

He was inclined to blame me for not killing the old one with 
the first shot, as he said if I had shot we would not both have 
missed; while I thought he would have killed her when he had so 
good a chance. I went back and got my horse and went to where 
we last saw the cub (I would rather follow a cub on open ground 
than an old sow in the brush any time). When I got about half 
way down the hill into the canyon the little fellow heard me 
and started out above me in the canyon and up the opposite hill. 
I started after him full tilt, but the ground was too rough for my 
horses, and the little bear got into a quaken asp patch on top of 
the hill. I could hear him crying when I first came up to the 
brush patch, but he soon stopped when he heard me, and I could 
not find him. I now gave it up and went back to where Will was, 
but instead of crossing the canyon I went around the head of it, 
which was a little farther but not nearly so rough. 

When I got around, I found that Will had got his horse and 
followed me over, and was now over where I had left the cub. 
I thought, "Now if I hurry back over there both of us may be 
able to get that cub, 1 ' so back I went as fast as I could go. It did 
not take us long to make up our minds that we could not find the 
cub, so we thought we had best go back and see what had become 
of the old one. We were not in a very good frame of mind. We 
had every show at three bear and let the old one and one of the 
cubs get away. 

1 knew the old one must be badly hurt, for I had taken two 
shots at her within easy range, and the last one was at her body 
when she was comparatively still. The cub Will had killed lay in 
the trail that ran down the canyon, and we wanted to skin it yet 
that evening as we were saving oil. We started down the hill to 
go back to look after the old one, when Will said, "Look yonder." 
I looked up, and he was pointing right the way we were going, 
and there, coming down the trail on the other side of the canyon 


were four big old silver tips. Now we must not let them get away. 
We waited until the bear got down the canyon far enough to be 
out of sight, then we crossed in behind them and took down the 
canyon on the same side they were on, but we were on top and we 
supposed they would go down into the bottom of the canyon where 
the big game trail led. There we went as fast as our horses would 
carry us to get ahead of the bears. When we reached about the 
last place we could get down, we pulled up, jumped off of our 
horses and started down the steep side of the canyon (just at this 
place the canyon was very steep). About half way down we 
came to a wall, and on looking over we could see the game trails 
in the bottom of the canyon. We were confident that the bear 
had not passed, and I tell you it has a tendency to raise the spirits 
of any bear hunter to think that he has a wall 100 feet high 
between him and four old silver tips. 

We were now on a sort of ledge at the top of the wall, and by 
going a little way above would have an open space with no trees 
to bother. 

We got into the open space and were standing with our guns 
ready, looking over into the bottom of the canyon, when I heard a 
slight noise to my right. On looking up I beheld all four of the 
bear just coming into the opposite side of the open space we were 
in, which was probably twenty yards across. Well, right then 
there was the awfullest row I have ever witnessed. All four of 
those bear bellowing at once, two Winchesters going as though 
we were trying to tear them to pieces. I shall never forget how 
those bear looked when we first fired. They acted for all the 
world like a lot of hogs, when one squeals the rest will run up with 
bristles raised and ready for war. As soon as they spied us, they 
made for us, but we were so close and our fire was so deadly that 
the closest one did not get within ten or fifteen feet of us. One old 
fellow got knocked over the wall into the bottom of the canyon, 
but we could not see that he had sustained any great injury, such 
as breaking any bones or tearing the skin. Of course, he was 
dead or almost so when he went over the wall. Well, my tale is 
almost told. There is but little more gore to spill. We did not 
get through skinning that evening. 

Next morning as we came back, we found the wounded cub 
that had got away. He was not hurt very badly but we soon did 
him up. We also found the old one dead, so we had seven silver 
tips to our credit in about half an hour. For fear of the game-hog 
cry, I will say there was a considerable bounty on bear at that 
time and that was what made us turn bear hunters. We used the 
fifty-pound bear traps and have had some very interesting exper- 
iences with them of which I may probably tell you some day if 
you like the story of our best killing. 



The winter of 1885 I put in on Spring Creek, in the Big Horn 
Basin, with Uncle Billy Robinson. One fine day in February, I 
went to look at our horses that were running on the slope of the 
mountain just a few miles from the cabin where we lived. It had 
been stormy and cold. This day seemed fair, and it looked as if 
it might thaw some. There was a well-defined trail leading up the 
mountain. I followed that until I was pretty well up the slope; 
then I intended leaving the trail and swinging up to the north. 

Just as I was thinking of leaving the trail I noticed a mountain 
lion track. He had passed along within a few minutes. I stopped 
and looked closely ahead, but could see nothing of his lionship. 
I began to move on along the trail carefully. When I came to 
where the trail crossed the head of a little gulch that ran down into 
the canyon, I found that the lion had left the trail and gone down 
the gulch toward the canyon. Knowing the place well, I knew 
that he could not get into the canyon just there, so I hurried up 
to get to where the gulch went into the canyon. I could see 
clearly quite a distance ahead of me, and I expected any minute 
to see the lion, as the trail was perfectly fresh. I got to the edge 
of the canyon, and found that the lion had taken up the canyon 
on a ledge that ran around under the rim from the mouth of the 

There were little pockets in the wall, so that I could not see very 
far along the ledge, but I followed, expecting to see the lion at 
the first point I went around. The ledge was not wide, probably 
12 or 15 feet. I went around the first little point. I could see 
nothing. I came to the next little point, looked around, but could 
see nothing. I started in a hurry for the next point. I had gone 
only a few steps when the lion came around that point, coming 
back. Meeting me, he dropped in the snow, all hunched up just 
like a cat ready to spring. I threw up the gun, took plenty of 
time, and shot him, quartering through the shoulders. We used 
to load our own shells so I saved the empty shells. I threw the 
lever of the Winchester, slowly, picked out the empty shell, and 
put it into my pocket. Then that lion lit right at my feet. I was 
so surprised that I just poked the gun against him and pulled it 
off. The shock of the discharge threw him down over the ledge. 
I went to the ledge and looked over. There was a good sized pine 
tree growing on the next ledge below, but its top did not reach 
up to the ledge I was standing on — within 20 feet or such a matter. 
I looked closely, but could not see anything of the lion. A little 
boulder lay close to where he had gone over the ledge. I put my 
toe under the rock and rolled it over, just where the lion had gone 
over. It had not struck the ground when he was after it, striking 
at it and snarling something fierce. I fired at him again down 


there, but could not be sure that I hit him. He was soon out of 
sight, as he took along the ledge and went into some brush. I 
never saw that lion again to my knowledge. 

It was a couple of miles or more to where I could get into the 
canyon. I thought, "Well, that lion is not in a very good frame of 
mind anyhow, so 1 will give him time to die and then I will go 
over and see how the horses are." I went on, found my horses 
all right. They were doing fairly well, so I left them and started 
for home. It had turned quite warm and began to thaw more 
than a little. 

I thought, "Fine, I will go up in the canyon in the morning and 
try that lion again." I knew that I could trail him by the blood. 
I had gone and looked where he was when I first shot him. As 
near as I could see, the bullet had gone through him plumb center. 
I could see where the bullet had come out on the other side in the 

When I got back to the cabin I told Uncle Billy of my adven- 
ture with the lion, and he said I had better let him alone. I never 
had any luck trailing wounded mountain lions. That night it 
snowed. I went up to look for my lion but could not find hide 
nor hair of him. 

My experience has been that the mountain lion is the most 

unreliable animal I have ever had any experience with. It is said 

that a lion is very cowardly, and will not fight at any time, but 
here is another experience that is absolutely true: 

Swede Charlie and I were hunting white tailed deer in the 
winter of '81 on Pass Creek in Montana. The snow was 18 or 20 
inches deep but very loose. It had been and was, very cold. We 
were coming down a little creek, a branch of Pass Creek. Right 
at the foot of the mountain we were walking along, he on one 
side of the creek, I on the other. I saw him make a quick motion. 
I looked at him. He had his gun to his shoulder aiming. I 
looked in the direction the gun was pointed and just as I caught 
sight of the lion, he fired. That lion went into the air higher than 
I ever saw anything before in my life and it let out one of the most 
blood curdling snarls I have ever heard. We both stood there for 
a minute with our guns ready, but the lion never moved. We went 
up to him. He was stone dead. The bullet had struck him fair 
in the sticking and burst the heart wide open. We stood there 
talking about the lion chasing us. I went back a little ways and 
stepped some of the leaps he had made coming down off the 
mountain and they were 30 feet from where the snow was broken 
to where it was broken again. 

Now comes the funny part. While we were talking the matter 
over as to whether the lion would really have attacked us or not, 


we heard a cry up on the side of the canyon, where there were a 
few scattering pine trees. As we stood watching, we saw another 
lion go from one tree to another. It went up the tree and made 
no effort to leave or get away. We just went up and shot it. 
From where Charlie stood to where the first lion was when he 
shot it was 19 feet. Would he have landed on the Swede if he had 
not looked around and seen in time? You could never make 
Charlie believe it, but he would have landed right on his back. 


In the spring of 1 892, I went to Casper after a load of grub for 
the One-Fourth Ranch, which belonged to W. A. Richards, and 
for whom 1 was working at the time. There had been a lot of 
rustler trouble for the past year or two, both on the east side of 
the mountain and in our country. 

While I was in Casper, there was a rumor that there was a 
strange force of cattlemen going up into the Buffalo country to 
exterminate the rustlers. I laughed at the idea, but that night 
after I had got loaded up all ready to pull out for home in the 
morning one of the boys came to me and said, "George, you can 
laugh, but here is what has happened. A lot of the cowmen of 
the state together with a lot of hired gun men — making 80 or 90 
men in all — pulled out for Buffalo today. They are all well- 
mounted, and have a mess wagon as well as a bed wagon fitted 
out with good teams." 

I knew that this man was in a position to know what he was 
talking about, so I said, "You are sure of this?" 

"Perfectly sure," he said. "Is there a good horse in town that 
I could get hold of?" We looked, but the outcome of it was that 
every horse in the town that was capable of making a ride such 
as from Casper to Kaycee was conspicuous by its absence. While 
I was not directly concerned in the matter, there were many men 
on the east side of the mountain that I had worked with and was 
very friendly with, and I did not want to see them slipped up on 
without a show. Had I been able to get a horse, I should have 
gone that night and tried to warn the boys of their danger, but 
no horse could I get, so next morning I pulled out for home. 

By the next morning the news was general that there was an 
invasion headed for Johnson County. As I was hitching up and 
getting ready to pull out — I had a four horse team loaded with 
grub — a sheep man came out and asked me if I was not afraid 
to pull out when there was so much rustler extermination talk. 

I said, "Not a bit. I have done nothing to be killed for. and, 
therefore, will not be killed." 


He said, "I think if I were you I would wait and see what this 
amounts to. You will be on the road for three days and will have 
to camp out, and you can not tell what might happen." 

"While there is some truth in what you say," I retorted, "my 
business is to get home, and I am going to attend to it." So I 
pulled out. It took me three days hard traveling to get to Lost 
Cabin. There, all was excitement. The Cheyenne papers had 
come in full of invasion talk, and everyone was much excited 
about it. I was still a day and a half hard travel from home, so 
on I went. Mail had got in just before I did, and my people had 
news of the invasion. The next morning there was a man came 
up from Spring Creek and told me that a lot of the boys had got 
together, and they wanted me to come down. I could not imagine 
what they wanted with me, but I saddled ud and went down. 
There were twelve or fifteen of the boys gathered there — some, 
if not all, of them had been interested in rustling, more or less — 
and they naturallv wanted to know if all the rustlers were going 
to be exterminated. They wanted to know when it was going to 
take place. 

I said, "What do you want?" 

They reolied, "We want you to go across the mountain and 
find out what is taking place over there." 

"Why pick on me for such a pleasant trio, a distance of 35 to 
50 miles on snow shoes, have to lay out one night at least, going 
and coming?" I said. 

They spoke ud saying, "Well, you have had more experience 
on snow shoes than any of us (which was true), besides, if you 
go over there, when you get back we know that you can tell us 
what you have seen, and we know that you will not get full and 
make a fool of yourself." 

Another fellow spoke up and said, "Aside from that you have 
not had much to do with rustling, and there is no danger of your 
being on the black list." 

"I thank you for all the comoliments," I returned. 

"I am not afraid of any black list, but I am not going over there 
alone. I want at least one witness to corroborate what I say. 
There are plenty of you fellows that are ; ust as capable of making 
that trip as I am, especially when I lead the wav." 

"All right, whom do you want to go with you?" they asked. 

"It makes no difference to me," I said, "so that he can make a 
good stout travel." 

They talked the matter over among themselves and finally de- 
cided on one, Tom O'Day, to accompany me. Now Tom was a 
reckless harum-scarum cowpuncher, with some fine qualities, and 
some not so fine. We had worked together for a year or so as 
cowpunchers, and when Tom got drunk his main ambition was 


to whip me — not that he had anything against me — but just to 
show that he could do it. Like most Irishmen, he was proud of 
his fighting ability, and I being a husky chunk of a lad, he wanted 
to add my scalp to his collection. But, my not being a warrior, 
we never fought. 

Later Tom O'Day became quite a noted character in this part 
of Wyoming. He joined up with the "Hole-in-the-Wair gang, 
and figured in several holdups, and in other ways made quite a 
reputation for himself. 

Next morning Tom and I mounted our skiis, and with a lunch 
tied on our backs, started to cross the Big Horn Mountains in 
April. J had a five foot snowshoe pole, and in many places on 
the low ground it would not reach the ground through the snow. 
If you think a trip of that kind is all fun just try it some time. 
The first 8 or 10 miles was all up hill, of course, and that was 
very "slavish" work. The snow, often rough and wavy, in many 
places was very steep, but if you stepped off the shoe, you went 
in from your waist up to your armpits, so there was nothing to do 
but toil away at it. I had a little the best of Tom. He was a 
cowpuncher and simple, while I had been a hunter for several 
years, and was used to making long distances. When we stopped 
for lunch, just after we reached the top of the mountain, I could 
see that Tom was getting pretty tired. After eating some bread 
and meat and having a short rest, we pushed on. I was in hopes 
of making it across in one day. Along in the afternoon, the 
weather changed. It began to cloud up and the wind began to 
blow snow. The snow began to drift so that it was difficult to see 
where we were going. Here was where my knowledge of the 
country came in good play. I had hunted all over that country, 
so I could not easily be lost. We got to the top of the east slope 
just a little after dark. The snow had nearly disappeared here, 
so we left our snowshoes and proceeded walking. It was only 
four or five miles down to the nearest ranch. We had not gone 
far after leaving the snowshoes until I noticed that my companion 
began to lag behind. I waited for him a time or two and asked if 
he were tired. 

"No," he said. 

I started on, came to a big drift that was quite hard to wallow 
through, finally got through it, started on, looked back, and 
noticed that Tom had got part way through the drift and seemed 
to have stopped. I went back and asked him what was the matter. 
He said nothing was wrong, for me to go on and he would follow 
as soon as he rested a little while. Then I realized that the poor 
fellow was all in. I was forced to be quite harsh with him to get 
him on his feet and out of the drift. I now felt it would be im- 
possible to go on down to the ranch. The wind was blowing 


hard, and it had turned cold, so that it was very disagreeable on 
the ridge we had to travel down. Off to our left was a canyon. 
We pulled for the canyon in order to find a sheltered place to 
build a fire and put in the night. When we got started into the 
canyon, where it was rough going, Tom wanted to stop. I left 
him, told him to wait. I went on down until I came to a wall of 
rock in a thick clump of pines. There I built a fire and then went 
back to fetch Tom. When I got him to the fire he was almost past 
going at all. I had a can and soon had some snow melted, and we 
had a drink of snow water, of which we were both very much in 
need. After resting a while we ate a little of our cold grub. I 
cut a plentiful supply of pine boughs and prepared to pass the 
night. Tom went to sleep almost immediately. After gathering a 
good supply of fire wood I, too, lay down and was soon asleep. 
I was awakened later by a tremendous crashing in the brush. I 
leaped to my feet only to hear something tearing down into the 
canyon. I looked around. Tom was standing on his knees with 
his six shooter in his hands. 

"What was that?" he asked. 

I told him I did not know. 

After we got over our fright a little, Tom looked at his watch 
and found that it was after one o'clock. I was very much sur- 
prised, as it did not seem to me that I had slept but a few minutes. 
Our fire was nearly out, and we found that we were quite cold. 
After building up the fire again and getting warmed up we lay 
down. When we awoke again we found that it was after 4 o'clock. 
We then ate the last of our grub and started on down the moun- 
tain. We got into Coachy's place just at daylight. We did not 
go up to the house and knock as one would do under ordinary 
circumstances, but got behind a rock and hailed the house. We 
had quite a time, but finally got a response from the house. I 
made myself known finally and went with my hands up. When 
they found out who we were and our errand, nothing was too good 
for us. We got horses, there and went down to Mortgaridges' — 
the Middle Fork of Powder River. There we got a change of 
horses, and started for Buffalo, which was some fifty miles away. 
When we were out on the road a ways we met a man coming out 
from Buffalo, who told us that the raiders had been surrounded 
on the TA Ranch, and that they had been near to extermination 
but that the soldiers from Fort McKinley had come to their relief. 
So we headed for the TA Ranch. 

When we arrived there late in the afternoon we found quite a 
crowd of people and more excitement than you could imagine. 
It seemed that the whole country had turned out as one man when 
the news got out of what was going on. The raiders had been 
delayed on Powder River, where they surrounded the cabin occu- 


pied by Nate Champion and Nick Ray, and by the time they got 
that job attended to, their intentions were pretty well known. It 
seemed to us like every son-of-a-gun and his brother was out, 
some in lumber wagons, some in spring wagons, mostly horse 
back, of course. Every mother's son of them had his gun and 
some of them, two or three. It is not my purpose to try to write a 
history of the invasion. That has been done by people who know 
so much more about it than I do that it would be presumptuous 
on my part. However, I lived there, knew most of the cowpunch- 
ers concerned, and quite a few of the prominent cattle men con- 
cerned. My judgment is that it was like most other human ques- 
tions: there was cause on both sides. 

It is true that the cowmen could not secure a conviction in the 
courts, and that their provocation was great, there is no doubt, 
but, how that could lead a set of sane, rational men to think that 
they could just black list a lot of men in a community and tnen 
proceed to go out and exterminate them is more than I could ever 
figure out. It seems that they would know where they would 
come out, and as it turned out, they were very fortunate. There 
is little doubt but what, left to themselves, they would have paid 
for their rashness with their lives. We went from the TA on into 
Buffalo. There we found more excitement and all kinds of 
rumors of what would be done and what the outcome would be. 
Now, after all these years the outcome was not much different 
than a lot of us surmised. There was never a conviction of anyone 
for the killing of Champion and Ray, nor were there any of the 
cowmen put to any great inconvenience, save that they were 
confined under very agieeable circumstances for a few months. 

We did not get away from Buffalo very early the next morning. 
As a consequence, it was late in the night when we got back to 
Mr. Mortgaridge's place on the Middle Fork, and, as I have said, 
it was not a particularly agreeable job to go fooling around ranches 
in the night. When we got to the ranch, it was dark, so I rode out 
in front of the house and began to hail. Very shortly I got a 
response from the house. We were told to get down and come to 
the door. As soon as we were recognized we were very sincerely 
welcomed, as the whole country was news hungry, as you can 
imagine. Since it was before the days of the telephone and radio, 
the news carrier was a horseman. 

After delivering our news and getting outside of a good hearty 
supper which was set before us by Mr. Mortgaridge, we were 
ready for bed. All too soon it was morning and we were face to 
face with the long hard drill of going back across the mountain. 
One of the boys took us back with horses to where our snowshoes 
were — or nearly to where the shoes were, within less than a mile. 
We had grub and a can, so decided we would not try to make it all 


the way across in one day. There was a mail carrier's cabin on 
the south end of Uncle Billy's Flat, in which we would stay over 

Unfortunately for me, about the middle of the forenoon, while 
I was running down a long slope on the skiis, one foot struck a 
rock and stopped. The ocher foot went on. As a consequence 
I got a nasty fall. When I got all together again I found that I 
had lost the glass out of the right eye of my snow glasses or gog- 
gles. Now, to those of you who do not know what snow blindness 
is I would pray that you may never know by personal experience. 
Of all the pain that human flesh is heir to, I think the pain of snow 
blindness is the most intense — a jumping toothache is not in it. 
When I got into the cabin that night, we built a fire. The place 
smoked, and I soon found that my right eye was badly burned. 
I was in agony, and happened to mention that if I had some tea 
leaves, they would relieve it. Tom said that there was some tea 
in a can on the shelf. There was also an old coffee pot in the 
cabin. I washed it out and soon had some tea leaves steeped and, 
after binding them on my eye with a handkerchief I was able to 
get some sleep after an hour or so. 

The next morning at daybreak on looking out we found a 
regular April blizzard raging. We, of course, had very little grub 
so decided we would chance it. 

We left the cabin and headed for Spring Creek Canyon. I 
knew the country well, and felt sure that if I could cross the divide 
and get on to a tributary of Spring Creek, we could follow it into 
the Canyon and down the Canyon to the settlement. We tried to 
judge how the wind was and kept in the same position with it. We 
had traveled an hour or so when I looked up and thought I could 
see a cabin through the storm. It proved to be one, and when we 
got to it we found it to be the very cabin we had left that morning. 
I have never felt more at a loss than I did at that moment. It just 
seemed to me to be impossible, but there we were, and after rest- 
ing for awhile we concluded to tackle it again. That time, owing 
to the storm having let up a little, we made it over into Spring 
Creek Canyon and that night were at the Wain boys' place on 
Spring Creek. 

When we had just made our report you could easily see that 
there were several cowpunchers that were greatly relieved, and 
soon the papers got in with all the details of the surrender at the 
TA Ranch and the end of the so-called Johnson County Invasion. 

i i 









1 U - 


•y - 

Mister y of Fremont County 
Pioneer Jssoeiation 

Information obtained from Pioneer Association books and 
records by Jules Farlow, Sr. 

First Meeting. Pursuant to a call printed in the Wind River 
Mountaineer, a large number of the Pioneers of Wyoming Terri- 
tory met at the Star Skating Rink in Lander on July 5th, 1886. 
Object to the meeting, as stated by H. G. Nickerson, was to 
organize a society consisting of persons who were pioneers in this 
Territory and of Fremont County. The officers elected were L. C. 
Bliss, President, and James I. Patton, Secretary. A motion was 
carried stating that to be eligible for membership you had to be 
here before December 31st, 1870. Thirty one members signed 
up at $1.00 each. Actual names mentioned at this meeting were 
L. C. Bliss, James I. Patton, H. G. Nickerson, Ed Alton, Archie 
McFadden and Mr. Harvey. 

Second Meeting — July 4th, 1887. This meeting was held in 
Lander. The president, L. C. Bliss was absent because of sick- 
ness. Mr. John Fosher was called to the chair. Captain H. G. 
Nickerson was elected president and James I. Patton retained as 
secretary. New members who signed up were James Irwin, Wil- 
liam McCabe, George Jackson, Ben Sexton, William B. (Buck) 
Gratrix, August Laucken, Jake Fry, P. P. Dickinson and Louis 
Poire. A committee of six men was appointed to prepare a report 
embracing a brief history of events connected with early settle- 
ment of Fremont County. This committee consisted of Charles 
Fogg, James Irwin, William Evens, Buck Gratrix, James A. 
McAvoy and H. G. Nickerson. The secretary reported the num- 
ber of members to be 42. Actual names mentioned at this meet- 
ing were 15. 42 less 15 equals 27, which could include an 
additional list of 24 charter members. Receipts in cash up to and 
including this date totaled $38.00. An expense account for 
$11.30 was allowed for record book and express on same. (This 
is the book I am taking this information from and has the follow- 
ing heading: Pioneer Record of Fremont County, Wyoming 
Territory.) On motion it was decided to hold the next meeting 
July 4th, 1888. This meeting was never held, and the association 
became dormant for 17 years. 

July 2nd, 1904. The Association was again organized with 
several of the original members taking part. It was held at the 
E. J. Farlow Grove on the west side of Lander where it was held 
for the following 24 years. A motion was carried stating member- 
ship. Anyone living in Fremont County prior to and including 
the year 1880 and their families were invited to join the Associa- 


tion. Mrs. Noyes Baldwin, the oldest pioneer present, was given 
the privilege of naming the next reunion date. She named Sep- 
tember 3rd of each year, that being her birthday, except when 
coming on Sunday, and then September 2nd to be the date. 

September 2nd, 1905. About 300 people were present. A 
custom was started at this meeting recognizing the oldest lady 
pioneer present. The Lander Band furnished music. 

September 3rd, 1906. Again about 300 people were present, 
with the Lander Band furnishing the music. An interesting en- 
tertainment program was presented including story telling, singing 
and athletic sports, foot racing, jumping, etc. 

September 3rd, 1907. An interesting speech was given by 
Judge Kuykendall from Saratoga, Wyoming, with the usual enter- 
tainment and the Lander Band. 

September 4th, 1908. A motion was made, seconded and car- 
ried that the Fremont County Pioneer Association make provi- 
sions to take care of the remains of Harvey Morgan, now in charge 
of E. J. Farlow. It was moved, seconded and carried that a com- 
mittee be appointed to be known as the Log Cabin Committee. 
The following members were named: Dr. Thomas Maghee, H. G. 
Nickerson, Ed St. John, and Dick Morse. 

September 3rd, 1909. A motion was carried that the Fremont 
County Pioneer Association be incorporated. An amendment 
was offered and carried by H. G. Nickerson making anyone living 
in Fremont County during the past 25 years eligible for member- 

September 3rd, 1910. The Lander Band furnished music and 
the usual entertainment was had. Work was done by the Pioneers 
on the grounds on Nov. 3, Nov. 10, and Nov. 17. 

September 2nd, 1911. A motion was made and carried that 
the place proposed by the building committee for building a club 
house be approved. The committee was authorized to solicit sub- 

September 3rd, 1912. A Ladies Auxiliary Committee was 
appointed to collect funds, which included Mrs. Hall, Mrs. Mag- 
hee, and Mrs. Ed Farlow. 

September 3rd, 1913. A speech was given by president R. H. 
Hall. A vote of thanks was extended to the Band and Committee. 
A speech was given by W. L. Simpson. Chairman Maghee of the 
Building Committee read the Articles of Incorporation. A motion 
was made that for building 500 shares at $10.00 per share be 
issued. A vote of thanks was given to Mr. Fourt and to Miss 
Ann Savage for the Articles of Incorporation. A poem, "Pioneers 
Day'' by Wesley Beggs was read. This poem is on record on 
Page 22 of Book No. 2 

September 3rd, 1914. Permission was given by Finn Burnett 
to place a marker of the sites of Fort Augur and Fort Brown on 
his grounds at 423 Main Street. The Building Committee re- 


ported no progress. A vote of thanks was extended to E. J. 
Farlow and his wife for the use of the grounds, also to John Carr 
and the Lander Cornet Band. A motion was made that the 
Building Committee be instructed to buy logs. 

September 20th, 1915. The annual meeting on September 3rd 
was not held due to bad weather. Attendance was light. The 
Lander Band played. Cabin built 1915 & 1916. 

September 2nd, 1916. Good attendance. A motion was made 
by H. G. Nickerson that a Committee of 9 be appointed to solicit 
members to join the association. The following members were 
appointed: Mrs. Janet Smith, R. H. Hall, E. J. Farlow, James 
Laird, Dora Robinson, Mrs. Maghee, Mrs. Henry DsWolf, Finn 
Burnett and William Gratrix. 

September 3rd, 1917. There was talk at this meeting of dis- 
posing of the Pioneer Cabin and purchase of the Ed Farlow place. 

1918. No meeting this year because of a flu epidemic. 

September 13, 1919. The meeting was held at Farlow Grove 
by invitation of Mrs. Stowe to whom the property had been sold. 
A vote of thanks was given to Mrs. Stowe for use of the grounds. 
A motion was made and carried that we have our next annual 
meeting at the Pioneer Cabin, (no meeting was held there how- 
ever until 1927 — 8 years later). A motion was made, seconded 
and carried that the Association meet on Arbor Day at the Pioneer 
Cabin to plant trees, each member bringing a tree or paying for 
one. John Carr was appointed to order the trees. 

September 3rd, 1920. Meeting was held at Stowe Grove. The 
Water Committee reported that the Pioneer Society was welcome 
to use city water at any and all times. Remarks were given by 
Will SimDson, Dr. Maghee, E. H. Fourt and Milward Simoson. 

September 3rd, 1921. Meeting was held at Stowe Grove. 
Mrs. Harriet J. Nickerson died April 7, 1921 while secretary of 
the Pioneer Association. A tribute was paid by a rising vote to 
her as secretary of the Association for many years. 

September 3rd, 1922. Meeting was held in the Ladv Boosters 
Park. Mr. V. H. Stone was called upon for an address. His 
tribute to the Pioneers was greatly appreciated. Mr. J. D. Wood- 
ruff was called upon for a short talk. Mrs. Stasia Allen snoke on 
the virtue of the Association. Retiring President, M. N. Baldwin 
gave a short speech, telling of a Buffalo raid on Baldwin Creek 
when he was a boy. 

SeDtember 3rd, 1923. Meeting was held at Stowe Grove. Mrs. 
Charles Bates suggested that the young and old members pull 
together for the betterment of the Association. Judee Stone 
praised the Pioneer Association and the pioneers, giving as a 
toast his famous masterpiece — The Thoroughbred. 

SeDtember 3rd, 1924. Meeting was held at Stowe Grove. 
Interesting talks were made by Dr. Thomas Maghee, Capt. H. G. 


Nickerson, J. D. Woodruff, W. M. Simpson, V. H. Stone and 
L. L. Newton. 

September 3rd, 1925. Meeting was held at Stowe Grove. 
Mrs. Homer Alger and Mrs. L. C. Harnsberger had charge of the 
entertainment program. V. H. Stone gave the main speech. 

September 3rd, 1 926. Meeting was held at Stowe Grove. Col. 
George M. Sliney of Thermopolis was the guest of honor and gave 
an interesting talk. Rain prevented the musical program. Other 
talks were given by H. G. Nickerson and Finn Burnett. Dr. Grace 
Hebard, noted Wyoming historian was present and paid tribute 
to Capt. H. G. Nickerson for his cooperation in placing many 
historical markers. Some pioneers attending were Mr. and Mrs. 
J. F. Ludin from New York, Mrs. Frank Lowe from California, 
Ira Beals from Thermopolis and Mr. and Mrs. Leslie Davidson 
from Denver. 

September 3rd, 1927. This was the first meeting held at the 
Pioneer Cabin but the affair was saddened by the death of our 
Honorary Member, Mrs. Anna L. Leseburg, who was laid to rest 
this day at the Milford Cemetery beside her husband. The Lander 
Band furnished the music at the reunion. 

September 3rd, 1928. Meeting was held at the Pioneer Cabin. 
Some new members attending were Edmo LeClaire, William 
Boyd and John Burnett from Fort Washakie. 

September 3rd, 1929. This was a rainy day. Talks were 
given by Finn Burnett, Pete Anderson, Ed Farlow and Judge 

September 3rd, 1930. Meeting was held at the Pioneer Cabin. 
About 80 persons attended the picnic. Dora Robertson was 
praised for her faithful and efficient service in improving the 
grounds and making the cabin attractive and modern. Many 
relics of the old west can be added to our present collection. Mrs. 
Lambertson gave an interesting talk on her trip from Pennsylvania 
to Cheyenne, Wyoming, and up Horse Creek where she saw her 
first herd of Texas longhorns — about 5000 of them. Walter 
Oswald came to eat, not to talk. He crossed the plains in 1868 
when he was 4 years old, and came to Lander in 1886. R. H. 
Hall has attended all the meetings except one, starting in 1904 — 
26 years. Mr. Mart Hornecker and Mrs. Knott wear the Honor 
Badges for the oldest man and woman. Two quadrille sets danced 
on the lawn, Ed Farlow calling. Music was by George Painter, 
violin, and Stub Farlow, guitar. George L. Baldwin was the 
first white child born in the Lander Valley. 

September 3rd, 1931. Meeting was held at the Pioneer Cabin. 
About 200 persons attended. We are indebted to Mr. Adams of 
the Lander Evening Post for 10 gallons of ice cream, to Mr. Kane 
for a bushel of peaches, and to Miss Ellen Carpenter for 20 


pounds of grapes. Members from Atlantic City who joined at this 
meeting were Mrs. Bill Macfie, Martha Gustafasen, Mrs. Lenore 
Hunt, Charles Sypes, and Miss Ellen Carpenter 

September 3rd, 1932. Meeting was held at the Pioneer Cabin. 
The kitchen on the west and a porch on the south were built 
during 1931 and 1932. We had music by the Lander Band. 
Tribute was paid to the Pioneers by Judge V. H. Stone. Tribute 
was given to Mrs. Major Noyes Baldwin on her 100th birthday 
today by R. H. Hall. Special tribute was to Mrs. Lizzie Farlow 
in telegrams from Milward Simpson of Cody, James Simpson of 
Moran, Mrs. Abby Rhoads of Riverton and O. K. Nickerson of 
Seattle, and members of the Association. Mrs. Farlow died in 
August. E. J. Farlow, then presented the Association with a 
Warrantee Deed to six lots adjoining the Pioneer Park on the 
West. A rising vote of thanks was given Mr. Farlow for his 
generous gift. 

September 3rd, 1933. Meeting was held at the Pioneer Cabin 
with music by the Lander Band. A large crowd was present. 
Judge V. H. Stone made a fine talk paying tribute to the Pioneers. 
A poem, the Sheepherders Monument, by Ed Wynn, pioneer pub- 
lisher of the Lander Clipper, was read by Mrs. Edith Nickerson 
McLane. Mr. Wm (Bill) Scarlett told of his early experiences 
as a cowboy on the Sweetwater in Fremont County and presented 
the Association with a $50.00 check. Lander business houses 
donated prizes for the following sports program. Mrs. May 
Jeffries won "Ladies Over 60", Mrs. Fred Schultz won the wo- 
men's free for all. Margerite Beaton won the girls free for all. 
Ed Farlow won "Men Over 70". Grant Young and Emmett 
Connell tied for "Men over 60". Ervin Cheney won the "Men 
Over 50". Stub Farlow won the men's free for all. In the fat 
man race, H. R. Cox won, and Mrs. Jess Fields won the fat wo- 
man race. The oldest man present was Richard Green and the 
oldest woman present was Mrs. Joe Lee. Jack Perrin won as the 
homeliest man. 

September 3rd, 1934. Music was played by the Lander Band. 
Milward Simpson said he first arrived in Lander when a boy 14 
years old, and urged the Pioneers to preserve the historical data 
of Fremont County. The report of the Treasurer, Mrs. R. H. 
Hall, showed a balance of $329.48 in the treasury. Mr. W. L. 
Marion was appointed Historian. Dues collected amounted to 

September 3rd, 1935. Mr. William Scarlett presented the 
Association with a fine set of dishes with the name "Scarlett" on 
each one. It was a cold stormy day. Tables were set in the 
Cabin and on the porch with the rest on the lawn. About 250 
persons were present. President D. F. Hudson suggested that 


a block of native granite be brought down from the mountains and 
erected on the grounds with the names of charter members to be 
inscribed on it. A motion was made, seconded and carried to 
this effect. Mrs. Nottage suggested that cases for the Pioneer 
relics should be secured. Ed Farlow moved that tables and seats 
be secured for the annual picnics. A rising vote of thanks was 
given to Mr. Scarlett. 

April 4th, 1936 — Special Meeting. The mounument com- 
mittee met at the home of Mr. E. F. Cheney. A permanent com- 
mittee was appointed as follows: R. H. Hall, E. J. Farlow, Ervin 
Cheney, Dan Hudson, Mart Hornecker, L. J. Bower, Esther Nails, 
J. H. Fields, and Etta Farlow. It was decided to request bids. 

April 15th, 1936. A meeting was held at the Cheney home. 
Bids on a monument were opened and the contract awarded to 
L. J. Bower and A. J. Lee. Forest Service refused to give a stone 
from Sinks Canyon to the Pioneers. 

June 18th, 1936 — Special Meeting. The Monument Commit- 
tee met at the Pioneer Cabin for discussion of a stone. Motion 
was made, seconded and carried that Mr. R. H. Hall be given 
full charge of selecting the stone. 

September 3rd, 1936. The annual reunion was held at the 
Pioneer Cabin. Short addresses were made by Bill Scarlett, Sen- 
ator Jim Graham and Harry Harnsberger. It was moved that a 
vote of thanks be extended to Bill Scarlett for his generosity in fur- 
nishing the ice cream for the picnic. Word was received that Tom 
Osborne, old time cowboy, had died at Cody. Mr. Osborne was 
born in Wyoming and came to Camp Brown (now Lander) in 

September 3rd, 1937. Meeting was held at the Pioneer Cabin. 
A telegram of hearty greetings to the Pioneers from Emma 
Cheney Nottage of Salt Lake City was read. The entertainment 
program was in charge of Lyda Sherlock. A reading, "I Was 
There", was given by P. B. Coolidge. A motion was made by 
E. J. Farlow that the incoming president appoint a committee 
of three to select the names of charter members and have them 
inscribed on a bronze tablet and placed on the monument by our 
next annual meeting. 

September 3rd, 1938. Meeting was held at the Pioneer Cabin. 
Music was played by the high school band directed by Mr. Wil- 
liams. It was a usual meeting. 

July 6th, 1939. The Fremont County Pioneer Association 
assisted the B & P W Club and the Lander Commercial Club in 
entertaining Governor Smith and his party following the dedica- 
tion of the Esther Morris Mounument at South Pass. 

September 3rd, 1939. The meeting was held at the Pioneer 
Park with music by the Lander Band. Mr. Robert Hall was pre- 


sented with the Pioneer Key of the Association. E. J. Farlow, 
Ervin Cheney and James Moore were elected as trustees for a 
3 year term. 

September 3, 1940. Meeting was held at the Pioneer Park 
with music by the high school band. The meeting was called to 
order by the ringing of the Old School Bell which had been placed 
on the roof of the Cabin. Mr. Bob Hall was asked to address the 
meeting and called to the attention of the Association the unfin- 
ished work on the monument. A special guest of honor was Mr. 
Ernest Hornecker of Covina, California. Senator George Cross 
paid a fitting tribute to the Pioneer families of Fremont County. 
Mr. W. L. Simpson recounted the early days in Lander which he 
knew as a youth in 1884. He told of the early day families, their 
hardships and ambitions — "We must not die; the spirit of the 
Pioneer is the spark of life that makes America great. Our 
Organization must carry on." 

September 3rd, 1941. Meeting was held at the Pioneer Cabin. 
It was suggested that a case be purchased for the safe keeping of 
all relics — the case to be equipped with locks. A rising vote of 
thanks was extended to Florence Hoffer for her excellent care of 
the Cabin and grounds. Mr. L. L. Newton suggested that some- 
thing be done about procuring the old files of the old Mountaineer 
which are now in Riverton. 

September 3rd, 1942. Meeting was held at the Pioneer Cabin. 
Honorary members elected to hold the keys were William Cook of 
Riverton and Mrs. E. F. Cheney of Lander. There was the usual 
business meeting and entertainment. 

September 3rd, 1943. Meeting was held at the Pioneer Cabin 
with the usual business meeting. The following were called upon 
for remarks: L. L. Newton, Bill Scarlett, Charles Moore, Mrs. 
William Simpson, Mrs. Laura Bragg, James Moore, Mrs. Nell 
Stratton, Carrie Fisher McLaughlin, Stub Farlow and Emma Rog- 
ers. Mayor William Jones was reported ill by President Mrs. 
Nell Trout. 

September 3rd, 1944. Meeting was held at the Pioneer Park. 
Those who gave short talks were Bill Scarlett, Stub Farlow, Ervin 
Cheney, Mrs. Lyda Sherlock, Carrie Fisher McLaughlin and Joe 
Cook. William Cook, oldest Pioneer resident of Riverton, died 
December 17, 1943, at the ripe old age of 94 years and 2 months. 
A motion was made and carried to give the key to Ed Farlow as 
he is the oldest man pioneer in the Association. He is called 
"Father of the Association" as he has belonged to it since it first 
originated in Fremont County and has been an ardent and devoted 
member. Mrs. Matilda Cheney retained the key for the women. 
A vote of thanks was extended to Mr. and Mrs. Baker for taking 
care of the cabin and grounds. 


September 3rd, 1945. The meeting was held at the Pioneer 
Cabin. 94 members registered. Eddie Hudson's Orchestra fur- 
nished music. A motion was made and carried to modernize the 
Cabin. Pioneer keys retained by Ed Farlow and Matilda Cheney 
for being the oldest couple present. 

September 3rd, 1946. Meeting was held at the Pioneer Cabin. 
73 members registered. A motion was made and carried to hold 
the annual picnic on the second Sunday in August hereafter. In- 
teresting talks were given by Mrs. Carrie Fisher McLaughlin, Mr. 
Scarlett, Edith Nickerson, Mrs. S. C. Parks, Ada Cook, and 
William Marion. Keys were retained by Mrs. Matilda Cheney 
and Ed Farlow. 

August 10, 1947. Meeting was held at the Pioneer Cabin with 
the usual meeting. John Souter was called on and talked about 
his triD to Scotland and England and Wales in 1946 when he saw 
King George and Queen Elizabeth of England and General and 
Mrs. Eisenhower at the same church in Scotland. Mrs. Ted Ran- 
ney gave an interesting recitation. President Lawrence Bower 
was complimented on selling 95 membership cards. Tribute was 
paid to Mrs. Matilda Cheney and Ed Farlow as the two oldest 
association members present. Sale was made of fractions of lots 
to Mrs. Fletcher and Lot 15 to Bob Diemer. 

August 8, 1948. Meeting was held at the Pioneer Cabin. A 
telegram was read from Governor and Mrs. L. C. Hunt congratu- 
lating the Pioneer Association. 85 members were registered. In- 
teresting old time experiences of pioneers were told by Mrs. Nellie 
Rannev, Ruth Hornecker Abbott, Mrs. Elizabeth Stevenson Du- 
pont, William T. Jones, Retta Iiams Ferry, Mrs. Elizabeth Carr 
Bates, Ervin Cheney, and William Marion. 

August 14th, 1949. Meeting was held at the Pioneer Cabin. 
Mrs. Lyda Sherlock told of the early history of the Sherlock 
family who came to South Pass from Utah in the early 70's. Mrs. 
Allie Hall Millard gave early historv of the Hall family. Josie 
Bower gave early history of the J. R. Davis family, the George 
Wroe and Knott families. Mrs. Belle Baldwin gave a talk on 
Ma'or Noves Baldwin's family who had the first store in the 
Lander Vallev. Information provided by Dick Lamoreaux gave 
the historv of the Jules Lamoreaux family. Jules Lamoreaux was 
one of the charter members of the Association. A motion was 
made bv William Marion, seconded and carried that the Harvey 
Morgan Skull should never be loaned or moved from the Cabin. 
Pioneer keys were given to Ed Farlow and Mrs. Mary Butler. 84 
members were registered and paid dues. 

August 20th, 1950. Meeting was held at the Pioneer Cabin. 
A motion was made and seconded that a bronze plaque be pro- 
vided for names of Pioneers. The committee consisted of officers 
of the Association. The history of the J. K. Moore family was 


given by J. K. Moore, Jr. 63 members were registered and paid 
dues. Motion was made and seconded that plans be made for 
bronze plaque for names of Pioneers. Committee to consist ©f 
the officers of the Association, Mrs. Lyle Millard and W. T. Jones. 
August 13, 1951. Meeting was held at the Pioneer Park. A 
fine talk was given by Harry Harnsberger. A motion was made 
and carried to change the date of the Pioneer Reunions back to 
September 3rd. Keys were given to W. T. Jones and Mary 
Butler for being the oldest Association members present. 

September 3rd, 1952. Meeting was held at the Pioneer Park. 
Senator L. C. Hunt gave an interesting talk on Pioneer history of 
Wyoming. Mrs. Stella McGinnity, president of Natrona County 
Pioneers, and Fred Stratton, Mayor of Riverton were introduced. 
Pioneer keys were given to the oldest Association members pres- 
ent — James Moore and Dora Robertson. Decision was made to 
hold the annual picnics the last Sunday in August. 

August 31, 1953. The annual Fremont County Pioneer Asso- 
ciation Reunion was held in Lander on the last Sunday in August, 
1953, at the Pioneer Park Cabin, corner of Sixth and Lincoln 

The 1953 membership drive was promoted for the purpose of 
raising funds to finance suitable glass enclosed show cases to 
preserve the old relics donated by the Pioneers, and to commem- 
orate the names of charter members and other pioneers of the 
Association by cutting the names in a stone monument located 
on the grounds at the Pioneer Park. 657 membership cards were 
sold at $1.00 each, over 250 of them being sold in the Riverton 
area by Fred Stratton, Jr. 

50 Years With the Pioneers 

The Fremont County Pioneer Association 


Lander, Wyoming 

Annual reunions of the Fremont County Pioneer Association 
were held at the Ed Farlow grove on the west side of Lander 
from 1904 to 1917 inclusive — 18 years — when Mr. Farlow sold 
the property to Milton Stowe. No meeting was held in 1918 due 
to a flu epidemic. For the next 8 years meetings were held in 
the Stowe Grove — from 1919 to 1926 inclusive, with one excep- 
tion. In 1922 the meeting was held in the Ladies Booster Park, 
now called the City Park, on the south side of Lander. 

The eligibility requirement of continuous residence in the 
county for the past 25 years was started in 1909 when H. G. 
Nickerson made the motion which was carried. This has been 
the custom for 44 years. 


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Located at 6th and Lincoln in Pioneer Park, Lander. The Pioneer Cabin 
is in the background. The monument committee proposes the addition 
of an additional 150 names to the monument of eligible pioneers who came 
to Fremont County between 1880 and 1905 and who resided in the county 
25 years or more. 





A. J. (Stub) Farlow 



Names Taken From Records 


1ST MEETING— JULY 5, 1886 

H. G. Nickerson— 1868 

L. C. Bliss— 1869 

James I. Patton — 1870 

Ed Alton— 1868 

Alonzo Harvey — 1877 

Archie McFadden 

2ND MEETING— JULY 4, 1887 

John Fosher— 1869 

James Irwin — 1869 

William McCabe— 1858 

Geo. Jackson — 1869 

Ben Sexton— 1868 

Wm. B. Gratrix— 1866 

August Laucken — 1865 

Jake Fry— 1869 

P. P. Dickinson— 1867 

Louis Poire — 1868 

Chas. Fogg— 1867 

Wm. Evans— 1868 

James A. McAvoy — 1869 

JAN. 27, 1904 
E. J. Farlow— 1878 
Geo. McKay— 1868 
Pete Anderson — 1869 
Peter Beck 
Sam O'Meara— 1874 
David Jones — 1876 
Chas. Stough— 1879 
Abe Fosher— 1868 

3RD MEETING— JULY 2, 1904 

James Kime — 1869 

R. H. Hall— 1873 

Maj. N. Baldwin— 1866 

Lizzie Farlow — 1868 

Hugo Koch— 1861 

4TH MEETING— Sept. 2, 1905 
C. P. Cottrell— 1869 
Ed St. John— 1868 
Mrs. L. C. Davis— 1873 

E. F. Cheney— 1866 
Joe Trucky— 1868 
Jas. Couch— 1879 

F. G. Burnett— 1868 
Ernest Hornecker — 1869 
Frank Lowe— 1870 

AUGUST 30, 1953 
Jules Farlow— 1884 
Nell Stratton— 1886 
Anna Scott — 1916 
Clair Hall— 1880 
Essa Fischer — 1890 
Ervin Cheney— 1883 
J. K. Moore, Jr.— 1876 

[the next page continues after this as on the monument! 




Brave Pioneer Families Who Came to Wyoming Prior to 1880 
(Names Taken From Records) 

Allen, Chas. 
Amoretti, E. 
Appleby, C. S. 
Atkins, J. J. 
Axe, Allen 
Baldwin, M. N. 
Bebee, James 
Borland, Matt 
Boyd, Wm. 
Bragg. Robert 
Boland, Ed 
Borner, John 
Bowman, Ike 
Bruce, J. E. 
Burns, J. R. 
Carr, James A. 
Casto, Frank 
Clark, W. V. 
Clark, O. M. 
Cook. Wm. 
Crowley, C. W. 
Curry, John 
DeWolf, Henry 
Evans, Ben 
Farlow, Henry 
Faris, Joe 
Fletcher, Chas. 
Forrest, James 
Grant, John 
Giesler, L. L. 
Gustin, E. A. 
Goodrich, J. E. 
Grimmett, Orson 
Harris, W. W. (Curly) 
Harrison, Chas. B. 
Harsch, Phillip 
Hart. Chas. 
Haynes, Wm. 
Heath. W. A. 
Heenan. Mike 
Hornecker, J. M. 
Huff, John 
liams, Sam 
Johnson, W. G. 
Jones, Wm. T. 
Knott, John 
Laird. Jim 
LaJeunesse, A. J. 
Lamoreaux, Jules 
Lane, A. D. 
Lannigan, W. M. 
Harting, Henry 

Langlois, Geo. 
Le Clair, Edmo. 
Leseberg, Fred 
Logue, Harry 
Ludin, Jules 
Maghee, Thomas 
McAuley, Robert 
Meigs, Guy 
McGrath, Thomas 
Moore, J. K. 
Murphy, Mike 
Myer, Jake 
Myers, O. O. 
Noble, W. P. 
Norton, C. C. 
O'Brien, Wm. 
Oldham, Chas. 
O'Neal, Wm. F. 
Painter, John 
Pelon, John 
Peralto, P. T. 
Peterson, Louie 
Peterson, Joe & H. 
Pitts, E. H. 
Reid, John 
West, Geo. B. 
Riley, John 
Robinson, J. M. 
Rogers, Wm. 
Schlichting, Wm. 
Sherman, Jason 
Sherlock, Richard 
Sheldon, Ben 
Spangler. Sam 
Smith, James 
Spencer, J. H. Maj. 
Stagner, Speed 
Steers, John 
Stevenson, Wm. C. 
Trosper. W. B. 
Tweed, Wm. (Boss) 
Van Patten, Wm. 
Vidal, Phil 
Wagner, Joe 
Weiser. Phil 
Welch. J. M. 
Werlen, John 
Wilson, Ace 
Woodruff, J. D. 
Wroe, Geo. 
Young. Ed. 
Yarnell. Nelson 

Washakie and Zhe Shoshoni 

A Selection of Documents from the Records of the Utah 

Superintendence of Indian Affairs. 

Edited by 

Dale L. Morgan 

PART 11—1852 


(Brigham Young, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to Luke Lea, 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt Lake 

City, March 30, 1852. Extract. )" 

Major Holeman's report for this quarter, having been received 
subsequent to the foregoing writing and just previous to the clos- 
ing of this mail, is the reason of its not being mentioned therein. 
It is however transmitted herewith (marked B) together with the 
usual endorsement which is enclosed in this package. I will 
merely observe than an agency establishment in the Uinta valley 
would accommodate the Indians of that region known as the 
Uinta and Yampah Utes, and the Snakes or more properly Sho- 
shone Indians in this Territory and being supported by a settle- 
ment will have a tendency to harmonize any ill feeling that may 
have heretofore existed among them. . . . 


(Stephen B. Rose, Sub-Agent, to Brigham Young, Supt. of 

Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt Lake City, 

March 31, 1852.) 


I have the honor of Submitting the following to the Commis- 
sioner of Indian Affairs through Your Excellency. I received a 
communication from your Hon on the 10th of Jan mentioning that 

44. This letter (U/4-1852) is voluminously concerned with Indian af- 
fairs in general; only the postscript is here printed. With his own letter 
Young enclosed the quarterly reports of Rose and Holeman transmitted 
through his office, these are our Documents XV and XVI. 

45. Present Brigham City. 


a difficulty had been reported to you as haveing occured between 
the Snake Indians and the Citirens of Box Elder'" and wishing me 
to procede there immediately and investigate the matter which 
request I complied with and am happy to inform you that all is 
amicably settled On my return I learned that the Indian children 
found in the possession of the Spaniards had been returned to the 
Indian Department and agreeable to your order I have provided 
them with good comfortable homes where they are well treated 
and seem happy they were in a most deplorable condition and I 
was compelled to get some clothing and give them to keep them 
from perishing"' On the 16th of Feb I found a company of men 
starting for Uwinta Valley and haveing recieved a note from you 
last fall wishing me to procede there and assertain the situation 
of the Indians in that Part of the Territory and not haveing had 
an opportunity before in consequence of haveing been occupied 
on other duties I thought it a good opportunity to visit the Valley. 
but upon my arrival there I found the Indians had all gone to the 
Buffalo country and therefore cannot give you any account of 
them. I would suggest the propriety of calling the attention of 
the Department to a number of French Canadian Traders settled 
upon Green River and in the neighborhood of Fort Bridger who 
are constantly trading with the Indians although they have been 
notified to the contrary they have had a number of the different 
Tribes together this winter and made a number of speaches to 
them endeavouring to prejudice them against the peacefull inhab- 
itants of this Valley Accompanying this report you will find a 
schedule containing an account of the expenditures of the quarter 
ending this day .... 


(Jacob H. Holeman, Indian Agent, to Brigham Young, 

Supt. of Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt Lake City, 

March 30, 1852) 


Since my report, made to your Excellency, on the 31st of 
December last, there has nothing occurred of importance in my 

Agreeable to your instructions, in January last, in company 
with Sub-Agent S. B. Rose, visited the Indians north, as far as 

46. The reference is to New Mexican slave traders, to the Utah opera- 
tions of whom Brigham Young put a stop. 


Box Elder. We found them friendly disposed towards the whites, 
and in the General, on friendly terms — there had been previously, 
some little disturbance, but all had quietted down. The informa- 
tion we had received of their having a considerable quantity of 
American Gold, we found to be true — we made every effort to 
ascertain in what manner they came in possession of it. One, 
who had several pieces, stated, that he had received it two or three 
years ago, in a horse trade, from an emigrant — others accounted 
for having the Gold in various ways, but to my mind, not satis- 
factory. A great portion of this band, was absent on a hunting 
expedition — we could not see their chief, nor could we get any 
information which seemed of a character to be relied on. Whether 
these Indians have participated in the roberies on the California 
route, or not, is extremely doubtful — I thought some circum- 
stances looked rather suspicious — -Yet they professed friendship 
towards the Whites, and many of them had given such evidences 
of their friendship, as to induce the citizens there, to believe they 
were sincere. We made every effort to ascertain the true situation 
of the white females, who were said to be held as prisoners, by a 
band of Indians in that neighborhood. So far as we could learn, 
from Whites and Indians, no prisoners had been in that neighbor- 
hood. We learned, however, from the Indians, that a band of the 
"white Knives," as they are called, residing perhaps in Oregon, 
had sometime previous, two white women as prisoners, but for 
some cause, which they could not explain, they had killed them 
both. We, however, could get no information except from the 
Indians — and not being acquainted with the character and con- 
duct of these Indians, I placed but little reliance in any thing they 
said. I gave them a few presents, which pleased them very much 
and they promised a great deal in future. 

I met with a deputation of the Utah Tribe, from Uwinty Valley, 
at Fort Bridger, in December last, as I previously informed you — 
they had been sent by the chief of the band, with overtures of 
friendship, and requested that I would send some traders to visit 
their village. I selected a competent man, who was acquainted 
with them, and who spoke their language, to accompany the 
traders, with a few presents to their chief men. He has just 
returned, and reports very favourably of the kind feelings of these 
Indians. In accordance with my request, they have determined 
to meet the Snakes, in a council, for the purpose of establishing 
a treaty of peace and friendship between the tribes — and are now 
engaged in that laudable object. From the assurances given me, 
both by the Utes and Snakes, I hope, and believe, that they will 
succeed — and that they will make a treaty, which will place their 
friendly relations upon a much more lasting foundation than they 
have ever been heretofore. I enclose you my report for the 
quarter ending 31st inst. . . . 



(Jacob H. Holeman, Indian Agent, to Luke Lea, 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Great 

Salt Lake City, April 29, 1852)' 7 

Sir — I have advised you, in my previous communications, of 
the difficulty and danger to emigrants who travel the Oregon and 
California route — and of the necessity of doing something for 
their protection. I also informed you, that if not instructed 
otherwise, I should visit that section of the Territory, and en- 
deavor to make such arrangements with these Indians as would 
insure safety to emigration in future. I have had several con- 
versations with the Superintendent upon this subject, without 
coming to any determination or receiving from him any particular 
instructions. For the purpose, therefore, of bringing the matter 
to a close, and that there should be action upon the subject, I 
address to him the enclosed letter. He left this city on the 23d 
inst. on a southern tour, to be absent several months, without 
giving me any instructions, or even acknowledging the receipt of 
my letter. He has been in an ill humor with me, since the receipt 
of your annual report, in which is a letter I addressed you from 
Fort Laramie, and in which I speak of the excitement of the 
Indians on account of the whites settling their lands — and more 
particularly against the Mormons. In order to justify myself for 
the statements made in that letter, I have thought it advisable to 
give you my authority, as I have been threatened with denuncia- 
tion and a contradiction of all matters concerning the Mormons. 

Mr. James Bridger, who was the Interpreter of the Snake 
Indians at the Treaty of Laramie, and who is very favorably 
noticed in the Communication of Col. D. D. Mitchell, informed 
me, that the Utah Indians, residing in Uwinty valley, had fre- 
quently expressed their dissatisfaction in the strongest terms, 
against the Mormons making settlements on their lands; that they 
had understood they intended to do so — and were anxious to 
know what they should do, or if they had the right to prevent it. 
This was stated to me, in such a manner, that I could not hesitate 
to believe it. In addition to this, Mr. Barney Ward, 48 a Mormon, 
who was the interpreter of Sub-agent S. B. Rose, in conversation. 

47. H/89-1852. Enclosed with the letter is a copy of Holeman's letter 
to Young, dated Great Salt Lake City, April 19, 1852. It is sufficiently 
summarized for our purposes in Holeman's letter to Lea. 

48. Elijah "Barney" Ward has a certain celebrity in history as the only 
mountain man permanently converted to Mormonism. A brief biography 
appears in Andrew Jenson, Latter-day Saint Biographical Encyclopedia, 
Salt Lake City. 1920, Vol. 3, pp. 552-554. 


frequently stated that the Mormons intended to make a settlement 
in Uwinty Valley, and that he was going to reside there as an 
Indian trader. With this information, believing that if the settle- 
ment was attempted, that it would cause an oubreak, and another 
"Indian war," for which Government would be called upon to 
defray the expenses, I made the statement in my communication 
from Laramie — not however, for the purpose of producing unkind 
feeling towards the Mormons, but to impress upon the depart- 
ment the necessity of adopting such measures, as would place 
both the whites and the Indians in a position to understand their 
rights and privileges, and thereby prevent further disturbances 
among them; as there had been, as I conceived, great injustice 
done the Indians already. I subsequently met a deputation of the 
Uwinty Utes, sent by their chief Soweates, who confirmed the 
information I had before received and expressed their decided 
disapprobation to any settlement being made on their lands by 
the whites, and more particularly by the Mormons. This same 
deputation was directed by their chief, to request, that I would 
send them some traders, towards whom and the government they 
pledged friendship in the strongest terms. I sent them two differ- 
ent companies of traders, one from Fort Bridger, who they 
treated with great kindness and respect — the others went from 
this city — upon learning they were from the Mormon city, the 
Indians immediately demanded to know if they were Mormons — 
and although one was a Mormon they were compelled to deny it, 
— such was the feelings of hostility expressed towards the Mor- 
mons, that if they had been known to be so, they would have 
been driven from the village. The Shoshonies or Snakes, were 
equally opposed, and expressed their disapprobation to the Mor- 
mons settling on their lands, in the strongest terms. 

I thought I was in the discharge of my duty, in giving to the 
department this information, as I conceived it of some importance. 
The Indians in this Territory, have, in the general, been badly 
treated — upon some occasions, so much so, as to produce resis- 
tance. Then, upon the most trivial occasion, would follow, as 
the Mormons call it, an "Indian War" — and being better armed 
and equipped than the Indians, a most brutal butchery would 
follow. For all these services, in all these "Indian Wars," I under- 
stand, that there is a petition presented or will be presented to 
Congress, for the Government to pay the Bill. Before they do so, 
however, I hope they will enquire into particulars — as these people 
seem more inclined to fleece the Government of her monev, than 
to render her any important service or friendship. I have thought 
it to be my duty to inform the department of all matters calculated 
to produce excitement or dissatisfaction among the Indians. With 
this view, I have made you the several communications, relative 
to matters and things here — I shall continue to do so as circum- 


stances may occur. And while I confine my statements to facts, 
I feel confident I shall be sustained by the department. 

I shall, in accordance with my previous advices to the depart- 
ment, leave in a few days for the Humbolt, where, if I find it 
necessary, I shall establish an agency, as it is no doubt, the most 
important point on the route. If it should be necessary, and any 
good can be effected, I will extend my trip as far as Carson Valley, 
near the line between this Territory and California. If I should 
not succeed in establishing friendly relations with these Indians, 
I shall, on my return, have it in my power to give the department 
such information, as will enable them to act more advisedly in 
future. At present but little is known, except, that they are mur- 
dering and plundering every train that passes the road. As the 
Treaty of Laramie has given security to emigration, from the 
States to the country occupied by these Indians, an arrangement 
with them will open a general highway through all the country, 
from Missouri to California, and give security to the numerous 
and increasing emigration which is annually passing to California 
and Oregon, and which at present is attended with so much 
danger and loss of life and property. The Indians in this section 
have had but little intercourse with the Whites, and what they 
have had, has rather tended to excite them against the Whites, 
than to create friendship or respect. The first were a set of 
traders and trappers, &c whose practice was to cheat them out of 
what little they possessed, or take it by force when able to do so — 
the Second was the Mormons, who forcibly took possession of 
their country, drove off their game, and killed many of the Indians 
— the last was the emigration, who often committed depradations 
on those who were inclined to be friendly, through the mistaken 
idea that all Indians were treacherous — and by this means fre- 
quently caused the innocent to suffer. Such transactions, has, 
in a great measure, brought about the present condition of things 
here. Many of the tribes, however, are becoming friendly, and 
by a prudent and humane course which has characterised all the 
acts of the government in regard to this unfortunate race, I hope 
the balance may be reconciled, and the country and the highways 
be relieved of the distressing scenes, which so often occur. 

I mentioned to you in my last communication, that the Novem- 
ber mail from California to this place, had been cut off by the 
Indians, and the contents destroyed. The remains of Mr. Wood- 
ward, the contractor, has since been found, some forty miles be- 
yond the settlements in this valley. We have received information, 
from the Indians, near Fort Hall, that he and his escort, five in 
number, were attacked by this marauding band of Indians on the 
Humbolt, and that four was killed — the fifth, Woodward, made 
his escape, it is supposed that he must have been wounded, and 


died from exhaustion, as his watch and many valuable papers 
were found near the remains of his body, which was almost 
entirely destroyed by wild beast — it was identified, however, by 
his clothing, watch, papers, &c. 

The Snake Indians, who attended the treaty at Laramie returned 
well pleased with their reception and treatment — they are very 
friendly with all who pass through their country, giving them every 
assistance in their power, and pledging a continuance of their 
friendship; on account, as they say, of the kindness of their Great 
Father to them. This feeling is diffusing itself throughout many 
of the other tribes and bands, who regret that they had not been 
there also. In fact, I believe, that there is but one tribe in the 
Territory who are disposed to molest the emigration, and that is 
the tribe, I contemplate visiting. I shall be compelled to incur 
some expense, but shall be as economical as possible. I shall 
have to hire some ten or fifteen men, an Interpreter &c. to accom- 
pany me, and shall make all other arrangements, as far as possible, 
subject to your advice and instruction, which I shall expect on my 

I regret that I have not been able to receive positive instructions 
in relation to my duties, and more particularly in regard to expen- 
ditures, and the particular kind of expenditures. I fear that I 
have already gone too far — all I can say on this subiect, is, that 
in attending the Snake Indians to the Treaty at Laramie, although 
somewhat expensive, it has done much good, and will have a very 
happy effect upon our Indian operations in future. One thing, 
however, is certain — all operations with the Indians cost money, 
perhaps more in this Territory, than many other places. I have 
therefore, thought it better to incur a little expense, for purposes, 
which I deemed of importance to the Indians and to the Govern- 
ment, than to wait for instructions so distant and difficult to ob- 
tain. Besides, I can see no use in my remaining idle, when there is 
important work to perform — particularly as it will have to be 
done, at some time, and perhaps at a much greater expense. 

Will vou be so kind, as to say to me, on the receipt of this, 
what will be the proper allowance to these men, who accompany 
me, either as their per diem or monthly pay. I fear you will con- 
sider me somewhat pestiferous — but you must recollect that I 
have had no instructions by which I could form a correct opinion 
of the extent of my powers and duties, or the particular wishes of 
the Government. I was directed to report to the Governor, which 
dutv I performed without delay — He having no instructions, as 
he informed me, I was left to act upon your verbal instructions, to 
take such steps as in my iudgement would best conduce to the 
interest of the Indians and the Government. I have endeavored 


so to act, and hope my conduct may meet the approbation of the 
department, and that I may hear from you by the return mail. 

I received a communication by the last mail, informing me, 
that in consequence of my having failed to render my accounts 
up to the 30th of September last, I had been reported to the 
President. I regret that it was not in my power to make my report 
at the time alluded to — I had been in attendance at the treaty of 
Laramie, with the Snake Indians, where I was detained much 
longer than I had anticipated, when I left this city — not doubting, 
when I left, but that I should return before the time specified for 
making my report, I did not take with me, many papers, necessary 
to enable me to do so. In addition to this — my horses failed, 
on my return, to such an extent, as to prevent my travelling at the 
usual speed — I had to wait on them or to leave them — I thought 
it more prudent to sacrifice my personal comfort, than to leave my 
animals which would have been a total loss to the Government, 
and did not reach this city until the 26th of October, too late to 
make a report. I however forwarded my accounts by the Novem- 
ber mail, which I have no doubt you have received, ere this, and 
which I hope may be satisfactory to the department. . . . 

P. S. May 1st. Not receiving any communication from you, and 
being left to act from my own judgment, I shall proceed to equip 
ten men, with an Interpreter, and two friendly Indians, and pro- 
ceed immediately to the Humbolt. It is reported here, that these 
marauding Indians in that section, have been making great prep- 
arations for their operations on the emigrants; and as there is 
nothing else, of an importance, for me to do at present, it seems 
to me, that my duty prompts me to this course. I shall use every 
effort in my power, peaceably, to quiet the Indians on this route, 
and to get all the information possible, concerning them, their 
habits, disposition &c. and the prospects of doing any thing with 
them in future. I shall use economy and discretion in all matters, 
and report the result to the department, on my return. If I find 
it necessary to go as far as Carson Valley, I may be detained some 
two or three months. It is unnecessary to take this trip, unless a 
thorough investigation is made of all matters which may be of 
interest to the Government or to the Indians, so as to enable the 
department to act more advisedly in future. It is very necessary 
that something should be done, and as speedily as possible, as the 
longer it is delayed, the more difficult, and expensive it will be 
to the Government. I shall be compelled to draw on the depart- 
ment for funds, to defray expenses. I shall also take with me a 
few articles, to be used as presents, if I can dispose of them, to 
advantage an effect. The April mail from the States has just 
arrived. . . . 



(Brigham Young, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to Luke Lea, 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt Lake 

City, May 28, 1852) 4U 

Sir, Your two letters of January 28th and February 20th were 
received per last mail, which arrived during my absence on a tour 
south, being only about two and a half months since the date of 
the last written; another month before a reply can be started, and 
the same time allowed to reach Washington making in all, to write 
and receive an answer, six months! This shows how we are blest 
with mail facilities. 

I do not know that you ever received my first report dated 13 
September 1851, as I have received no acknowledgement of its 
reception. I observe that the only paper which has found its way 
into the annual report, from Utah, is Major Holeman's, written 
at Fort Laramie and dated September 22, 1851. This is also 
attributable it is presumed to deficient postal arrangements. I 
wish to correct some erronneous statements made in that report, 
of the truth of which at that time Major Holeman might either 
through misconception or misinformation entertain an honest 
belief. I allude to the following paragraphs. "I find much ex- 
citement among the Indians in consequence of the whites settling 
and taking possession of their country, driving off and killing 
their game, and in some instances driving off the Indians them- 
selves" "the greatest complaint on this score is against the Mor- 
mons; they seem not to be satisfied with taking possession of the 
valley of the Great Salt Lake, but are making arrangements to 
settle other, and principally the rich valleys and best lands in the 
Territory. "This creates much dissatisfaction among the Indians; 
excites them to acts of revenge; they attack emigrants, plunder 
and commit murder whenever they find a party weak enough to 
enable them to do so, thereby making the innocent suffer for 
injuries done by others. I find also another class of individuals, 
a mixture of all nations, and although less powerful in numbers 
equally injurious to the country and the Indians. These are a set 
of traders called here Freemen," &c again, "I am informed that 
they have induced Indians to drive off the Stock of emigrants, so 
as to force them to purchase of the "Freemen" at exhorbitant 
prices and after the emigrants have left, make a pretended pur- 
chase of the indians for a mere trifle, and are ready to sell again 
to the next train that may pass, and who may have been served 
in the same manner" "These scenes are transacted so far from 

49. U/8-1852. 


the officers of the law, and by a set of men who are somewhat 
lawless that it will require extreme measures and some force to 
relieve the country of them." 

With the exception of a few, perhaps fifteen or twenty white 
men at Fort Bridger and vicinity, who make no improvements 
nor raise grain, no settlement has been made or attempted upon 
the Shoshonees or Uinta Utes land. Some twenty years ago the 
Shoshonees claimed a small tract at the mouth of Weber upon 
which there is now a settlement, 50 but abandoned it as the Buffalo 
receded, and it has since been held by the Cumembahs or Snake 
Diggers who united by marriage with a broken off band of Sho- 
shonees which the Shoshone Indians do not claim as at all be- 
longing to their nation. 

At the time Major Holeman made the above statements he had 
never seen an Indian upon whose land the whites who make im- 
provements and cultivate the earth had settled, and no Indians 
have ever been driven off these lands that I have ever heard of. 
The Shoshonees and Uintas, to whom I more particularly allude 
being the only ones in the Territory with whom the Major had 
at that time had any knowledge of, or intercourse with, have at 
various times solicited settlements to be made in their respective 
lands in order that they might be benefited in the articles of 
clothing provisions, as the game spoken of affords even in the 
most retired and secluded places, but a very precarious depen- 
dence for subsistence. The only dissatisfaction that I have ever 
been able to learn as existing among them, was in consequence 
of no such settlements being made as they desired although they 
have been told that they will be accommodated in this thing as 
soon as circumstances will permit. Many upon whose lands set- 
tlements have been made have gone to work and bid fair to be- 
come quite useful in their new avocation. There seems to be a 
mistaken idea in relation to the Shoshone Indians committing 
depredations, murders, &c upon emigrants. It has been and is 
the universal practice of emigrants upon reaching the country of 
these Indians, to relax their vigilance and usually dispense with 
their guard. This feeling of safety and sense of security is induced 
from the known friendly disposition of the Shoshonees in whose 
country the weary traveler can repose in safety, and the emigrant 
pass with impunity. As long as my acquaintance with them has 
existed, this is the first time that I have heard of such charges 
coming against them. The Uinta Utes and also all others in this 
Territory live south of all the travel to Oregon, California, or this 
place, and being at enmity with the Cheyennes and Shoshonees 

50. Then called East Weber, now Uintah, at the mouth of Weber 


never extend their travels as far north as the line of travel, conse- 
quently could not, were they so disposed, trouble the emigrants; 
unless they should take the southern route from this place, which 
in the emigrating season is seldom done. Of these facts and 
especially the peaceable disposition of the Shoshonees the travel- 
ing public should be advised, that their minds might be disabused 
of prejudice against them; not so much to relax their vigilance, 
as to refrain from the wanton and murderous practice of shooting 
them, whenever they show their heads; a practice too often in- 
dulged in, by those travelers, who apparently bereft of every 
sensibility of feeling, consider and treat all Indians as enemies. 

Whether the settlements are or have been detrimental to the 
''country" the "Indians" or the traveler, let those answer who are 
acquainted, a few items like the following. Have they received 
any benefit by finding in the valleys of the mountains, a resting 
place where they could recruit themselves and animals in peace 
and safety while on their toilsome march across the plains and 
mountains? — Is it any benefit to have a civilized society and an 
abundance of supplies of every kind of provision and grain fur- 
nished midway of the journey where its absence leaves nothing 
but a dreary waste and arid desert, involving starvation or inev- 
itable destruction to the belated traveler in the interminable snows 
of the mountains? Would not Captain (Indian) Walker otherwise 
most likely extend his exploits, in seriously annoying the traveling 
public? Are not the Indians better fed, better clothed, and more 
peaceably disposed towards the whites than before their settle- 
ment among them? An affirmative reply must be made to all 
these queries, by any person who is at all acquainted with the 
circumstances, and disposed to speak the truth. 

In relation to the "Freemen" of Green River I will only say 
that usually emigrants upon arrival at that point very frequently 
find their stock so much reduced by hardships that they are often 
very glad of an opportunity of exchanging for fresh animals at 
almost any rate that may be asked, thus furnishing an opportunity 
to those who have stock, an abundant source of profit without 
stealing themselves, or inducing the Indians to steal for them. 
Having long followed this practice of trading with the emigrants 
many of them are very well supplied with good stock which 
readily recruits when turned upon the rich pasturage of that 
region. 51 

51. As Brigham Young was later to have trouble enough with the 
mountain men living in the Green River Valley, and for three years had 
regarded doubtfully the influence exerted by Jim Bridger against the 
Mormons, these remarks are interestingly dispassionate. 


It is not safe to trust too far the savage Indians notwithstanding 
all their professions of friendship. Hence the impropriety of 
extending settlements faster than can be maintained; for our ex- 
perience proves to us that although the whites, at their most ear- 
nest solicitation, may locate upon their lands with every assurance 
of safety and protection for themselves and property, yet when 
coming into daily contact with them, and stock begins to fill the 
range, their indolent and predatory habits lead them to incur the 
risk of satisfying their wants. They also sometimes become saucy 
and offensive to females who are left without sufficient protection, 
but in most cases if their wants for food, and clothing are supplied, 
but little difficulty occurs. We have had some serious difficulties 
at various times with them, but it has been caused usually through 
these sources, as the people have been unable to furnish them 
with all they wanted; their involuntary contributions become too 
burdensome and when withheld exasperation ensued. But chas- 
tisement when so richly deserved has had a most salutary effect, 
and in all instances with the exception of some Cumembahs; the 
hostile belligerents have come to terms and subsequently lived in 
peace with seemingly a better understanding than before. 

These Cumembahs inhabiting principally the central part of 
this Territory extending north and south and westerly from the 
settlements and bordering upon the Desert as related in my former 
report of Sept 13/51 have as yet never come under the influence 
of a settlement of whites; but in Tooele and other places made 
such inroads upon the settlements, which altho 1 in their vicinity 
were yet upon other Indian's lands, as to compel the citizens in 
order to ensure their own safety to repel them and seek to break 
up their haunts by force. These are the Indians that so infest 
Mary's river. It was supposed that some Panaks and Shoshonees 
attracted thither by their success in plunder had joined them; but 
a small representation from those tribes inhabiting in the vicinity 
of Fort Hall with whom I conversed a few davs since, strenuously 
deny that either of their tribes or any part of them have ever gone 
there, and they seemed totally ignorant of the fact if any such 
existed; although they admitted that they had heard rumours of 
emigrants being robbed and killed upon that river. 

Availing myself of the protection afforded in the emigration to 
California I intended to send out an expedition to treat with the 
Indians on Marv's river this season, and had prepared instructions 
accordingly to Maior Holeman. At this time the copy of his re- 
port herein alluded to having arrived, I improved an earlv oooor- 
tunitv of calling upon him, hoping that his longer residence in the 
Territory and more extended acquaintance had served to correct 
the views which he had so erroneously entertained and exoressed. 
I sincerely regret to sav that he still adhered so strenuously to 
them as to induce the belief that he was at least indifferent to the 


interests of the community, by so manifestly endeavoring to preju- 
dice the mind of the Government against them. He however 
promised to look over the matter and if he saw anything to retract 
that he would take great pleasure in doing so. But as he has 
failed to do it, I declined giving him any instructions as was de- 
signed. And he during my absence with an escort of twenty five 
or thirty men employed at the expence of the Government, as 
I understand, has gone, intending to visit Carson Valley before his 
return. It is to be hoped that the enterprise will prove beneficial. 
I shall now await the result of his enterprise before acting in the 

It cannot be expected much will be done towards establishing 
farms and other improvements for the Indians unless some appro- 
priations are made for that purpose. 

Having just returned from my tour to the southern portion of 
the Territory, and not having time previous to the departure of 
this mail to make all the statements required in your letter, must 
crave the indulgence of another mail, when the required informa- 
tion will accompany the quarterly report ending 30 of June. If 
it is usual to furnish superintendencies with blanks they would be 
very gratefully received. . . . 


(Brigham Young, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to Luke Lea, 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt Lake 
City, Sept. 29, 1852)"' 2 

Sir, Herewith is transmitted my report ending this 3 quarter 
of the present year, together with Major Holeman and Rose re- 
ports. I will briefly remark, that all is peace among the native 
tribes in this Superintendency, even on Mary's river. We learn of 
no depredations of importance; this however is the usual result 
during the heavy emigration; whether they will again commence 
when that has passed, and small companies again tempt their 
rapacity time will develope. It is to be hoped that all parties 
traveling in that direction will give them no opportunity. 

On the 6th day of August Ultimo, there arrived in this city 
six of the Shoshones as messengers from that tribe to make in- 
quiry in relation to trade, and ascertain if possibly peace might 

52. U/ 17- 1852. The substance of this communication has been printed 
by Dr. Hebard, though she is mistaken in referring to the document as 
Brigham Young's "annual report." 


be made with Wa-chor and the Utahs. This being a desirable 
object to accomplish, I made the messenger some presents, and 
informed them that 1 would send for the Utahs to meet them, 
if they would come and endeavor to accomplish the object which 
they seemed so ardently to desire. Accordingly on the 3rd day 
of September after many fruitless efforts on our part to procure 
the Utahs, who appeared very wary, and inclined to try the pa- 
tience of the Shoshones to the uttermost, they were brought to- 
gether, the Shoshones having been in waiting some two or three 
weeks. There were present on the part of the Utahs, Wachor, 
Sowiette, Antaro, Anker-howhitch (Arrow pine being sick) 34 
lodges. On the part of the Shoshones, Wah-sho kig, To ter mitch, 
Watche namp, Ter ret e ma, Persh e go and 26 lodges. The lodges 
were left a short distance from the city, the braves amounting to 
about fifty in number on each side attending the treaty. Major 
Holeman having arrived from Carson valley just previous, by my 
invitation was also present, Interpreters D. B. Huntington, and 
Elijah Warde. The main difficulty seemed to be accomplished in 
getting them together upon a friendly footing I led off by asking 
Wa chor and Wash a kick if they wished to make peace and be 
friends with each other. They replied they did Will you make 
good peace that will last? Answered yes. I then said to Wachor 
tell all of your tribe this, and ask them, if they will do the same, 
and if so, let every one arise and hold up their right hands It was 
done unanimously, and the same explanation being made to the 
Shoshones by their chief, they also responded unanimously in the 
same manner. I then told them they must never fight each other 
again, but must live in peace, so that they could travel in each 
other's country and trade with each other. 1 then asked the Utes 
if we had been friends to them and if they loved us. As soon as 
the question was explained to their understanding, they answered 
in the affirmative by acclamation, with evident signs of joy and 
good feeling. The pipe of peace being first offered to the great 
Spirit, was often replenished, and sent around by the Shoshones' 
chiefs until every one had smoked in token of lasting friendship. 
The Utahs were then asked, if they had any objection to our set- 
tling upon their lands, and if they had not, to raise their right 
hands, which they did unanimously. Sow er ette being the Chief 
of the Uinta Utes and two of his sons being present, was also 
asked the same question, Replied that it was good for them to 
have us settle upon their lands, and he wanted a house close beside 
ours. I then asked the Shoshones how they would like to have 
us settle upon their land at Green river; they replied that the land 
at Green river did not belong to them, but that they lived and in- 
habited in the vicinity of the Wind river chain of mountains, and 


the Sweetwater (or Sugar Water as they called it) " but that if we 
would make a settlement on Green river, they would be glad to 
come and trade with us/' I expressed unto them my good feelings 
for their kindness, in always being friendly to the whites, and for 
the safety in which all of the emigrants had ever been able to pass 
through their country, and hoped they would always continue the 
same. If any of the whites should steal anything from them, it 
should be returned if I could find it and if any of their tribe should 
steal anything from the whites, they must do the same. The Sho- 
shones were expecting that Wa chor and the Utes would give 
them some horses according to their usual custom for a certain 
number of Shoshones which they had killed in their last conflict 
which occurred something over a year ago. Ten seemed to be 
about the number which had been killed, and the same number of 
horses were required. But finally agreed upon nine head. Walker 
now led off in quite a lengthy speech in which he said that he had 
done wrong and was sorry for it, His friends had been killed on 
the Shoshones land, and he had supposed that they had done it, 
but now he was satisfied that it was not them, that Brigham told 
him not to go, but he would not hear him, he had been sorry ever 
since, and so forth; had no horses now, but was going to trade 
with the Moquis next winter and would bring the horses to Green 
river when he should return. I will hear now what Brigham says 
to me, me good, placing his hand on his breast, have been a fool, 
but will do better in future. To ter mitch Shoshone chief then 
said a few words; his ears were open wide to hear, it was good, 
and he felt well, his heart was good. I then directed that the 
Chiefs should have some clothes and ammunition given them, 
and some beef cattle, and flour having been procured for the 
purpose, was distributed among them, when they left in apparently 
high spirits and good and friendly feelings towards each other as 
well as the whites." 

I have been thus explicit in giving the particulars of this inter- 
view, as it is the first that has occurred of a like nature since the 
settlements were founded; and it is hoped will result in long con- 
tinued amity between the tribes. The Indians are universally fed 

53. It has always been supposed that the name of the Sweetwater was 
bestowed by the trappers who frequented its waters from 1824; the French 
name, Eau Sucree instead of Eau Douce, has given some validation to the 
story that a mule with a load of sugar once fell in the stream. Under the 
circumstances it is very curious that the Shoshoni themselves should be 
represented as using the name, "Sugar Water." 

54. Although it was some time in materializing, this is the genesis of 
the Fort Supply settlement near Fort Bridger. 

55. For additional details about the summer's council with the Indians 
see the Deseret News, August 2, 21, 30, 1852. 


and partially clothed throughout the Territory where settlements 
have been made, according to the ability of the people, and very 
many children are taken into families and have all the usual 
facilities for education afforded other children 

The following estimates are made out from past observation 
and experience, as well as a knowledge of the actual wants and 
necessities of the Superintendency. 

Goods for presents, such as blankets, shirts, hats caps 

shoes pants & c 5000 — 

Ammunition and guns 1500 

Provisions and tobacco 5500 

Total for presents 12000 — 


For Major Holeman's Agency current expenses as per 

bills of last year 5000 

Major Rose Do Do Do 3500 

-Two [Stricken out: Interpreters pay 1000] 

Total Agencies 9500 


Superintendent's Defraying expenses of farming 

operations 2700 

Messengers on various business 600 

Expenses of office, clerk hire, and other general contingencies 
[Stricken out: * including Interpreter $500 2500] 

Cleave out) 

c 5,800 

It will be observed that the above estimates do not contemplate 
holding of treaties or establishing schools, blacksmiths, mills &c at 
agencies, as usual in other Territories, and would be desirable in 
this. The estimates for such purposes were made in my report of 
estimates to Elisha Whittlesey Esq: December 31st, 1851, and 
have probably been received 'ere this. . . . 

My Pal- 57 Mews 

Harry Robb 

I'm going to miss him; I know I shall, 
For his letters have been like stories that sell. 
I have only met him from year to year, 
But his friendship to me has been most dear. 

It brings fond memories of days way back, 

When we drank bad water from the same cow track. 

When our stirrups have rubbed and clicked together, 

As we rode the ranges in all sorts of weather, 

When we sat our horses on the same side hill, 

Watching a beef-herd take their fill. 

To know he's gone is going to hurt, 

For he was kind of man that would give his shirt. 

When the night was bad and the work most hard, 
Without even asking, he would stand my guard. 
I'm going to miss him, now he's gone beyond, 
But I know his horse will swim the pond. 
And we will meet again in the buffalo grass, 
Ere many more years will come and pass. 
I know he'll be waiting for he was a pal of worth, 
And we will lope on together as we did on earth. 

to Bump from Harry. 8-13-1952. 

This was written in memory of Wm. "Bump" Miskimins, 
by his pal and cowpunching friend Harry Robb. "Bump" 
grew up at LaGrange and after retiring from his job with 
The Swan Land & Cattle Company he returned to LaGrange 
and went into the ranch and cattle business which he con- 
tinued until his death on August 1, 1952. 

State Mis tor leal Society 



Frank L. Bowron 

Response to our recent organization of the Wyoming State His- 
torical Society has been overwhelming. Attendance at the initial 
meeting in Casper was far beyond our original expectations and 
the speed with which county chapters are springing up throughout 
the state underscores the need for an organization of this type. 

In view of this amazing response, it is certainly fitting to pay 
tribute to the person who is responsible for the founding of our 
group, Miss Lola Homsher, who is doing such a wonderful job 
as state archivist and historian. Miss Homsher's travels around 
the state, stirring up interest and laying the foundation for the 
Society, were an immeasurable contribution to her chosen field 
of work. I hope that the members of our Society, as well as 
other persons interested in Wyoming history, will let Miss Hom- 
sher know of their gratitude for her excellent efforts. There are 
undoubtedly others who have made contributions toward the be- 
ginnings of this group but the lion's share of the work fell on her 

It is my hope to devote this space to a discussion of problems 
which face our Society during the year and the reader's suggestions 
as to material for this space will be appreciated. 

It seems to me that our primary objective during the first year 
of the Society's existence must be that of organizing and chartering 
county groups throughout the State. Until we have a statewide 
membership, our efforts will lack the necessary support to follow 
through on the Society aims. If your county does not presently 
have a chapter of the Society, I would like to suggest that you 
contact Miss Homsher and ask for organizing materials. 

Virtually every county in the state faces some major problem 
in the preservation of historical sites and the storing of valuable 
papers. It is this problem upon which we can build our local 
chapters. In working to build your county organization, I suggest 
that you discuss local problems first and sell the Historical Society 
as one means of meeting a specific local problem. 


I would like to urge local Historical Society chapters to take 
advantage of special event slogan postal cancellations which can 
be authorized by U. S. Postal authorities. By this means, every 
letter which leaves your post office can bear a slogan advertising 
some historical event. Some slogans recently authorized by the 
Post Office Department include "Ohio University/ 1 804-1 954/Ses- 
quicentennial", the 100th anniversary of Omaha, Nebraska, the 
75th anniversary of Ocean City, New Jersey, the 50th anniversary 
of the Borough of West Caldwell, New Jersey, all of which slogans 
will be used during the first six months of 1954. The 1850's 
marked the early beginnings of a number of historical events in 
the territory which later became Wyoming, and this is one eco- 
nomical means for these milestones to be recognized. You might 
check with your local postmaster about these cancellations or 
write to the U. S. Post Office Department in Washington. 

$z ;{: ;£ $: ;js 

U. S. Senator Lester C. Hunt recently put forward a suggestion 
that the women's groups of Wyoming, assisted by other groups 
interested in Wyoming history, sponsor a campaign to place a 
statue of of Esther Morris of South Pass City in Statuary Hall of 
the National Capitol. On December 8 twenty persons represent- 
ing Albany, Natrona, Campbell, Fremont and Sweetwater counties 
met in the city council chambers at Casper to discuss the various 
aspects of such a campaign. 

Senator Hunt traced the history of Statuary Hall, outlined the 
procedure to place a statue there, and called attention to the fact 
that only six states have not taken advantage of the 1864 law 
which permits a state, at its own expense, to place not more than 
two statues in the hall. The group attending the meeting tended 
to favor a woman who would be connected with the attainment 
of woman suffrage to represent Wyoming. Only one woman, 
Frances E. Willard, is now represented in Statuary Hall. 

The cost of such a project would be between $25,000 and 
$30,000, and it was agreed at the meeting that the support of the 
newly organized Wyoming State Historical Society would be 

I know that there are some members of the Society who feel 
that every penny available for historical purposes should be spent 
within the borders of the state for badly-needed preservation and 
restoration work, and certainly it would be difficult to disagree 
with this view. I feel that the primary purposes of our Society 
are aimed at work within the State and while we can and should 
cooperate with these efforts, we must devote ourselves to the very 
important tasks that face us in Wyoming. 

On the other hand, there is a great deal of merit in the project 
put forward by our senior Senator and I would urge every member 
of the Society to consider his proposal with these points in mind. 


First, the national publicity attendant upon the placing of this 
statue in the Hall would certainly benefit our society. As you 
know, there are several powerful and wealthy national groups 
dedicated to women's rights and it seems possible that these na- 
tional women's groups would assist in financing the cost of the 
statue. The campaign to raise funds for the statue would certainly 
spotlight the colorful history of Mrs. Morris, the woman respon- 
sible for the first successful legislation giving women the right to 
vote and the first woman Justice of the Peace in the nation, should 
she be selected. More directly, it could benefit South Pass City, 
which certainly could be classified the "Cradle of Women's 
Rights", as a result of Mrs. Morris' efforts. 

Forty-two of our forty-eight states have now honored at least 
one of their outstanding citizens with the placing of such statues 
in the Hall. Several million persons visit this national shrine 
each year and I can assure you that nearly every one of them 
views each of these statues. The placing of a statue of a noted 
woman in Statuary Hall would give our State the recognition it 
deserves for the part our pioneers played in bringing equal rights 
to women. 

In January, Miss Velma Linford of Laramie, who was elected 
chairman of the Casper meeting and was authorized to appoint an 
executive committee to initiate and keep action going on the cam- 
paign, will meet in Cheyenne with the members of the Executive 
Committee of the Historical Society at the first meeting of that 
board to discuss this matter. I would appreciate very much 
learning the views of any of the readers of this column on Senator 
Hunt's suggestion. 

Whether the Society joins the sponsors of this project or not. 
Senator Hunt should have our commendation for his laudable 
efforts to recognize one of the outstanding figures in Wyoming 

Another storehouse for preserving and displaying Wyoming's 
historical material will be available when the new Casper Junior 
College building is completed. Dean Maurice Griffith of the 
College indicates that a part of the school's library is being set 
aside for historical display purposes and that the safe storage of 
documents of historical value is being taken into consideration in 
planning the new building. The college building, authorized last 
fall by Natrona County voters, will cost about $750,000.00. 

Wyoming Zephyrs 

The Editor 

Wyoming State Historical Society 

The organization of a Wyoming State Historical Society has 
been a subject of interest to many citizens of Wyoming for a 
number of years, and many expressions of this interest have been 
received by the State Archives and Historical Department. Since 
the State Library, Archives and Historical Board is charged with 
the duty of stimulating and developing an interest in the history of 
the State and with preserving the history of Wyoming, the subject 
of such a Society has been of concern to the members of that 

During 1953 the Board discussed the best means of initiating 
the organization of a Wyoming State Historical Society. As a 
result of these deliberations, the Director of the State Archives 
and Historical Department was authorized to call a meeting of all 
interested persons at Casper, Wyoming, on a date most convenient 
for the greatest number of people, for the purpose of organizing 
such a society. 

Newspaper releases were sent to all state newspapers giving 
publicity to the proposed meeting at Casper and inviting all per- 
sons interested to be present at the first meeting. Through corre- 
spondence with persons who indicated an interest in the Society 
the date of Sunday, October 18, was chosen. 

At 1:15 p.m. on October 18 at the Woman's Club House in 
Casper, Wyoming, the organizational meeting of the Wyoming 
State Historical Society was called to order by Mr. Fred Marble 
of Cheyenne, Chairman of the State Library, Archives and His- 
torical Board. More than seventy-five persons representing all 
areas of Wyoming were present at the meeting. Excellent cooper- 
ation was received from the people of Natrona County. The 
Natrona County Pioneer Association made arrangements for the 
meeting place, the Casper Chamber of Commerce furnished regis- 
tration facilities and gave to each registrant a name badge on 
which was printed the name of the proposed Wyoming State 
Historical Society, and the local newspapers gave coverage to the 

Mr. Marble opened the meeting with a short address of wel- 
come. He then introduced Mr. F. H. Sinclair of Sheridan who 
spoke briefly on the needs and purposes of a state historical 


Mr. Marble was elected chairman of the meeting by a unan- 
imous vote, and Mrs. James Taylor, Jr., of Casper was elected 
secretary of the meeting. 

The meeting was devoted almost exclusively to the discussion 
and adoption of a constitution and by-laws for the new society. 
In order to provide the meeting with working material, a study of 
the constitution and by-laws of historical societies of surrounding 
states had been made prior to the meeting. From this study a 
suggested form for a constitution and by-laws for the Wyoming 
State Historical Society was prepared and each person present 
was provided with a mimeographed copy. A thorough study of 
the suggestions was made and spirited discussions took place 
during the four-hour meeting, with successful results. The con- 
stitution as it was adopted follows: 


Article I 
The name of this organization shall be the Wyoming State Histor- 
ical Society. 

Article II 

The purpose of this organization shall be: to collect and preserve 
all possible data and materials including historical relics, relating to 
the history of Wyoming and illustrative of the progress and develop- 
ment of the State; to promote the study and preservation of such data 
and materials and to encourage in every way possible interest in 
Wyoming history. 

Article III — Membership. 

Section 1 — The organization shall be composed of the State Society 
and of chapters in each county of the state, upon each of which chap- 
ters will be the responsibility of collecting and preserving the items, 
documents and records of its area. Each County Chapter shall have 
its own officers and constitution. 

Section 2 — Membership in the Society shall be open to all persons 
who will actively support the association and upon payment of dues 
as set forth in the by-laws of the Society; provided, however, that 
persons residing in a county in which is located a duly chartered 
county chapter of this Society shall affiliate only through membership 
in such county chapter. Persons residing outside the state or in a 
county in which no county chapter has been chartered shall affiliate 
directly with the State Society. 

Section 3 — County Chapters may be organized in the counties of 
the State of Wyoming, provided that affiliation shall not be accorded 
1o more than one such unit in any given county. 

Section 4 — Affiliation of County Chapters shall be by charter, to 
be granted by the Executive Committee of the Society upon appli- 
cation pursuant to rules and regulations set forth in the By-laws of 
the Society. 


Article IV — Officers. 

Section 1 — -The elected officers of the Society, who shall be elected 
by the Society at its annual meeting and who shall hold office for 
one year or until their successors are installed, shall consist of the 
following: (a) a President, (b) two Vice Presidents, (c) a Secre- 

Section 2 — The Executive Secretary shall be the same person as 
the Director of the State Archives and Historical Department. He 
shall conduct the correspondence of the Society; shall preserve the 
official communications of the Society; shall collect or cause to be 
collected moneys due the Society and pay the same to the secretary- 
treasurer; shall give notice of the meetings of the Society and of the 
Executive Committee; shall edit and distribute publications of the 
Society; shall keep in the State Archives and Historical Department 
as a part of the collection there all books, manuscripts and other 
collections contributed to or acquired by the State organization of 
the Society; shall make an annual report to the Society. 

Article V- — Executive Committee 
Section 1 — The Executive Committee shall be composed of the 
elected officers of the Society, the executive secretary and one dele- 
gate from each duly chartered county chapter of the Society. 

Section 2 — The Executive Committee shall direct and control the 
activities of the organization within the limits prescribed by this 
Constitution and the By-Laws. The Executive Committee shall meet 
at such times as may be fixed by said Committee, but at least twice 
each year. 

Article VI — Annual Meeting. 

Section 1 — The Society shall meet annually. 

Section 2 — Time and place for the annual meeting shall be set by 
the Executive Committee at least two months prior to the said meet- 
ing and written notice shall be given by the Executive Secretary to 
the President of each chartered County Chapter and to members 
residing in counties not chartered at least one month prior to said 
annual meeting. 

Section 3 — Every member of the Society shall be eligible to vote 
at the annual meeting and every question presented to the annual 
meeting, unless otherwise herein provided, shall be decided by a 
majority vote of the members present at such annual meeting. 

Article VII — Amendments to this Constitution 
This Constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote of the 
members present at any annual meeting. 


Article I 

There shall be three ( 3 ) classes of membership in the State So- 
ciety: Life Members, Annual Members, and Non-voting Honorary 

Article II — Dues 

Section 1 — Annual dues of annual members of the State Society 
shall be $3.50, payable in advance. A county chapter may set addi- 
tional dues in its own constitution for use of the local chapter. No 


annual member shall be allowed the privilege of a vote or a place 
on the Executive Committee of the Society while his state dues are 
in arrears. 

Section 2 — The fees for Life Membership shall be $50.00, and 
when once paid no further dues shall be imposed upon these 

Section 3 — The Executive Committee may recognize those who 
contribute to the advancement of the aims of the Society by the 
issuance of such non-voting honorary memberships as it deems 

Section 4 — All membership fees and annual dues shall be paid to 
the Executive Secretary who shall turn over such moneys to the 

Article III 

Section 1 — Any county in which Fifteen (15) or more legal resi- 
dents desire to form a county chapter of said Society may organize 
such chapter and apply for a state charter. Said county group shall 
make application for a charter to the State Executive Committee by 
forwarding to the Executive Secretary a copy of the constitution of 
said chapter, which constitution must not conflict with the provisions 
of the State Society constitution, a list of the charter members and 
officers of said county chapter, together with payment of state dues 
for any members who have not affiliated with the State Society for 
the current year and payment in the amount of Ten Dollars ($10.00) 
to cover the costs of preparing a charter for said chapter. 

Section 2 — Application for charter shall be the first order of bus- 
iness at any meeting of the State Executive Committee or at the 
annual meeting of the Society and Charters shall be granted by a 
majority vote of the members present at any such meeting. Upon 
a charter being granted, said chapter shall be entitled to immediate 
membership upon the State Executive Committee. 

Article IV 

Section 1 — The Annals of Wyoming, the historical publication 
issued by the State Archives and Historical Department, shall become 
the official publication of the Society. The Treasurer shall pay into 
the State Historical Fund that portion of the dues of each member 
required for the purchase of the periodical, one copy of each issue to 
be received by each member of the Society. 

Section 2 — Other publications by the Society may be determined 
by action of the Executive Committee from time to time. 

Article V 
Section 1 — A quorum of the annual meeting of the Society shall 
consist of 14 members. 

Article VI 
Section 1 — Order of Business. Roberts Rules of Order Revised 
shall govern the Society in all cases to which they are applicable, 
and in which they are not inconsistent with the by-laws or the special 
rules of order of this Society. 

Article VII 
Section 1 — These by-laws may be amended by 2/3 vote of those 
present at the annual meeting. 

Adopted October 18, 1953 
Casper. Wyoming 



Immediately following the adoption of the constitution and 
by-laws, the election of officers was held. Mr. Frank L. Bowron 
of Casper was elected president, Mr. F. H. Sinclair of Sheridan 
first vice president, Mr. W. L. Marion of Lander second vice 
president, and Miss Maurine Carley of Cheyenne secretary- 

Charter membership rolls will be held open to July 1, 1954. 

Life Members 

Berry, Miss Henryetta, Cheyenne 
Coe, W. R., New York City 
Condit. Mrs. Thelma S., Kaycee 

Homsher, Miss Lola M., Cheyenne 
Larson, Dr. T. A., Laramie 
Salisbury, Herbert J., Cheyenne 

Annual Members 

Allen. Miss Cody, Cody 
Allen, Mrs. Mary Jester, Cody 
Allyn, Frank H., Cheyenne 
Anderson. Elwood, Gillette 
Barclay, Rex L., Lance Creek 
Bardo, Gerald, Lusk 
Bentley, Mrs. Helen M., Casper 
Berlet, Walter H., Casper 
Bishop, L. C, Cheyenne 
Bishop, Marvin L., Casper 
Blakeslee, Claude L., Casper 
Blakeslee, Mrs. Claude L., Casper 
Bogensberger, M. L, Cheyenne 
Boice, Mrs. Fred D., Jr., Cheyenne 
Boice, Mrs. Margaret Mcintosh, 

Bon, Miss Lorraine, Cheyenne 
Bowen, Chester H., Gillette 
Bowron, Frank L., Casper 
Bragg, William F., Jr., Torrington 
Bremers, Ralph R., Omaha, 

Brice, Mrs. David W., Wheatland 
Brock, J. Elmer, Kaycee 
Brown, Mrs. Sholie Richards 

Monterey, Calif. 
Burns, Miss Dorothy M., Sheridan 
Burnside, Dr. Raymond A. 

Des Moines, Iowa 
Carley, Miss Maurine, Cheyenne 
Carter, E. B., Orr, Minnesota 
Carter, Miss Gladys, Laramie 
Champ, Mrs. Myrtle M., Gillette 
Chassell, Norvall W., Waterloo, 

Clausen, Miss Esther M., Laramie 
Clairmont, Mrs. Maude, Fort 


Collins, Dabney Otis, Denver, 

Cooper, Ralph, Kansas City, 

Corthell, Irving, Laramie 
Dahlquist, John E., Fort Bridger 
Dahlquist, Mrs. Laura, Fort Bridger 
Daley, Mr. & Mrs. P. E., Rawlins 
David, Robert B., Casper 
Day, Hugh S., Riverton 
Day, R. C., Rock Springs 
Deering, Mrs. Jean Miller, Boone, 

DeVore, Harold, Laramie 
Dickey, Hubert F., Gillette 
Dickinson, Norman R., Riverton 
Diver, Mrs. Jessie S., Long Beach, 

Dobler, Miss Lavinia G., New 

York City 
Dodge, Mrs. Beulah I., Rock River 
Dodge, George W., Rock River 
Eberstadt, Edward & Sons, New 

York City 
Ehernberger, Jim, Cheyenne 
Elmore, Mike, Gillette 
Farlow, Jules E., Lander 
Faville, Mrs. A. D., Laramie 
Foster, Biford, Lander 
Froyd, Erwin A., Torrington 
Fuller, E. O., Laramie 
Fullerton, Mrs. Ellen Miller, Los 

Angeles, Calif. 
Gaber, Mary A., Casper 
Gage, Jack R., Sheridan 
Gantt, Paul H., Washington, D. C. 
Garton, Mrs. Maude, Casper 
Gehman, Lester, Denver, Colorado 



Geier, D. O., Banner 
Gettys, Claude L., Story 
Gillespie, A. S., Laramie 
Gillies, Miss Catherine, Thermopolis 
Gillies, Miss May, Cheyenne 
Gordon, Alex, Rawlins 
Gose, Mrs. Etta M., Upton 
Graf, Mrs. Louise Spinner. Green 

Griffith, James B., Sr., Lusk 
Griffith, Mrs. Vernon S., Sheridan 
Hardy, Marrabel, Gillette 
Harris, Burton, Hackensack, N. J. 
Harrower, James K., Pinedale 
Hart, Mrs. Shelia, Lander 
Haynes, Mr. & Mrs. Jack E., 

Bozeman, Montana 
Hays, Mrs. Alice C, Lander 
Henderson, Mrs. Paul C, 

Bridgeport, Neb. 
Hesse, Miss Vivienne, Buffalo 
Hewlett, Mrs. George Wilson, 

Hilman, Fred W., Big Horn 
Himebaugh, Mrs. Duke, Casper 
Hodgson, Mrs. Colin, Hanna 
Hook, James W., New Haven, 

Hoover, H. H., Kansas City, Mo. 
Hord, Mrs. Violet M., Casper 
Hull, Mrs. Irene David, 

Hunter, Allen, Gillette 
Hurd, Mrs. Emilie, Denver, Colo. 
Hurd, V., Green River 
Huston, Mrs. A. T., Gillette 
Hutton, Miss Eunice, Green River 
Hutton, William, Green River 
Ilsley, John P., Gillette 
Jack, Wm. "Scotty", Casper 
Jayne, Dr. Clarence D., Laramie 
Joelner, Mrs. Fred, Casper 
Johnson, Fred J., Medicine Bow 
Kafka, Mrs. Olive Garrett, Rock 

Keeline, H. W., Gillette 
Kennedy, Donald M., Sheridan 
Kent, Raymond D., Kelly 
Kintz, Ralph G., Gillette 
Latham, Wm. "Bill", Chugwater 
Latham, Mrs. Wm., Chugwater 
Lawrence, W. C, Moran 
Leermakers, J. A., Rochester, N. Y. 
Lindsley, Miss Alice Louise, 

Linford, Miss Velma, Laramie 
Littleton, Ernest, Gillette 
Logan, Edward O., Cheyenne 
Long, Dr. Margaret, Denver, Colo. 
Lott, Warren B., Buffalo 

McCormick. John S., Elk Mountain 
McFarling, Lloyd, Palmer Lake. 

McMahon, Thomas B., Jr.. Gillette 
Malone, Miss Rose Mary, Casper 
Manley, Mrs. Frank A., Spur, Texas 
Marble, Fred W., Cheyenne 
Marion, W. L., Lander 
Marquiss, R. B., Gillette 
Metz, P. W., Basin 
Mickelson, James F., Big Piney 
Mickelson, Mrs. Mae E., Big Piney 
Miller, Thomas O., Lusk 
Mitchell, Mrs. Minnie A., Cheyenne 
Mockler, Frank C, Dubois 
Mockler, Mrs. Frank C, Dubois 
Mokler, Miss Edness, Casper 
Moore, Charles C, Dubois 
Moore, James K., Jr., Lander 
Moudy, Mrs. Mable Cheney. 

Mumey, Dr. Nolie. Denver. Colorado 
Newell, Most Rev. Hubert M.. 

Nicholas. Tom, Casper 
Nisselius, Jack, Gillette 
O'Callaghan, J. G., Casper 
Ohnhaus, Mrs. Charles L, Cheyenne 
Orr, Dr. Harriet K., Berkeley, Calif. 
Paddock. A. A., Boulder, Colo. 
Parks, William P., Sr., Gillette 
Peryam, Mrs. Mable Large, 

Peters, Mrs. Leora, Wheatland 
Peterson, Robert A., Cheyenne 
Peyton, Mrs. Pauline E., Douglas 
Peyton, Miss Pauline M., Douglas 
Pool, Mrs. Guy E.. Torrington 
Pryde, George B., Rock Springs 
Rawlings, C. C, Ranchester 
Reed, Lloyd R., Lincoln, Neb. 
Ridings, Miss Reta, Laramie 
Riley. Mrs. Gladys F., Cheyenne 
Riter, Mrs. Franklin. Salt Lake Citv. 

Ritter, Alta, Gillette 
Ritter, Raymond R., Gillette 
Rosenstock, Fred, Denver, Colorado 
Schroer, Mrs. Blanche, Lander 
Scifers, Mrs. Barbara, Casper 
Sherard, Agatha, Gillette 
Sims, Albert G., Douglas 
Sinclair, F. H.. Sheridan 
Sinclair, Mrs. Jack, Gillette 
Smith, Joe A., Wood River, Illinois 
Smith, Miss Louise S., Cheyenne 
Snell. Miss Bernice, Lander 
Snoddy, Mrs. Joe, Gillette 
Spielman. Jesse E., Gillette 
Spielman, Mrs. Jesse, Gillette 


Spring. Mrs. Agnes Wright, Denver, Trenholm, Mrs. Virginia, Glendo 

Colo. Turnbull, Roy, Lusk 

Stan, Charles S., Casper Turk, B. E., Sussex 

Stimson, Dallas, Gillette Tyrrel, Mrs. W. S., Lusk 

Stoddard, Lee C., Manville van Hatten, C. J., Powell 

Stolt. Miss Edna B., Cheyenne. Wakeman, E. E., Newcastle 

Storm, Archie, Sheridan Wallis, Miss Martha, Laramie 

Stratton, F. D., Riverton Wallis, Mr. and Mrs. Oliver, 
Stratton. Fred D., Jr., South Pass Laramie 

City Watson, Judson P., Lusk 

Stratton, Mrs. Nelle N., Riverton Webb, J. Early, Kaycee 

Swan, Henry, Denver, Colo. Wentworth, Edward N., Chicago. 
Swartz, Mrs. Kate, Gillette 111. 

Taylor, Mrs. Bertha B., Wheatland High School (Willard 

Mountainview Fox, Supt.), Wheatland 

Taylor, Mrs. James W., Jr., Casper Wilkins, Mrs. Edness Kimball, 
Taylor, Livingston L., Columbus, Casper 

Ohio Williams, Wm. B., Banner 

Templin, Curtis. Chugwater Williamson, A. P., Lake Andes, 
Thorn, John C, Buffalo South Dakota 

Thorp, Russell, Cheyenne Williamson, C. D., Hanna 

Tonkin, T. C, Casper Wyoming Typewriter & Equipment 
Toppan, Fred W., Jackson Co., Cheyenne 

Travis. Maury M.. Casper Yoder. Dr. Franklin D., Cheyenne 

History News — 

So that members of the Wyoming State Historical Society can 
keep in closer touch with what is being accomplished in the his- 
torical field in Wyoming, a mimeographed sheet entitled History 
News was inaugurated in December 1953. This news letter will 
be issued six times a year, and it is hoped that it can become a 
monthly sheet in the near future. 

History News offers to local chapters a means by which they 
can exchange information on their activities and by such an ex- 
change obtain suggestions for program planning. News from 
headquarters at the State Archives and Historical Department 
will also appear. 

Local Chapters — 

To Fremont County goes the honor of organizing the first 
County Chapter of the Wyoming State Historical Society. The 
organization meeting was held on November 8 at the City Hall 
in Riverton. Officers elected were J. K. Moore, President, Nor- 
man Dickinson, Vice President, and Mrs. Schroer, Secretary- 

The Campbell County Historical Society was organized at a 
meeting held in Gillette on December 4. E. A. Littleton was 
elected temporary chairman and Mrs. Myrtle Champ temporary 
secretary-treasurer, to hold office until a meeting in January at 
which time a constitution will be adopted and permanent officers 


elected. Mrs. Alice Spielman, Mrs. Myrtle Champ and Mrs. Roy 
Hardy were appointed to a committee to draft the constitution 
and by-laws to be presented at that time. 

The Goshen County Historical Society was organized at a 
meeting on December 1 1 in Torrington. Approximately forty 
residents of Goshen County gathered at the Southeast Center in 
Torrington to hear a talk given by Dr. T. A. Larson, Head of the 
Department of History at the University of Wyoming. Following 
his talk steps were taken toward the organization of the local 
society under the guidance of an organizing board composed of 
Col. E. A. Froyd, Rev. Homer C. Crisman and William F. Bragg. 
A constitution was adopted and temporary officers were elected 
to serve until a meeting on January 4, at which time permanent 
officers will be elected. Temporary officers are Col. Froyd, 
acting president, Rev. Crissman, acting secretary, and Mr. Bragg, 
acting treasurer. 

Oral History — 

The collection of Wyoming's story by recording continues as 
an activity of the State Archives and Historical Department. 
Rumor has it that some local groups may shortly begin this 
method of collecting the stories of the old timers, also, which will 
be a fine thing for the future of our history in Wyoming. 

In the gathering of oral history it is well to give your informant 
time to think over some of the questions you wish to ask him. 
Give him an opportunity to organize his thoughts and if possible 
make sure of some hazy facts. Our memories play us tricks years 
after an event has occurred, and a planned interview is a valuable 

It is important that we record more than dry facts. History 
is made by people, and we want the local color, the life and the 
vitality of the times that such recordings can give us. 

A good start on recording the history of the Dubois country 
back to the 1880's was made in July when Mrs. Frank C. Mockler 
and your editor spent several days interviewing the old-timers 
of that area. Chief interviewer was Mrs. Mockler who has long 
been interested in the history of the area and can ably direct 
her interviews to gain a maximum amount of information. Inter- 
viewed were W. Noble Harrison, Mrs. Tom Moriarty, Mr. and 
Mrs. Martin Olson and Mr. and Mrs. Frank A. Welty. 

Records have also been made recently by A. S. Gillespie of 
Laramie, Jules Farlow of Lander, Bill Frazee of Inglewood, Cal- 
ifornia, Dr. Lillian Heath Nelson of Rawlins, Grant Harnden of 
Laramie, former Acting Governor Fenimore Chatterton of Ar- 
vada, Colorado, and Mr. Thomas Gordon of Cheyenne. 


We Miss Them — 

While it does not seem possible to mention the names of all of 
our old-timers who are slipping away over the Great Divide at 
all too frequent intervals, those persons who have been active in 
the historical field have been mentioned from time to time in this 

The death of A. J. "Stub" Farlow of Lander on July 24 was a 
shock to all those who knew or knew of him. The new monu- 
ment dedicated to the Pioneers of Fremont County especially 
honors "Stub" with the engraving of the famous Wyoming "Buck- 
ing Horse" shown at the top of the marker. 

Mrs. Lillian H. Baker, daughter of one of Buffalo's pioneer 
families, died on November 15. An accomplished organist, Mrs. 
Baker, as a girl of 15, played for the funeral of Nate Champion 
and Nick Ray in 1892. Her hobby in recent years was the writ- 
ing and recording of the early history of Johnson County. 

Charles Washakie, 80, the last surviving son of Chief Washakie, 
legendary chieftain of the Shoshone tribe of the Wind River Res- 
ervation, was killed on September 8 in an automobile accident at 
Pocatello, Idaho. With him has disappeared another important 
link with Wyoming's early history. 

Mrs. T. S. Taliaferro of Rock Springs died at the age of 81 
on October 13. She had made her home the center of historical 
interest through the many historical furnishings which had been 
in her and her husband's families for generations. In 1936 she 
was appointed a member of the Mount Vernon Ladies Association 
of the Union, an organization which is responsible for and owns 
George Washington's national shrine at Mount Vernon. She has 
been one of the few women west of the Mississippi River to re- 
ceive the honor of this appointment. 

From Our Newspaper Files — 

The largest collection of early and current Wyoming newspapers 
to be found in Wyoming are located in the Wyoming State Ar- 
chives and Historical Department. More than 4600 volumes, the 
earliest of which date back to 1867, are easily accessible to the 
many researchers who visit the department to use the newspapers 
as well as other historical research facilities. 

From the Laramie Daily Independent, December 26, 1871: 

Our stock men have been recently removing their stock to more 
favorable localities in the neighborhood. A few miles distance in 
the mountain country will exhibit remarkable differences in the fall 
of snow and grazing advantages. N. K. Boswell & Co. have removed 
their sheep to Virginia Dale, where they think they will stand the 
winter. They have one hundred tons of hay there to help out with. 
Mr. Winslow has removed his flocks to some point on Little Laramie. 
we understand, and says there is very little snow in that region, and 



if the winter does not grow worse they will probably winter through. 
Other parties are now making changes. Dr. Latham informed us 
yesterday that he would not remove his cattle, but would merely put 
them on snow-shoes. 

Northwestern Live Stock Journal, April 10, 1885. 

Messrs. Boyce & Felloon, of Twin mountains, sold to Joe LaRose, 
a Cheyenne butcher, on Tuesday, eleven head of range steers which 
averaged 1,100 pounds getting therefor 4Vi cents. 

Carbon County News, January 12, 1878. 

Every indication goes to show that oil has been discovered in 
Wyoming near the Cheyenne river, on the Black Hills road. Steps 
are being taken for the development of the enterprise, and we hope 
ere long to see our evenings brightened with burning fluid from these 

The Wyoming Weekly Leader, Cheyenne, March 13, 1869. 

News from Red Cloud — This Sioux, who exercises authority over 
all the Northern Sioux, has informed the Agent that a large portion 
of his followers are destitute, and that they must be supplied, else he 
would be compelled to resort to unlawful measures. Accordingly 
the Agent, Mr. N. G. Taylor, has allowed Julies Ecoffey, Adoiph 
Cunney and John Ricthart to take stock of woolens, etc., to Red 
Cloud's present camping grounds, about sixty-five miles northwest of 
Laramie. The stock is estimated at $25,000. Red Cloud claims to 
have about fifteen hundred lodges with him. The traders left yes- 
terday morning. 

Manuscripts Welcome 

Have you a good manuscript on some phase of Wyoming's 
history which might offer a contribution to the published history 
of Wyoming? All articles published in the Annals are copy- 
righted for the author's protection. Its circulation now reaches all 
parts of Wyoming, to thirty-seven other states and Washington, 
D. C.j and to three foreign countries. 

Recent Acquisitions 


Bernstein, Mrs. Martin, 

Brown, Thomas M.. 

Capitol Building Commission 

Chatterton, Fenimore, 
Arvada, Colorado 

Cheyenne, City of 

Connor, Rock H. 
Chicago. III. 

Two demijohns, two quart and gallon 
sizes; miniature picture frame. 

Pencil pointer, Guhl & Harbeck, Ger- 

Large steel safe used by the Secretary 
of Wyoming Territory. 

Beaded anklets made by Julia Lone 
Bear, Araphao 

1902 Model mimeograph machine. 

Eight "Clearing House Certificates" used 
in 1907. 



Danks, Jimmie, 
Ardmore, S. Dak. 

Dildine, Fred R. 
Los Angeles, Calif. 

Gillespie, A. S. 

Gordon, Tom, 

Greenhouse, Jack 

Kunkel, Mrs. Millie Wenger, 

Mumey, Dr. Nolie, 
Denver. Colorado 

Nelson, Dr. Lillian Heath (Mrs. 
Lou), Rawlins 

Perales, Clarence P., Jr. 

Rawson, Mrs. Alice Barber 
Denver, Colorado 

Rice, Clarke P., 

Ridley, Charles E., 

Ross, Edward, 

McCarte made by Tom Horn, October 

Coffee mill, 2 kerosene lamps and 3 
lamp chimneys. 

Telegraph insulator, top of pole and 
iron band from first line across south- 
ern Wyoming, found by Donor on his 
ranch near Rock River; knots used by 
cowboys on the range with explana- 
tions of each; trailer hitch used on 
tongue of freight wagon. 

Platter purchased 1882 in Cheyenne: 
crocheted bedspread made by Mrs. 
John Gordon (Mother of Donor) in 
1883, Cheyenne; reed pad made by 
Navajo Indians, 1906. 

Memorial medal to John Davis. 

Doll sofa & velvet cape (1883), carpet 
bag (1865), dolls (1890), sewing and 
art book of Donor (1890), 2 needle 
point pieces by Anna Wenger Hoff- 
man, cigar case of Rudolph Wenger. 

Gavel made by Donor from timber from 
Commissary Building of old Ft. 

Mustache cup & saucer and cup and 
saucer purchased by her parents in 
Rawlins in 1882; glass tumbler and 
hand painted sauce dish purchased 
1820 in Wisconsin by Donor's grand- 

Fourteen Ft. D. A. Russell exchange 

Medical instruments of former Gov. 
Amos W. Barber, watch, wedding 
dress of Donor's mother, hat pins, 
hair brooch, carriage whip of Guy 
Kent, bonnets and dresses of 1890 
period, parasols and other items from 
the former T. A. Kent & Gov. Barber 

Mule shoe, chisel and bolt found on 
Custer Battlefield, 1885. 

40-90 sharps and ball & 

Two rifles: 

Two samples of carnotite (Uranium) 
ore from Dakota Sandstone near Car- 
lile, Wyoming. 


VanBenthuysen, Mrs. Estella M. Fan given Donor in 1887. 

Wyoming Typewriter & Equip- 
ment Co., Cheyenne 

1919 Underwood Standard Portable 
Typewriter, Monarch Typewriter, 
1911 Stenotype machine, 1909 Rotary 
Neostyle mimeograph machine. 


Beard. Mrs. Cyrus, 
San Gabriel, Calif. 

Bishop, Mrs. T. K., 

Bogensberger, M. J. 

Carlisle, Bill. 

Coe. W. R. 

New York City 

Cooper, Mrs. Clara Chassell, 
Berea, Ky. 

Coughlin, Louis D. 

Dunn, Mrs. Vallie 

Chatterton, Fenimore, 
Arvada, Colorado 

Gordon, Tom 

Governor's Office, 

Graf, Mrs. Geo. J. 
Green River 

Greenhouse, Jack 

Manuscript, "Panics or Depressions in 
the U. S."; Vol. 1 Nos. 2, 3, 4 Ft. 
Union; Facsimile Frontier Scout, Ft. 
Union, S. D., Dakota Territory, July 
14, 27, Aug. 17, 1764; correspondence 
dated 1917, 1918, 1919 to Mrs. Beard; 
Federal Judge Riner's remarks at fu- 
neral of Judge Cyrus Beard, 1921. 

Typescript copy of diary of Volney 
King; information on "Prayer Rock". 

Twelve cancelled stamped envelopes, 
postmarked in the 1880's. 

Photostat copy of Instrument of Sur- 
render by Japanese Sept. 2, 1945. 

Pictorial map of Pony Express Route. 

Letter regarding Inyan Kara Church. 

Stories from Laramie Daily Bulletin on 
Mr. Coughlin's retirement from For- 
est Service, Aug. 1953. 

Manuscript, "Musings of a Pioneer", 
account of Frederick C. Bath by his 
wife, Mrs. Vallie G. Bath. 

Brochures on Shoshoni Reservation 
lands; invitations, clippings, proclama- 
tions while Governor of Wyoming. 

Bible published 1882; certificate of Do- 
nor for examination as UPRR engi- 
neer, Aug. 21, 1903; family record of 

Posters and pamphlets on 150th Anni- 
versary of Louisiana Purchase. 

Manuscript, "Early History of Green 
River" by Louise Spinner Graf. 

Provisional Commission of Edmund 
Burgoyne by Maj. Gen. E. O. C. Ord 
(1865); first paper money, 1690, 
from Massachusetts Colony. 



Jones. Mrs. K. C. 
Ft. Laramie 

Manuscript, Radio program on history 
of Kaspiere Club and history of the 
name Kaspiere. 

Larson, T. A. 

Reprint, "Woman Suffrage in Territorial 
Wyoming" by T. A. Larson. 

Mumey, Dr. Nolie, 
Denver, Colorado 

Olds, Kirby H., 

Robinson, Harry 
Omaha, Nebr. 

Rymill, W. L., 
Boulder, Colo. 

Simmons, George O. 
Cedar Rapids, Iowa 

Utter. Vincent & Hattie 

Pictorial map, "Bird's Eye View of 
Gunnison, Colo." 

U.P.R.R. profiles, 1882: Medicine 
Bow — Rawlins, Rawlins — Bitter 

Wyoming Tie & Timber Co. cancelled 
checks 1927, 1928. 

Broadside "The Switzerland Trail" a 
brief account of Old No. 30 and the 
narrow gauge train in Central Park, 
Boulder, Colo. 

Clipping, Cedar Rapids Gazette, Oct. 6, 
1953, of story of Mr. Simmons' life. 

Plat, King Brothers land, Albany 


Bernstein, Mrs. Martin 

Brimmer, George, 

Chatterton, Fenimore 
Arvada, Colo. 

Colorado-Wyoming Automobile Direc- 
tory, 1916, and Hotel Listing. 

Ludington, Lt. Col. M. I., Uniforms of 
the U. S. Army, 1774 to 1889. 

Pamphlets: "Saratoga Mineral Springs", 
"Shoshoni Reservation". 

Coe, W. R. 

New York City 

Hanke, L. F., 
Chicago, 111. 

Camp, Charles L., The Plains and the 

Wolle, Muriel Sibell, The Bonanza Trail. 
Haley, J. Evetts, Life on the Texas 

Miller, Henry, Account of a Tour of the 

California Mission. 
Taft, Robert, Artists and Illustrators of 

the Old West. 
Jennewein, J. Leonard, Calamity Jane of 

the Western Trails. 
Mumey, Nolie, Westerners Brand Book, 

Sutter, Marshall & Bidwell, Pioneers of 

the Sacramento. 
Morgan, Dale L., Jedediah Smith. 

Overton, R. C, Milepost vjj — Burling- 
ton Lines 1849-1949. 



Haverly, Mr. & Mrs. Mark, 

Hills, Ratcliff M., 
Hartford, Conn. 

Hunt, Senator L. C, 
Washington, D. C. 

Manley, Woods Hocker, 
Spur, Texas 

Rawson, Mrs. Alice Barber, 
Denver, Colo. 

Riley, R. W., 

Robinson, Harry 
Omaha, Nebr. 

True, Laura B., 

The First Mortgage 

Sixth Annual Report of The Agricul- 
tural College of the University of 
Wyoming and of the Wyoming Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station, for the 
Year 1896. 

Official History of The U. S. by the 

Bartlett, Volume I-II, The History of 
The U. S. 

Laws of Wyoming 1890-91. 

Journals and Debates of The Constitu- 
tional Convention Wyoming 1889. 

Revised Statutes of Wyoming 1887. 

Pamphlet: "Old Glory". 

Pamphlet: "Our Capitol". 

Manley, Woods Hocker, The Doctor's 
Wyoming Children. 

Voorhees, Luke, Personal Recollections 
of Pioneer Life. 

Chevenne Citv Directory, 1950. 

Pamphlet: "Guide to the Custer Battle- 

Blackmore, R. D., Lorna Doone. 


Barrett, Senator Frank A., 
Washington, D. C. 

Bernstein, Mrs. Martin, 

Chatterton, Fenimore 
Arvada, Colo. 

Covert, Dean F. 

Gillespie, A. S. 

Graf, Mrs. Louise S., 
Green River 

Haverly, Mr. & Mrs. Mark 

Photograph of F. A. Barrett for Gover- 
nor's section of the Museum. 

Photographs (to be identified); souvenir 
of San Antonio, Texas. 

58 pictures mainly of the Riverton area. 
1907, Rawlins in 1890's and while Mr. 
Chatterton was Wyoming's Acting 
Governor, 1904. 

Launching of U. S. S. Monitor Wyo- 
ming, Sept. 8, 1900. (3 views) 

Ten pictures taken in 1900-1902 of Swan 
Land & Cattle Co. men showing such 
activities as eating, branding, swim- 
ming, roping; and cattle and horses. 

First jury with women as jurors in State 
of Wyoming. May 8. 1950. 

Early picture of Wheatland. 



Jordan, M. S 

Mantey, L. T 

Metz, Mrs. P. W., 

Owen, Earl, 

Pryde, George B., 
Rock Springs 

Rawson, Mrs. Alice Barber 
Denver, Colo. 

Rosenstock, Fred, 
Denver, Colo. 

Society of California Pioneers 
San Francisco, Calif. 

Fifteen pictures of livestock frozen in 
1949 blizzard in Lusk vicinity; 52 
views of 1949 storm. 

Eleven pictures taken by Donor: Pros- 
ser ranch, 1942, 1945; U.P.R.R. en- 
gines — steam electric, City Los An- 
geles, City Portland; Frontier Day 
Parade 1942; Laramie Peak; Lone 

Five pictures of Heart Mountain Girl 
Scouts during World War II; three 
pictures of scenes made of colored 
beans entered at the Basin festival. 

Twenty-seven pictures of Wyoming 
scenes by J. E. Stimson. 

Thirteen pictures of Union Pacific Coal 
Company personnel and Reunion ac- 
tivities, 1952. 

Photo album of early ranch scenes by 
Kirkland and of the Gov. Barber 

Eight stereoscopic pictures of early 
Hanna, Wyo. 

Ten W. H. Jackson photographs of 
Wyoming scenes, 1871 series. 


Wyoming Live Stock & 
Sanitary Board 

Dr. A. C. Hildreth, Sup't 
Cheyenne Horticultural Field 
Station, U.S.D.A. 

Circular No. 1, Cattle Scabies, issued by 
the office of the State Veterinarian, 
January 8, 1915. 

Records of the Wyoming Commission 
for the Celebration of the 200th Anni- 
versary of the Birth of George Wash- 
ington, 1931-1932. 

'Book Keviews 

Lost Pony Tracks. By Ross Santee. (New York: Charles 
Scribner's Sons, 1953. 303 pp., 26 illus. $3.95.) 

From the beginning to the last line the reader will find Ross 
Santee's new work chock full of meaty narrative which has the 
smack of authenticity throughout. Mr. Santee, who is no stranger 
to rangeland, recites his experiences in Arizona as a wrangler 
in the rough country where range work was done largely with 
pack horses. The northern reader who had range experience will 
notice some difference in the "lingo" and will miss references to 
the chuck wagon — which was the center of operations in our 
northern states in the open range days. 

The author knows his horses and his salty descriptions of many 
of the mounts with which he came into contact — and those he 
had an opportunity to observe — will bring back memories to the 
old range hand. The tale he tells of handling the cook's pack 
string to the shipping point is nothing short of hilarious. 

The cow hands with whom he worked were typical — and while 
they used expressions common to the southwest — they were still 
cowboys whose lines of thought do not vary, no matter where you 
find them. 

One thing which is particularly worthy of comment is the fact 
that Mr. Santee has caught the whimsical humor of the cattleman 
— the dry, crackling sort of wit which most writers of today, and 
who were not a part of the old range days, fail to recreate. Most 
of the modern authors of western stuff as well as motion picture 
script utterly fail to portray the waggish wit which was so much a 
part of the people of the range. Santee's book is full of it. 

His style is easy to read, and while old timers in range country 
will get many a chuckle out of it, it will prove to be entertaining to 
readers who are not at all familiar with cow country and cow 
folks — and from the book they will get a true picture of some of 
the hardships endured by cow hands and which were taken as just 
part of the job. The author's stories of range cooks alone make 
the book worth reading. Tt is nicely illustrated with the author's 
own pen and ink sketches. It has a definite place in the bibliog- 
raphy of authentic western volumes. 

Sheridan, Wyoming F. H. Sinclair 


Fighting Indian Warriorss True Tales of the Wild Frontiers. By 
E. A. Brininstool. (Harrisburg, Pa.: The Stackpole Com- 
pany, 1953. 353 pages, 46 illus., $5.00.) 

This is a revised and expanded edition of Mr. Brininstool's 
Fighting Red Cloud's Warriors, published in 1926 by the Hunter- 
Trader-Trapper Company of Columbus, Ohio. 

The new book covers wider ground than its title might imply. 
It includes chapters on Bent's Old Fort in Colorado, on Jim 
Bridger and California Joe, and even one on Calamity Jane — 
who, whatever she was, was not a fighting Indian warrior. All 
these, however, are so much velvet added to lively accounts of the 
Fetterman disaster, the Wagon Box fight, Forsyth's Beecher Island 
battle, the Dull Knife outbreak, the Ghost Dance trouble and the 
Modoc war, together with some lesser known but exciting clashes 
between red men and white. 

Many of the stories Mr. Brininstool retells took place in Wyo- 
ming. There was one Indian fight, however, in Wyoming history 
which he omits, and which was as exciting as some he includes. 
This was Capt. John R. Smith's three-day battle with Crazy Horse 
in 1868 at the Horseshoe ranch some thirty miles west of Fort 

Mr. Brininstool's literary style leaves something to be desired. 
He is overfond of such phrases as "it was deemed unwise," "it 
behooved the party to 'get a move on,' " and "bad luck was to 
follow." To attain emphasis, he relies too much on the exclama- 
tion point and too little on the precise noun and the strong verb. 
Many lovers of Western fact stories will not cavil at this, although 
historians may wish that, instead of saying, for instance, "it was 
decided," the author would tell who decided it. The book is also 
marred by some typographical and spelling errors. 

But in the main it is a collection of fast-moving and straight- 
away accounts of some of the Western tales that to many of us 
will never grow old. Mr. Brininstool has been an indefatigable 
writer along these lines for more than fifty years, and as such his 
contribution is a major one. 

University of Colorado Maurice Frink 

The Custer Myth. By Col. W. A. Graham. (Harrisburg, Pa.: 
The Stackpole Co. xxii + 413 pp. illus. $10.00) 

After three quarters of a century, can another book on a small 
military engagement which has been kicked around in publications 
without number, serve any useful purpose? Col. Graham and 
the publisher thought so. After careful study of The Custer Mvth 
this reviewer at least finds himself in accord. It should enjoy the 


biggest sale of any book published on this highly debatable his- 
torical incident. 

For the first time the drug-store strategist can in one volume 
find authentic documentation for his most cherished philosophy 
of what transpired on that historic day on the Little Big Horn. 
For the first time available source material is consolidated for 
the critical analysis of the expert so that he may try his hand at 
reconciling it into an accurate reproduction of the tragic event. 

There is ample new fuel for an old fire represented in heretofore 
unpublished pictures, maps, drawings, photostats and narratives 
of participants. The fine pictures of Gall, the only existing photo- 
graph of Crazy Horse, the fascinating pictographs of Chief Red 
Horse and the artist's colorful aerial panorama of the massacre 
highlight the illustrative feature of the book. 

The material in the publication is well arranged in four parts 
making it readily available for convenient reference. There are 
405 pages exclusive of Index bound into a book 8" x lO 1 /^". 

Col. Graham has contributed a fine publication for the legion 
of Custer fans and critics, in which they will find many hours of 
interesting and informative reading and study compiled into a 
substantial and colorful book to grace with distinction its place 
in your western history book shelf. 

Laramie, Wyoming Alfred M. Pence 

Firearms In The Custer Battle. By John E. Parsons and John S. 
DuMont. (Harrisburg, Penn.: Stackpole Company. 59 
pp., $2.75.) 

Without a doubt this newly published monograph is unique in 
the fact that it answers many controversial questions such as: 
Were the Indians who defeated Custer armed with Winchester 
rifles which outclassed the Cavalry weapons? What happened to 
the arms carried by the 7th Cavalry? 

From the front cover, a reproduction of Custer's Last Stand by 
T. B. Pitman, to the back, the text is strictly factual with no flights 
of fancy and a minimum of speculative comment. Numerous 
illustrations, including many reproductions from noted arms col- 
lections, assist in keeping the reader fully interested. The illustra- 
tions include pictures of General Custer during the early part of 
the Civil War, on a buffalo hunt in 1869, and on other occasions. 
Many personal arms of Custers are shown here for the first time. 

The story of the historic battle itself is better told elsewhere 
than in this paper which deals primarily with the arms employed. 
This is probably true because both authors are noted and ardent 
antique firearms collectors. John E. Parsons and John S. Du- 
Mont have combined their skills to fill the gap in Custer Battle 


literature. The student of Custer and the arms collector will find 
this publication a must as it gives the first full account of the 
weapons used. Incidentally the painting reproduced on the front 
cover was commissioned in 1952 by Mr. DuMont. 

Of the twelve companies of the 7th Cavalry, five, including a 
number of Indian scouts, packers, guides and civilians, were com- 
pletely annihilated. The firearms, including 405 Springfield .45 
caliber carbines and 396 Colt .45 revolvers, were carried off by 
the victors. Many of these captured weapons were later used 
against the soldiers. Contrary to a popular belief Spencer re- 
peating carbines were not carried by the troopers and Sharps car- 
bines in a very limited number only. 

During the course of battle the 7th Cavalry fired or lost 38,030 
rounds of carbine ammunition and 2,954 pistol cartridges, of 
which possibly 10,000 rounds were captured by the Indians. No 
doubt a large number were lost when the horses stampeded, carry- 
ing away the saddle bags. 

When considering the armament of the hostiles, a far greater 
variety of weapons is found, acquired through trade, capture, or 
the smuggling ventures of renegade white men. An ironic item 
is the fact that the weapons of the victims of the Fetterman Mas- 
sacre were taken by the Sioux and Cheyennes who in turn were 
Custer's attackers. The Indians used anything they could lay 
their hands on. From the reports of witnesses half of the war- 
riors carried bows and arrows and lances while half of the re- 
mainder carried muzzle loaders and single shot rifles of assorted 
manufacture and age. This left approximately 25 percent with 
modern repeaters such as Henrys and Winchesters. Even at this 
Custer's troops were facing superior fire power. 

A question was brought forth during the course of the book, 
whether it was intended or not is unknown. Custer left behind 
three Gatling guns (early type of machine gun) as they would 
impair the speed of his mounted force. Would these three wea- 
pons have saved his doomed 7th Cavalry? 

Francis E. Warren Air Force Base A/1C Richard Ferris 
Cheyenne, Wyoming 

Westward the Briton. By Robert G. Athearn. (New York.: 

Charles Scribner's Sons, 1953. xiv+208pp. illus. $4.50) 

Robert G. Athearn has made a valuable contribution to Western 
Americana in his new publication Westward the Briton. In one 
volume the West is pictured as seen through the eyes of intelligent 
and well-traveled Britons. This is a well-balanced account of the 
West as it was during the period 1865-1900, and it discourages 


the "wild west" myth which has grown up over the years. More 
than three hundred accounts from books, magazines, printed 
articles and manuscripts were used by the author in obtaining his 
evidence and conclusions. 

Dr. Athearn feels that it is significant and important to look at 
the Old West through the British eye because "these people were 
literate, intelligent, well-traveled, and above all, not favorably 
influenced by the local manifest destiny virus. The things they 
saw could be set against those they had seen in England, or on 
the nearby continent. They had a basis of comparison. Inter- 
esting, but perhaps not so important, is the fact that the average 
western American was busy, from sunup to sundown, building a 
little empire of his own. Seldom did he have time to record his 
thoughts, his observations, or any description of what he was 

The British traveler, on the whole, was surprised to find few 
traces of the "Wild West." He found, for the most part, good 
shops, good food, good hotels, and schools and churches. He was 
impressed by the courteous manners, the hospitality of the West- 
erners, the respect for the personal rights of others, and the intense 
feeling of social equality. 

The author has divided his summation of the observations of 
his writers into several topics: the Western myth, travel facilities, 
cities, home life, investment inducements, law and order, and 
Indians, the latter of which was one of the greatest of disappoint- 
ments to the travelers. 

Of the cities of Wyoming, Cheyenne was most prominently 
mentioned since "the visitors heard tall tales about Wyoming, 
particularly Cheyenne . . . They hastened northward, to that 
place which was labelled 'Hell on Wheels' — and again they were 

Again of Cheyenne the comment was made that "Hope still 
remained that Cheyenne would one day be a great city, but as one 
critic said, the period of waiting would undoubtedly be much 
longer than the optimistic westerner was prepared for." 

For any researcher or student of the Western scene during the 
1865-1900 period, certainly this book will be a must in order to 
gain a lucid, well-balanced understanding of the West as it really 
was as against the later the Hollywood version. 

Cheyenne, Wyoming Lola M. Homsher 


James William Hook was born in Wapello County, Iowa. 
January 9, 1884. He was graduated from Iowa State College in 
1905 from the school of engineering, following which he came to 
Cody, Wyoming, for a short period. Since that time he has had 
an outstanding career in the field in engineering in Iowa, New 
York and Connecticut. He is the co-author of The New Outlook 
in Business (1940), and author of "Industry's Obligation to the 
Unemployed" (1938), "James Hook and Virginia Eller", a 
geneaology (1925), and "Judge Karl Bechtel of Hanau, Ger- 
many 1 ' (1936). For a full biography of Mr. Hook see Who's 
Who in America. 

Nora Gattis Dunn was born in Missouri. She received her 
education in the schools of Campbell, Missouri, and married R. L. 
Dunn in 1912. In 1922 she came to Cheyenne where she has 
resided since. Mrs. Dunn is actively interested in history and 
historical writing. She wrote the article on Mr. Meanea while 
working with the Statewide Historical Project in 1937. 

Harriet Knight Orr, daughter of Judge Jesse Knight and 
Mary Hezlep Knight, was born July 3, 1877, at Evanston, Wyo- 
ming. A graduate of the University of Wyoming in 1898, she 
later received her M.A. and PhD. degrees at the University of 
California. She was a teacher in the Cheyenne public schools, 
principal of the Cheyenne High School 1908-09, a member of the 
Board of Trustees of the University of Wyoming from 1903-08, 
and a member of the faculty of the University of Wyoming from 
1920-1945, at which time she became Professor Emeritus of 
Education. She was married to Joseph T. Orr at Cheyenne on 
June 30, 1909. 

George B. McClellan was born at Simcoe, Ontario, Canada, 
on October 18, 1862, and came with his parents to Kansas in 
1868. He rode the old Chisholm Trail in the 1870's, worked as a 
cowpuncher for large cattle outfits in Wyoming, hunted large 
game for the markets, and acted as a guide for big hunting outfits 
in northwestern Wyoming. He went to the Big Horn Basin in 
1883 and settled in the Worland area, from which he later served 
as State Senator for several terms. He became known as "Bear" 


George McClellan as a result of his stories and record kills of 
bears in the Big Horn Mountains. He died at his ranch on 
October 18, 1934. 

Jules E. Farlow, Sr., was born on August 12, 1884, at Lan- 
der, Wyoming, the son of Edward J. and Elizabeth Lamoreaux 
Farlow. Mr. Farlow, whose parents were early pioneers of the 
Wind River Valley area, has spent his life in that vicinity where 
livestock and ranching have been his chief business interests. 

Dale L. Morgan. For a biography of Dr. Morgan see the 
Annals of Wyoming Vol. 21, Nos. 2-3, July-October 1949, pp. 
108-109. Dr. Morgan is currently engaged in historical research 
in Washington, D. C. His latest book, Jedediah Smith and the 
Opening of the West was published by the Bobbs-Merril Co. in 
the fall of 1953. 

Mwds tf Wyoming 

UME 26 

JULY 1954 


Official Publication 

of the 


Published Biannually 

ft* a e>&m<PT\ 


Fred W. Marble, Chairman Cheyenne 

Elwood Anderson Gillette 

Mrs. Geraldine Z. Brimmer Rawlins 

Thomas O. Cowgill Cody 

Mrs. Esther Mockler Dubois 

Mrs. Leora Peters Wheatland 

Mrs. Bertha Taylor Mountain View 

Mrs. Prentice Hall Moorcroft 

Attorney-General Howard Black, Ex-officio 


President, Frank L. Bowron Casper 

First Vice President, F. H. Sinclair Sheridan 

Second Vice President, W. L. Marion Lander 

Secretary-Treasurer, Miss Maurine Carley Cheyenne 

Executive Secretary, Miss Lola M. Homsher Cheyenne 

Wyoming State Historical Society life membership, $50.00; annual 
membership, $3.50. 



Lola M. Homsher Director 

Henryetta Berry Deputy 

Herbert J. Salisbury Assistant Archivist 

Jean C. Gaddy Secretary 

Lola M. Homsher Editor 

The Annals of Wyoming is published semi-annually, in January and 
July, and is the official publication of the Wyoming State Historical 
Society. It is received by all members of that Society as a part of their 
dues. Individual copies of the current issues of the Annals of Wyoming 
may be purchased for $1.00 each. Available copies of earlier issues are 
also for sale. A price list may be obtained by writing to the Editor. 

Communications should be addressed to the Editor. The Editor will 
not assume responsibility for statements of fact or of opinion made by 

Copyright, 1954, by the Wyoming State Archives and Historical 

Attmls of Wyoming 

Volume 26 July 1954 Number 2 

Zable of Contents 


Clarice Whittenburg 


Virginia Cole Trenholm 


Jean C. Gaddy 


Olive Garrett Kafka 

THE WEST, A Poem 139 

Loujincy Polk 


Lee Crownover Stoddard 


Dale L. Morgan, editor 


President's Message by Frank L. Bowron 



By the Editor 

Morgan, Jedediah Smith and the Opening of the West 223 

Robert G. Athearn 

DeVoto, The Journals of Lewis and Clark 224 

Ellsworth Mason 

Sandoz, Cheyenne Autumn 226 

Wm. F. Bragg, Jr. 

Frink, Cow Country Cavalcade 228 

Lola M. Homsher 
Trachsel and Wade, The Government and Administration of 

Wyoming 228 

Herbert J. Salisbury 

Manley, The Doctor's Wyoming Children 230 

Leora Peters 

Mercer, The Banditti of the Plains 230 

Tom E. Francis 

Harris, Arrow in the Moon 231 

Lola M. Homsher 



Mrs. Mary Godat Bellamy, John S. Bugas and L. C. Bishop 108 

Alexander Bordeaux, Jr 120 

James Mato ("Bear") Bordeaux and his wife Marie 123 

Mary Julia (Jordan) Bordeaux 126 

Bucking Horse drawing 128 

Albert J. (Stub) Farlow 133 





Mrs. Marv Godat Bellamy, John S. Bugas, and L. C. Bishop, 
June 2, 1952 

Zke Tirst Ninety years 

Clarice Whittenburg 

It was June 2, 1952. The last strains of the organ march by 
Grieg died away. Faculty and degree candidates at the Univer- 
sity of Wyoming in Laramie seated themselves in the front of the 
huge, recently opened Memorial Fieldhouse. Together with other 
members of the large Commencement audience, they faced a 
flower-lined stage crowded with dignitaries. Following the invo- 
cation, Governor Barrett spoke a few words of greeting. 

As President Humphrey rose to announce the title of the Com- 
mencement address — "Green Lights for Freedom" — and intro- 
duce the speaker — John S. Bugas, an alumnus — many eyes fo- 
cused on this young man who had risen to the position of vice- 
president in charge of industrial relations at the Ford Motor Com- 
pany in Detroit. Others in the audience centered their attention 
on the faces of the two persons who, later in the morning, would 
be awarded the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws. 

One of these two honorary candidates was an unassuming little 
brown-eyed woman, ninety years of age. Those brown eyes, 
sparkling with the excitement of it all, looked out over the big 
audience as a little smile hovered around her lips. 

How satisfying it was to know that the members of her own 
closely knit little family had come from near and far to witness 
the tribute to be paid her by the state of her adoption! Out there, 
in front of the stage, sat sons Ben and Fulton; daughters-in-law 
Beth and Wilhelmina; grandson John and his wife Josephine; 
even eleven-year-old great-grandson, John Cary Bellamy II. 

Unfortunately, her hearing was no longer what it once had been. 
She leaned forward eagerly, trying to catch the speaker's words. 
It was of no use! His back was turned and the microphone he 
faced threw his voice out toward the audience, away from the 
people who sat on the stage. She settled back in her chair and 
resigned herself to turning her thoughts inward. 

A few years ago, she had seen a flashback moving picture at 
the old Empress Theatre, now the Fox Theatre, in downtown 
Laramie. Each picture flashed upon that screen had fallen into 
place in its natural chronological order and had been preceded by 
the slow merging and gradual fading of the date of the year which 
had heralded it. 

Just now, with time on her hands, and unable to hear the voice 
at the podium, she would sit quietly and reflect on the "flashback 
movie" of her own life. 



It had begun on Friday, December 13. Yes, Friday the 13th! 
Luckily, her parents were not particularly superstitious! Other- 
wise, they might have feared for the life of the baby — with brown 
eyes and brown hair, inclined to curl — who appeared that day 
in their little home at Richwood, Missouri. She was born not 
only on Friday the 13th, but also in the midst of a Civil War 
which was sure to leave its mark on the whole nation for many 
decades to come. 

Doubtless her parents did wonder what was in store for her. 
For little Marie Godat; christened "Marie"; nicknamed "Mollie"; 
later to be known in public life as "Mary G. Bellamy." 

Although Mollie's mother was American born, she sometimes 
mentioned with pride that her father had once been the mayor of 
Bern, Switzerland. Mollie's father had come directly to this 
country from Switzerland where he was descended from a long 
line of French Huguenots. 

Little Mollie was the youngest of seven girls. One brother 
had died before she was born. With the neighborhood children, 
she attended school and played some of the games children still 
like to play today — "Anthony Over," "Drop the Handkerchief" 
and "London Bridge Is Falling Down." 

Following Mr. Godat's death, Mollie accompanied her widowed 
mother on a visit to the home of Estelle, a married sister in 
Galena, Illinois. They decided to make their own home in that 
little town and Mrs. Godat was pleased with the schooling her 
daughter acquired there. 


Mollie was twelve years old when another sister, Alice, died 
suddenly in far-off Wyoming Territory. Alice's husband, J. L. 
Murphey, sent an urgent appeal to Mrs. Godat in Illinois to come 
west and make her home with him and his orphaned two-year-old 
son, Louis. 

Never would Mollie forget that train ride! Four days it had 
taken them to travel from Galena to Laramie, Wyoming. 

This little western town had sprung up five years before as 
"end-o'-track" on the Union Pacific, the country's first trans- 
continental railway. At birth, Laramie had consisted of canvas 
tents and board shacks, put together hastily from any materials 
available. The use of discarded railroad ties and dismantled 
wagon boxes caused some of the shacks to assume a "Mrs.-Wiggs- 
of-the-Cabbage-Patch" appearance. The town was still crude 
and rough and boisterous in 1873 but the lawless element which 
always followed the building of a railroad had moved on west- 


ward to Carbon (soon a ghost town); to Fort Steele (just a 
memory); and to Rawlins (still, in 1952, a fine, thriving com- 
munity. ) 

Laramie people back in 1873 had bought their drinking water 
(at twenty-five to thirty cents a barrel) from men who brought 
it directly from the Laramie River, just west of town. For cook- 
ing purposes, some families sank barrels of their own in ditches 
beside the unpaved streets and got the water they needed. 

Mollie adjusted quickly to this strange, new western town. She 
made many friends among the children and the grownups. She 
joined the school group which later made up the first class to 
graduate from Laramie High School. There were only two mem- 
bers of that class besides Mollie Godat — Maggie Carroll and Cora 
Pearson. Maggie was living today with a son and daughter in 
Salt Lake City. Cora had died many years ago. 


Ah, that was the year the United States held its Centennial 
celebration! The West, as well as the East, participated. Fort 
Sanders, two miles south of Laramie, boasted of the Army reports 
which declared the Sanders band held the second highest rating 
in the whole nation. There were many band concerts in Laramie 
in those days, but the one which marked the Centennial celebra- 
tion was one which the town's citizens never forgot! 

Again Mollie traveled westward but this time she went alone. 
As a brand-new western schoolma'am, she journeyed to the 
neighboring state of Nevada where Eliza Page, a third sister, lived. 
For three years she made her home with Eliza at Tybo in Nye 
County and taught the children of that neighborhood. 

Back in Wyoming Territory once more, she traveled upstate to 
teach in a rural community twenty miles from Buffalo. While 
living with the John R. Smith family there, it had been fun to 
stake out a homestead claim on land nearby. Actually she 
never "proved up 1 ' on the claim since she returned to Laramie 
when she was notified of a school vacancy at home. Just last 
year, however — in 1951, seventy years later — a member of the 
Smith family had told her (while visiting in Laramie) that bit 
of homestead acreage was still known in the old community as 
"the Mollie Godat land." 

Mollie began her Laramie teaching career in the old West Side 
School across the railroad tracks. Actually, at first, she was just 
a helper for Mrs. Belle Whiting, whose group (known as the 


"Third Primary Department") numbered far more pupils than 
any one teacher could possibly handle. The salary of eight dollars 
a month which the school board first paid Mollie did not seem 
very munificent, even in 1882. Later, she was assigned a grade 
of her own in the northwest corner of the East Side School, built 
in 1879. Today, in 1952, that old East Side building still formed 
the heart of the modern, block-square Laramie High School 
building. Of course not many of the townspeople living now 
realized that fact. 

Those teaching days in the 1880's and 1890's were happy ones. 
Perhaps, in the Commencement audience out front, were some of 
those very same pupils she had taught long ago. Several of them 
still made their home in Laramie. Among them were Bert Miller 
(retired banker); Fred Frick (retired postal clerk); Martha 
Wallis (who still occupied her parental home on South Eighth 
street, a stone's throw from the old school) ; and Maud May (from 
the old May ranch near Centennial), who became the wife of 
George Stevens. Some of her former pupils who lived elsewhere 
today still wrote occasional cards, or dropped by to see her, or 
even sent flowers when they were in town. A teacher's life was 
such a full life, its compensations not limited by the meager pay 
check, but reaching out, (in her case) to span a period of 70 


It was in the midst of a full teaching year that she had married 
Charles Bellamy, a civil engineer from Boston, Massachusetts, 
who had loved the West as she did. He had also loved her name, 
"Marie." She was no longer "Mollie" now, even in her own 
thoughts. It was Charles who had named that sparkling blue 
lake in the Snowy Range of the Wyoming Rockies west of Lara- 
mie for her. "Lake Marie," it was called! Today a modern sign 
at the edge of the lake proclaimed its name and it appeared also 
on local maps of the region. 

Charles' work in civil engineering carried him far away from 
Laramie at times but he always came back to the hometown of 
their choice. 


Marie continued to teach at the old East Side School even after 
little Ben was born. When he was about five years of age, the 
Bellamy family moved to Cheyenne where Charles became secre- 
tary to General Thompson in the Territorial land office. 


They were still living in Cheyenne when the twins, Fulton and 
Freeman, were born. Freeman was not very robust and he died 


at the age of eight months but Fulton, like Ben, lived to make their 
little home a happy one. 


That was the year she became a charter member of the Chey- 
enne Woman's Club and threw herself wholeheartedly into its 
activities. She had always enjoyed work outside the home as well 
as inside. 


Back in Laramie once more, she was one of the chief organizers 
of the Woman's Club in that town. Now, fifty-four years later, 
she was still a faithful member. 


Teaching was in her blood! No longer a classroom worker, she 
still yearned for it. Her friends urged her to run for the office of 
Albany County Superintendent of Schools. She did, and she won! 
Her theme for the children of that county was "KNOW WYO- 
MING!" Again and again, she urged their teachers to acquaint 
them more fully with the rich geographical and historical back- 
ground which was theirs. Constantly also, she advocated greater 
equalization of tax money among the various districts. 

What a happy privilege it was to serve as one of the founders 
of the Wyoming State Federation of Woman's Clubs! The groups 
were growing throughout the nation and it was a fine thing to 
witness the increased interest of women in civic betterment. 


She and Charles made several eastern visits to the home of his 
Boston relatives. Occasionally they took Ben or Fulton with 
them. How well she remembered meeting Julia Ward Howe, 
ardent suffragette and composer of "The Battle Hymn of the 

Both as a territory in 1869 and as a state in 1890, Wyoming 
men had made woman suffrage possible. By 1905, voting was a 
commonplace event for women from the "Equality State." Marie 
was therefore somewhat amused at a Boston tea party when Mrs. 
Howe requested that they sit together so that she could "talk with 
a woman who actually had voted." 


Five years later, Marie was more than a voting citizen. Her 

good neighbors of Albany County sent her to Cheyenne as the 

first Wyoming woman to serve as a state legislator. She became 

chairman of the credentials committee and a member of the com- 


mittees on public buildings, education and libraries. As her goal, 
she set up the betterment of conditions for the women and chil- 
dren of the state. She was instrumental in establishing the Boys' 
Industrial School at Worland so lads of tender age need no longer 
be housed with hardened criminals. She felt that women, also, 
should have separate penal quarters so she persuaded her fellow 
legislators to arrange for them to be segregated from the men and 
sent to a neighboring state prison where they could be housed 
more efficiently. She helped formulate laws which would result 
in the handling of better foods by Wyoming merchants. 

At that time, even in the "Equality State," a widow was not 
permitted to become the administrator of her husband's estate. 
One bill Marie had helped introduce provided for this to happen. 

She felt very strongly that all of the state institutions of higher 
learning should be housed on a single campus so she gave freely 
of her time in helping to bring the College of Agriculture to 
Laramie. The Home Economics department was added to the 
State University partly through her efforts. 

Those two years at the statehouse in Cheyenne were busy, 
strenuous years but certainly they had born fruit! 


That was the year Ben married Beth Cary. Beth (Nebraska 
and Iowa bred) had come to Wyoming when her father assumed 
supervision of some of the bridge construction work along the 
Union Pacific railway. Ben had received his B. S. degree in 
Civil Engineering at the State University in 1910 and Beth was 
granted a normal diploma in Education in June of the year they 
were married. 


Again an eventful year! Marie (or "Mary G. Bellamy" as she 
was called in public life) was a delegate both to the state and 
the national Democratic conventions. She served also as a mem- 
ber of the national committee which notified President Woodrow 
Wilson of his second nomination. 

Of far greater significance in the life of the Bellamy family was 
the birth of the one and only grandchild — Ben and Beth's boy, 
John Cary Bellamy — on April 18, 1915. 

Fulton entered the 148th division of field artillery as a lieuten- 
ant and served overseas during World War I for several months. 
Ben's name, which had been lost in the records of the army office, 
was not located until about the close of the great conflict. 

Mary G. Bellamy was sent by the women of Wyoming to the 
great national suffrage convention in Washington, D. C. Here 


she met again Mrs. Carrie Chapman Catt who had won her ad- 
miration years before as an ardent advocate of women's rights. 


Two events stood out in her memory of that year. Beth, who 
had continued her college work along with her duties as a wife 
and mother, received her bachelor's degree in Education that June. 

Of great national significance that year was the 19th amend- 
ment to the Federal constitution, granting woman suffrage. It 
was ratified by 3/4 of the states on August 26. A wonderful 
victory, indeed! Mary G. Bellamy was proud to have played 
a small part in the campaign which led to the adoption of that 

How proud she was in the June following passage of the 
suffrage act, when her friend, Carrie Chapman Catt, became the 
first woman to receive the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws 
from the University of Wyoming! Little did she dream then that 
31 years later a similar honor would be paid to her, Mary Godat 
Bellamy! She could scarcely believe it yet. 

Ben, Beth and teen-age John left Laramie for an eastern sojourn 
which lasted five years. On the eastern coast, Ben served the 
city of New York as an engineer. His work centered around the 
development of vehicular tunnels and water supply and the con- 
struction of city hospitals. John was one of 5,000 pupils at 
Stuyvesant High School where he graduated with a number of 
awards, including the gold medal of honor. 


Sorrow entered the Laramie home at 3 1 5 South Tenth street in 
the summer of 1934. Charles' death came as a distinct shock 
following an illness of short duration. Even yet, it seemed im- 
possible that he was gone. 


After her husband's death, Mary threw herself into the work 
of the various local organizations to which she belonged. Chief 
among them were the Ladies Aid of the Presbyterian church, the 
Woman's Club, the American Legion Auxiliary and the Auxiliary 
to the Veterans of Foreign Wars. 

How pleased she was when the local Woman's Club undertook 
the big problem of establishing and maintaining a county historical 
museum! They used "the Mary G. Bellamy Collection" as part 
of the nucleus for that museum. 

That year of 1945 marked Fulton's marriage to Wilhelmina 
("Billie") Pecheau of Montrose, Colorado. They had met in 


Cheyenne where she was teaching and he was working in the 
state engineer's office. 

Young John graduated with a bachelor's degree in Civil Engi- 
neering at the University of Wyoming about the same time Ben, 
his father, was appointed to one of the chief engineering jobs on 
the Heart Mountain federal irrigation project upstate near Cody. 

Following his attainment of a master's degree in Physics at the 
University of Wisconsin, John became deeply interested in indi- 
vidual experimentation. His decision to leave an assistantship 
at Madison and come home to engage in "atom-busting" research 
pleased his grandmother very much. Except at mealtime, she 
saw very little of him but, just the same, it was comforting to 
know he was there. He spent from eight to ten hours daily in the 
family garage which served as his laboratory and he studied nu- 
clear reactions from four to five hours at night. "Atom-buster 
Bellamy," they called him! 


Of course she was still interested in Ben's engineering activities 
and in Fulton's duties with the Civil Aeronautics Administration 
but somehow, since Charles' death and her own retirement from 
really active civic work, so much of her life seemed to center 
around John. His wedding to Josephine Johnston of Sinclair, 
Wyoming, occurred in September, 1940. She saw less of him 
after that because the young couple moved forty miles north of 
Rawlins where John took over a surveying job at the Ferris oil 


Just as it had been hard to watch Fulton march off to war back 
in 1917, it saddened her to say good-by to John in 1942. He 
served in the Pacific as a special consultant to the Army Air Force 
and later became director, for a time, of the Institute of Meteor- 
ology at the University of Puerto Rico. 

Soon after the close of World War II, John received a Ph.D. in 
Meteorology at the University of Chicago. Since that time he 
had been employed as assistant director of the Cook Electrical 
Research Company in Chicago. Both Fulton and his wife, Billie, 
held degrees from the University of Wyoming by this time, he 
in Engineering and she in Education. 

In HARPERS MAGAZINE for May, Wolfgang Langewiesche 


— test pilot and writer on aviation affairs — paid a special tribute 
to John's wartime discovery of the way to measure barometric 
pressure while flying from continent to continent. According to 
Langewiesche, "that little trick helped more to make an airplane 
ocean-worthy than another couple of engines would help, or 
another ton of gasoline." 

Two honors came that year to John's grandmother also. The 
Casper, Wyoming, Kiwanis Club presented her with an award 
for outstanding achievements and the Wyoming Press Women 
voted her an honorary membership. 

Still another honor came her way when the state chapter of the 
Daughters of the American Revolution (in which she held a local 
honorary membership) presented her name as the one to repre- 
sent Wyoming on the inscriptions placed in the Memorial Bell 
Tower, newly erected by the national organization at Valley Forge. 


And now it was 1952! What was that old saying — "the first 
hundred years were the hardest?" One thing she could say in all 
sincerity — her "first ninety years" had been full and satisfying! 
God had been good, indeed! How rich she was in friends, for 
instance! Dozens of them had helped to make this final great 
honor possible for her. How grateful she was to all of them, 
particularly to her two very good friends, Mr. and Mrs. C. E. Fey! 

Her eyes sought also the place in the audience where the Bel- 
lamy family sat together as a unit. At breakfast that morning, 
they had decided that the long Commencement activities would be 
too tiring for John and Jo's three youngest children so they were 
left at home. Eleven-year-old John II, however, was sitting out 
there in the audience with a rapt expression on his face as he 
watched the nearly 450 degree candidates march across the stage 
to receive their diplomas. What was he thinking? His own 
father, mother, grandparents, great-uncle and great-aunt had at- 
tended the University of Wyoming. In just a few moments, he 
would watch this same institution confer an honorary degree upon 
his great-grandmother. 

In a few moments? Mercy! Already the Commencement 
marshal, (her good neighbor and friend, Dr. Sam Knight, head 
of the University Department of Geology) was approaching to 
escort her to the president's station. Dr. T. A. Larson, head of 
the History Department, was beginning to read her citation : 

"Mary Godat Bellamy, exemplary woman, wife and mother; 
pioneer educator, legislator and civic leader ..." 

Yes, certainly her "first ninety years" had been well worth 




Brown, Mrs. M. C, "Girlhood Recollections of Laramie in 1870 and 1871," 
Annals of Wyoming, Vol. I, No. 3 (Jan. 15, 1924), pp. 10-14. 

Langewiesche, Wolfgang, "How They Fly the Atlantic," Harper's Maga- 
zine, 453-454. 

Larson, T. A., "Petticoats at the Polls," Pacific Northwest Quarterly, Vol. 
XLIV (April, 1953), pp. 74-79. 

Wheeler, Eva Floy, "Mary G. Bellamy," Annals of Wyoming, Vol. XII, 
No. 4 (October, 1940), pp. 317-322. 


Beach, Cora M., Women of Wyoming, Casper: S. E. Boyer and Co., 1927, 
pp. 44-46. 

Hebard, Grace Raymond, How Woman Suffrage Came to Wyoming, 1869. 
(Reprint, New York: William Dean Embree, 1940). 

Linford, Velma, Wyoming Frontier State, Denver: The Old West Pub- 
lishing Company, 1947, pp. 218-219; 223-228; 322. 

Morris, Robert C, Secretary and Editor, Collections of the Wyoming 
Historical Society, Vol. I. Cheyenne: Sun-Leader Publishing House, 
1897, p. 213. 

Bellamy, Mrs. Mary G., Laramie, Wyoming, September 7, 1953; January 

16, 1954; January 29, 1954; February 22, 1954. 


Cheyenne Daily Sun-Leader, November 28, 1895. 

Cody Enterprise, May 11, 1938. 

Denver Post, November 13, 1950. 

Laramie Daily Boomerang, April 14, 1904; February 22, 1912. 

Laramie Daily Bulletin, March 8, 1938; October 29, 1938. 

Laramie Republican (Industrial Edition), 1901, p. 22. 

Laramie Republican-Boomerang, November 15, 1943; May 12, 1948; June 

27, 1951; December 13, 1951; June 2, 1953. 
Sheridan Press, June 28, 1951. 
St. Louis Post-Dispatch, June 11, 1916. 
Wyoming Eagle, May 29, 1936. 
Wyoming State Tribune, February 4, 1918; February 20, 1945; December 

17, 1948. 


Chapman, Miriam Gantz, "The Story of Woman Suffrage in Wyoming. 

1869-1890", Unpublished Master's thesis, Graduate School, University 

of Wyoming, August, 1952, pp. 21-30. 
Cumulative records of Bellamy family. Office of the Registrar. University 

of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming. 

Zkc Bordeaux: Story 

Virginia Cole Trenholm 

A road sign, a small community club, and a telephone exchange 
serving two ranches are all that remain to preserve the name of 
historic old Bordeaux. When one places a call to the exchange, 
the inevitable question follows, "Is that in Wyoming?" 

Bordeaux in Wyoming and in France are as related as the fam- 
ily, members of French Parliament, for whom they were both 
named. Bordeaux, Wyoming, no longer has a post office, but 
scattered stones of foundations and a number of unidentified 
graves mark the site. 

James Bordeaux, the French fur trader for whom the original 
road ranch was named, is rightfully claimed by Wyoming, Ne- 
braska, and South Dakota as he contributed to the early history 
of the three states. However until recently, little more was known 
about him than of La Ramie, Sybille, Richeau, and La Bonte, his 
contemporaries whose names have been immortalized by streams 
in southeastern Wyoming. 

Bordeaux, who was associated with Fort Laramie almost from 
its establishment, was host for John C. Fremont and Francis Park- 
man when they made their celebrated visits there in the '40's. He 
also served Fremont as councilor and interpreter. In "The Ore- 
gon Trail", Parkman describes him as a blustery, little man, a true 
product of the untamed West. 

In introducing him to the reader, Parkman says that without a 
word he stalked ahead of his guests, mounted the stairs, "tramped" 
along the balcony, and "kicked" open the door of the room they 
were to occupy. This accomplished, he began to "roar" for buf- 
falo robes. Perhaps his manner accounts for his Sioux name, 
Mato, meaning bear. 

Through the efforts of Alexander Bordeaux, Jr., (grandson of 
James) and his son, Kenneth, both of White River, S. D., docu- 
ments have been brought to light that help in piecing together the 
Bordeaux story. Chief among these are a publication of the his- 
torical department of South Dakota and the unpublished manu- 
script of Susan Bordeaux Bettelyoun (daughter of James) in the 
archives of the state historical library at Lincoln. 

Just when the Bordeaux brothers, Paul and Felix, landed at 
New Orleans to seek their fortune in the new world, we do not 
know. James, the son of Paul, was a small boy at the time. His 
father is said to have owned and operated a large plantation at 
what is now St. Louis, Missouri. When James' mother died, his 




#• •' 


; ■'-"■■ <is 

1 > 

9 § 

Alexander Bordeaux, Jr., Grandson of James Bordeaux 


father remarried. Lack of understanding between the boy and 
his stepmother prompted the elder Bordeaux to permit his son to 
accompany a group of fur traders by flat boat to Fort Union. He 
was placed in the care of an older man who had been employed 
by his father. As James was under age, his meager wages from the 
fur company were given to his father, who in turn sent him what 
clothing and supplies he needed. 

With the Indian's excellent narrative ability, Alexander, Jr., 
tells some of the incidents he has heard since childhood. "At 
Fort Union, my grandfather and a man he called Pete, who was 
also from St. Louis, carried mail between Fort Union and Fort 
Pierre. They had to make that long, hard, and dangerous journey 
on foot. They traveled mostly by night to keep out of sight of 
hostile Indians who roamed the region. It was on one of these 
trips that his partner, Pete, was wounded fatally by some Rhee 
Indians they encountered. During the fight that followed, Pete 
was shot in the back with a poisoned arrow. Though badly 
wounded, he and Grandad made their way into some heavy timber 
on the side of a butte and lost their enemies, but they had to 
remain there in hiding until after dark. Grandad did all he could 
for Pete, but he soon passed away. Before daylight, he carried 
his body to the top of the butte and piled rocks over it, and con- 
tinued on alone to Fort Pierre. He notified Pete's relatives, who 
in later years moved his remains back to St. Louis to a more 
permanent resting place. This incident took place on Bear Butte, 
near what is now Sturgis, South Dakota. " 

James worked for a time for the American Fur Company at 
Fort Pierre. Then he took his Rhee wife and two children to the 
Platte region, where he became a well known fur trader, serving 
more than once as bourgeois at Fort Laramie. His wife, unhappy 
in the Sioux country, soon returned to her people. 

He was next married to Marie, daughter of Swift Bear, a Brule 
Sioux war chief, who was killed along the Platte River in a clash 
with Pawnee Indians. Alexander, Jr., recalls a younger warrior 
who was named in his honor. "I knew him well," he says. "He 
used to come to the Rosebud Agency in his old age on business." 
He was not a relative. 

Mr. Bordeaux speaks of the road ranches or trading posts 
operated by his grandfather. One was on Bordeaux Creek, be- 
tween what are now the towns of Hay Springs and Chadron, Ne- 
braska. This was established late in the year of 1846. Another, 
an earlier one used as headquarters, was nine miles below Fort 
Laramie at what was known as Bordeaux Bend. This ranch was 
made famous by the Grattan massacre. 

The story is as tragic as the Fetterman massacre, except in 
number of men killed. It was brought about by an Indian who 
killed an emigrant's cow and shared the feast with his tribesmen. 
The commanding officer at Fort Laramie demanded his surrender 


and sent Lieutenant Grattan after him. The Indians, taunted by 
a drunken interpreter, opened fire. All but one of Grattan's men 
were killed. One man, Obridge Allen, who found himself without 
a horse, watched the encounter from the roof of Bordeaux's road 
ranch. The one survivor could not tell of the death of his twenty- 
nine comrades. His tongue had been cut out, and he died shortly 

Had Bordeaux, rather than Lucian Auguste, served as Grattan's 
interpreter, the massacre might have been averted, for the Indians 
hated Auguste. They were incensed when he told them that the 
soldiers would cut out their hearts. One of the chiefs, realizing 
that Auguste would foment trouble, begged Bordeaux to go with 
him to prevent a fight. By the time they arrived, it was too late. 
The massacre was in progress. 

If Bordeaux had not been a trusted friend of the Indians, he 
would probably have suffered the same fate as Grattan's men. 
Knowing the Indians' nature, he opened his doors to them. They 
celebrated their victory by helping themselves to the stock on the 
shelves in his trading house. Satisfied, they made no attempt to 
take Fort Laramie. 

In speaking of the Grattan massacre, Alexander, Jr., says, "Had 
it not been for Grandfather and his wife and their influence among 
her Indian relatives of the Brule Sioux, Fort Laramie would have 
been wiped out after the Grattan massacre. He got along well 
with those Indians from the beginning and saved the day a number 
of times for the army." 

His influence among the Indians is further attested by Parkman, 
who tells of his persuasive power over Whirlwind when he wanted 
to go on the war path. Realizing that this would jeopardize the 
buffalo robe trade for another season, Bordeaux put forth his 
most logical argument against it. Under the influence of his 
speech, Whirlwind "became tired like a child of his favorite plan." 
Then, having shaken the Indian's resolve, Bordeaux "exultingly 
predicted" there would be no war. 

Bordeaux was first and last a shrewd trader. When he dis- 
covered, in 1867, that the War Department had definitely located 
Fort D. A. Russell and had ordered the construction of a road 
and telegraph line joining it with Fort Laramie, he was the first 
on hand to establish a trading post along the new route. Antoine 
Ladeau, guide at Fort Laramie, informed him that a branch road 
from Chugwater north was to be opened at the same time. Bor- 
deaux established his camp at the junction of the roads. Here 
he built a small store and road ranch. After placing Hugh White- 
sides in charge, he returned to his headquarters at Bordeaux Bend. 

The left branch of the road was opened when Major Nelson B. 
Sweitzer and his troops of the Second U. S. Cavalry moved north- 
ward with a large train of supply wagons for the purpose of con- 
structing Fort Fetterman, the supply center for forts Phil Kearny, 



Reno, and C. F. Smith farther to the north. The new trail was 
known variously, as the Sweitzer Cut-off, the Fort Fetterman Cut- 
off, and the Bordeaux Cut-off. The Bordeaux ranch passed 
through several hands before being bought, October 28, 1870, by 
John Ffunton, the last of the post sutlers at Fort Laramie. For a 
decade or so, it was known as "Hunton's," then the LD ranch, 
now the property of Fred Prewitt. Bordeaux's squat-roofed trad- 
ing house located on this ranch was the beginning of Bordeaux, 
Wyoming, which later boasted of a hotel, a store, and a post 
office. It was not only a military sub-station but later a favorite 
stopping place along the Cheyenne-Deadwood Trail. 

Alexander, Jr., recounts a number of incidents that took place 
at his grandfather's various road ranches. These were told to 
him by Alexander, St., and his brother, Antoine. Among these is 
a significant account of the Indian attack upon Bordeaux's road 
ranch near Chadron. 

"The Crow Indians burned down the ranch and ran off eighty- 
five of Grandad's horses. His family and help barely got away 
with their lives. They packed the children on their backs and fled 
into the night. After they were far enough away to be out of 

James or Mato ("Bear") Bordeaux, as he was known to the Sioux, 
with his wife Marie. (Taken from a charcoal sketch.) 


danger, they stopped and looked back to watch the ranch go up in 

"Camped nearby was a fierce war party of Brule Sioux, some 
of Grandmother's relatives. They were notified immediately of 
the attack, and it wasn't long until the Sioux were in hot pursuit 
of the fleeing enemy, the Crows. Part of the Crows took refuge 
up on top of Crow Butte, near what is now Crawford, Nebraska, 
while the rest of the party made away with the horses. The 
Crows on top of the butte, rolled huge rocks down on the Sioux. 
One of the rocks narrowly missed hitting Chief Two Strikes. 

"The Sioux kept a big fire going around most of the bottom 
of the butte so they could watch their enemies, but the Crows 
escaped down the steep bank during the night by tying pieces of 
rawhide together and lowering themselves to the ground. 

"They left an old man behind. He sang death songs all night 
and threw rocks down at the Sioux. Then when morning came, 
the Sioux were rather taken back to find that the wiley Crows had 
escaped. They killed the old man they found alone on the top 
of the butte." 

Mr. Bordeaux speaks of another brush his grandfather had 
with the Indians, this time at the road ranch near Fort Laramie. 
A hostile band of Sioux ran off nearly five hundred head of cattle 
and horses. This put an end to his trading operations in Wyoming. 

"Grandad tried suing the government for $60,000, but he was 
unable to get anything out of it as the damage was done in Indian 
Territory. This caused him to build another place, in Charles 
Mix County (South Dakota), outside the boundry, on the Mis- 
souri River. It was located fifteen miles above Fort Randall, at 
the Wheeler Crossing. This was his last business venture." 

All of James and Marie's children were born in Wyoming, the 
two oldest in the late '30's at Fort Laramie. They were Lema 
(Mrs. Lamoureaux) and Antoine. The younger children, Louis, 
John, Susan (Mrs. Isaac Bettelyoun), Alexander, and William 
were born at Bordeaux Bend. Lema and Antoine attended school 
in St. Louis, their father taking them to and from in a covered 
wagon. He would go cross country alone. "When he first tried 
this," his grandson recounts, "he was warned by friends that he 
would never return alive, but he only laughed and said he could 
get along with any of the plains Indians. He wasn't afraid 
of them. He was a man that took some awful chances." 

Mr. Bordeaux tells an incident to prove this. "Grandad had 
quite an experience one time when he was bringing Antoine home. 
He was traveling across Kansas when a war party of nearly 500 
Comanches charged from over the horizon. Antoine was a very 
sick boy. He lay, wrapped in blankets, on the floor in or near 
the front of the wagon. When Grandad told the Indians he had 
a sick boy, they moved to the opposite side of the wagon as the 


wind was blowing from the direction of the boy. The Indians 
took them into camp and set up a lodge for them. They stayed 
until Antoine was able to travel. The Comanches were real good 
to them during their stay." 

When the American Fur Company became firmly established 
at its famous trading post at the mouth of the Laramie River, in 
the '30's, it sent John Sybille and a companion to the Black Hills 
of the Dakotas to invite the Sioux to the fort to trade. Chief Bull 
Bear, with one hundred lodges of his people, accepted the invita- 
tion. He and the first of his tribesmen to arrive were so well 
pleased with their new location that they spread the news, and the 
Sioux began to swarm into the Platte region. Allied with their 
friends, the Cheyenne and the Arapaho, they caused so much 
trouble that the authorities at Fort Laramie finally decided to 
remove them to Nebraska, near the less troublesome Pawnee 
tribes. George E. Hyde, Indian authority, says that the Sioux, 
bitter enemies of the Pawnees, considered this a march to their 

Two companies of Nebraska troops were sent to help move 
the 200 lodges of Sioux. Fifteen lodges, apparently sensing the 
situation, had already moved elsewhere when the soldiers arrived. 
The troops, accompanied by forty civilians, began the march with 
the 185 lodges. The Indians seemed docile and easily managed 
until they reached Horse Creek, where they staged a rebellion, 
apparently by prearranged plan. After a brisk encounter, they 
scattered in all directions. 

Mr. Bordeaux gives his version of this event. "My father 
and Antoine and some of the older children used to tell of the 
time when they were young and the army was moving some Brule 
Sioux from the Fort Laramie region. They used Grandad's 
teams, wagons, and equipment to help move supplies along with 
the troops. The Indians became suspicious, and one morning 
(May 16, 1865) they killed one of the two officers in charge. 
This took place near the mouth of Horse Creek in Nebraska. 

"The Indians forced the troops to withdraw from the creek so 
that their women and children could escape across the river. A 
running fight took place, and my grandfather and the children 
had to flee with the troops in their covered wagon. My dad used 
to say that the children were curious to see what was going on. 
Each time they would look out the back end of the wagon, the 
men inside would jerk them down. But they kept trying anyway. 

"During the flight, my dad said that a man named Louis Rou- 
bidoux was the driver of an ox team that couldn't move fast 
enough to suit him, so he jumped off and started running on foot. 
Again Grandad and his family escaped death, but some of the 
people were killed on both sides." Besides the officer mentioned 
above, seven soldiers were killed and seventeen soldiers and civil- 
ians were wounded. There is no record of Indian casualties. 



Mary Julia (Jordan) Bordeaux in her tribal costume 


James Bordeaux's final enterprise, the post on the Missouri 
River, was operated until the late spring of 1878, when the Brule 
Sioux were moved from there to the Rosebud Indian Reservation. 
He died that same year and was buried at the agency. Some years 
later, his daughter, Susan Bettelyoun, had the remains of James, 
Marie, and their son, John, moved to St. Francis, South Dakota. 

Antoine and Alexander, Sr., who served as scouts for the army 
upon a number of occasions, lie buried at White River. Antoine 
was one of the guides on the Powder River Expedition. 

Alexander, Jr., whose keen memory and able discourse con- 
tributed to the colorful story of his grandfather, resides on the 
old Jordan ranch near White River. He was born at the Rosebud 
Agency in 1884. His mother, Salayce, was a daughter of Lester 
Pratt, of St. Joseph, Missouri, a member of the Treaty Council of 
1868. Her mother was a Brule Sioux. 

Mr. Bordeaux's wife, the former Mary Julia Jordan, is the 
daughter of Colonel Jordan, a drummer boy of the '60's, and 
Julia, a full-blood Oglalla Sioux. Julia belonged to Red Cloud's 
band and was related to some of the famous warriors and orators 
of her tribe. She is said to have been a niece of Red Cloud. When 
Crazy Horse surrendered at Fort Robinson, in 1877, he presented 
his rifle to Colonel Jordan. This is still a prized, family relic. 

Mr. Bordeaux hopes some day to visit the site of his grand- 
father's road ranches as his son, Kenneth, has done. They are 
both justifiably proud of their family name and of the role James 
Bordeaux, trader, interpreter, and settler, played in the early 
history of the West. 



The Bucking Horse by Allen T. True. The original drawing is 
located in the Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department. 

Wyoming's Jnsignia- 
Zke Mucking Morse 

Jean C. Gaddy 

One week about eighteen years ago Dr. C. H. Welsh of Chey- 
enne was driving through Los Angeles little thinking he was vio- 
lating a law. Inevitably, as was right, he was stopped by a police- 
man for lack of license plates on his car. A startled look by the 
doctor at the front and then at the rear of his automobile proved 
the minion of the law quite correct. 

"It's becoming a hard problem to protect those darn Wyoming 
bronc plates,'' said the officer. "Nearly every day we pick up a 
car without plates and find he is from Wyoming." 

Nineteen thirty-six was the first year that Wyoming had issued 
the unique license plates which were to furnish such an irresistible 
challenge to sleight-of-hand souvenir hunters. The distinctive 
design of the bucking bronco and his determined cowboy rider 
have from that year to the present enticed the imagination of out- 
of-staters and endeared itself to the pride of all Wyomingites. 
Doubtless part of the reason for these attachments to what is 
after all a mere license plate is that the design is authentically 
western and that it is particularly steeped in the history of the state. 

The cowboy trade has reigned supreme ever since the introduc- 
tion of the cattle industry to Wyoming's vast grazing lands with 
the advent of the Texas Trail and others. Thus, it was only 
natural that the cowboy and his dependable working companion, 
the horse, should eventually become a prominent symbol of the 
ranching industry and the fabulous romance of the West, aided 
and abetted by its gala rodeos. It was only one step further for 
someone to originate the idea for the Wyoming bucking bronco 
license plate, and the credit for this particular inspiration falls to 
then Secretary of State Lester C. Hunt. 1 

1. Although Senator Hunt has since indicated that "The idea of the 
Wyoming license plates was entirely original with me to the best of my 
knowledge. No other person had mentioned such a plate in my presence," 
in his letter to Lola M. Homsher, August 24, 1953, some mention should 
be given to a statement made by the late Charles E. Lewis of Powell to 
C. Watt Brandon. Mr. Lewis credited a similar design to George Austin, 
Buffalo, Wyo., who during World War I had drawn a picture of a bucking 
bronco on his company's bass drum (Co. F., 148 Field Artillery). The 
drawing attracted the attention of his commanding officer, Col. Burke 
Sinclair, who ordered a stencil made and an identifying plate attached to 
each of the artillery vehicles. 


It is, perhaps, particularly fitting to refer to the creation of this 
idea as an 'inspiration' for it is the purpose of this paper to indicate 
that the man Secretary Hunt called "the most typical cowboy I 
know," the late Albert "Stub" Farlow, was most certainly the 
inspiration for the design of the plate although not its model, as 
has been mistakenly publicized in the past. This does not consti- 
tute a loss of distinction for "Stub" but rather adds to it, for it is 
his spirit, not merely his likeness, riding herd on American traffic 
to the tune of 152,868 2 Wyoming license plates. The St. Louis 
Post Dispatch 3 pays tribute to the stubborn courage which he and 
the West have typified in overcoming the most untamed of ob- 
stacles, stating, "As the kind of cowboy which an old western say- 
ing says could not possibly exist — the cowboy who never got 
throwed — Albert Farlow deserves more prominence than Hop- 
along Cassidy. And he may get it." 

The first announcement of the new bucking bronc plate was 
made by the Wyoming State Tribune, July 15, 1935: 

A boldly embossed picture of a cowboy doing a good job of riding 
a widely-bucking bronco will adorn Wyoming's automobile license 
plates of next year. 

Secretary of State L. C. Hunt today approved a design for the next 
edition of the plates, taking his choice from two that were submitted. 
The picture of the rider and horse were drawn by Allen T. True of 
Denver, brother of James B. True, Wyoming State Highway engineer 1 

More details were given in an official news release published in 
the Wyoming State Journal, August 22, 1935: 

Lester C. Hunt, Sec. of State, has originated and produced a unique 
and attractive idea in the 1936 license plate. Prior to the 1935 legis- 
lature, the makeup of the plates was always the same, since specifica- 
tions were definitely set out by statutes, allowing only a change in 
color from year to year. This made it possible for wide-spread count- 
erfeiting of plates which was very difficult to detect; and with the 
thought in mind of overcoming this counterfeiting, together with the 
idea of producing the present plate, Secretary Hunt has introduced 
in the Legislature a bill to allow any changes in the makeup and 
design of the license plate the Secretary of State deemed necessary. 

The art work in connection with the plates was done by Allen 
True ... in the form of a drawing 20 x 26 inches, which was 
reduced by photostatic machines in State Engineer Burritt's office 
to the dimensions for use on the plates. The plate has been made 
up in black and white, the two colors which hold their identity at 
the greatest distance, and has the approval of Governor Miller, 
Highway Eng. True and Capt. Geo. R. Smith of the Highway Patrol. 

2. Wyoming Highway Department figure as of May 31, 1954. 

3. As quoted from the San Juan Lookout, August 18, 1953, p. 5. 

4. It may be of interest to note that Allen True was selected to super- 
vise the painting of Pima Indian designs on the enormous Hoover Dam 
property. The project, to adorn the world's biggest water retention job, 
was described as the largest painting task of the kind ever assigned to an 


The plate is slightly larger in size. The contract for the manufacture 
of the 1936 license plate has been granted to the Gopher Stamp and 
Die Co. of St. Paul, Minn., at approximately the same figure as in 

Sec. of State Hunt is of the opinion that the new plate not only is 
symbolic of our State, but also carries with it a definite advertising 
value for Wyoming. That he is correct in this assumption is evi- 
denced by the extraordinary amount of interest that the new "Cowboy 
Plate" is already attracting. 

Early in 1935 the design of the bucking horse and rider oc- 
curred to Secretary Hunt as being particularly appropriate since it 
"would not highlight any particular locality or event since rodeos 
were common all over the State. 1 ' 5 While further considering this 
idea of a Wyoming license plate, he mentioned it to Mr. Lewis, 
who had been in the Secretary of State's office for several years 
in charge of making up license plates, and he was told that it was 
not appropriate to put designs of this type on license plates. 
However, the Secretary of State evidently felt his idea was worthy 
of a try, and the process of designing the 1936 license plate started 
in April or May, 1935. Specifications and call for bids were prob- 
ably prepared within that same period and the contract let in June. 

As he had admired the murals in the House and Senate Cham- 
bers at the State Capitol Building, Secretary Hunt decided to call 
Mr. Allen T. True of Littleton, Colorado, the artist who had 
painted them. 

"I contacted Mr. True by telephone and asked him if he would 
mind coming to Wyoming, which he did one Sunday morning and 
I explained to him in detail what I had in mind. Mr. True said he 
would be glad to make such a drawing, and he returned the next 
Sunday morning with the drawing. Mr. True was paid $75.00 
for the drawing." 

Looking back recently Senator Hunt remarked, "I have in the 
intervening years been pleased that I had Mr. True do the drawing 
rather than to use a photograph of a bucking horse, in that Mr. 
True, through his knowledge of art, understood what design could 
be stamped in steel and retain its identity at some distance. He 
therefore made the drawing with only one bridle rein, and only 
one front leg on the horse and with only one rider's foot." 7 The 
correctness of the Senator's judgment in selecting Mr. True's 
bucking horse and rider design has since been borne out although 
at first it was thought that the skeletonized figures might not show 
up as quickly or as plainly as a solid figure, but this objection has 
been thoroughly discarded. The Purdue Motor Club, who made 
license plate surveys, applauded the Wyoming plate for several 

5. Senator L. C. Hunt's letter to Lola M. Homsher. August 24, 1953. 

6. Ibid. 

7. Ibid. 


years after it was introduced by naming it as the most distinctive 
plate in the United States and, along with New York State, as 
the best state-advertising plate of all the forty-eight states. 

Publicity on the new plate began appearing in Wyoming in 
July and August of 1935. Around September, Secretary Hunt fol- 
lowed his custom of distributing sample license plates in their 
adopted colors, and with zeros for numbers on them, to filling 
stations, hotels, motels, newspapers, etc. The enthusiastic accep- 
tance of the plate must have been heartening to their originator. 
On December 20, 1934, for example, the Secretary of State's 
office had collected $7,263 in fees from the advance sale of 1935 
license plates. One year later, December 20, 1935, receipts for 
the corresponding period amounted to $15,588.75, or more than 
double those of the preceding year. Much of the increase was 
doubtless evidence of the rapid growth of Wyoming's transport 
industry from year to year," but it is not wishful thinking to also 
attribute its fair share of the increase to the unique license design 
which had been introduced. 

An amusing incident was recorded by the Wyoming State 
Tribune on November 14, 1935, to illustrate the general reaction 
to the bronco car plate. A Montana admirer wrote to Secretary 
of State Hunt: 

"Will you please give me this information? 

"Is it possible for one living in Montana to have a set of Wyoming 
license plates on his car? 

"If so, will you kindly advise how to go about it. For, I kind of 
got stuck on your 1936 plates." 

Secretary Hunt replied that there was no objection to a Mon- 
tanan using Wyoming plates — that he could have them if he sent 
a certificate of title and the necessary fees. Such out-of-state 
requests have not been unusual since. 

Realizing its uniqueness, Secretary of State Hunt applied for a 
copyright of the plate design as a work of art. The copyright 
covers the use of any horse and rider design on license plates, 
thereby protecting the exclusive right of the symbol for the State 
of Wyoming. It is, however, due to expire in 1956 unless re- 
newed. In 1942 Secretary Hunt turned the copyright, which had 
been taken out in his name, over to the keeping of the State of 
Wyoming as he realized it might be the last plate issued under his 

Approximately two months after the release of the new plates 
for general use, one of the most interesting aspects of the bucking 

8. In March of this year, W. H. Sigler, Assistant Director for the 
Motor Vehicle Division, said that since the first license plate was sold in 
1913, purchases have climbed from 1,584 in that year to 177,189 in 1953. 
Casper Tribune Herald, March 24, 1954. 



bronc plates was introduced on December 25, 1935, when the 
Wyoming State Journal came out with a story headlined LANDER 
COWBOY IS RIDER ON PLATES . . . "The bronc rider on your 
new 1936 license plate represents A. J. (Stub) Farlow of Lander 
. . . Secretary of State L. C. Hunt said." 

Albert Jerome Farlow was born February 2, 1886, in Lander, 
Wyoming. His father, E. J. Farlow, who came to Wyoming in 
1 876 from Adel, Dallas County, Iowa, was of Scotch Irish descent. 
His career had led him from that of horse wrangler to that of 
rancher in Fremont county, and he was also to become an Indian 
authority. Successively, he was mayor of Lander, Justice of the 
Peace, State Legislator, U. S. Commissioner, and (1936) vice- 
president of the Stockgrower's Bank at Lander. E. J. Farlow 
married Lizzie Lamoreaux, who was of French-Sioux descent, and 
daughter of Jules Lamoreaux, one of Wyoming's earliest pioneers. 
There were two children from this marriage, Jules and Albert. 

Albert's boyhood days were spent with Indians, horses, ropes, 
spurs, and everything pertaining to a cowboy's life. He got his 
first lesson in roping by standing on the back porch roping pieces 
of wood on the woodpile to haul in the supply for the stoves in 
his home. According to L. L. Newton his nickname, "Stub", 
was acquired at an early age, it being derived "not from a short 
stature but from the fact that he rode a horse long before any 
saddle could be shortened to serve his little legs." 9 

At the age of eight "Stub" was introduced to the arena which 
was to earn him in later years the description of "one of the finest 

Under Sheriff Albert J. (Stub) Farlow taken in April, 1953 

9. Casper Tribune Herald, August 13, 1950. 


bronc riders in the world,"'" although he preferred describing 
himself as more of a stunt rider than anything else. In 1894 in 
Lander his father put on the first "Pioneer Days," Wyoming's 
oldest rodeo celebration. It featured the kidnapping of a little 
white child — "Stub" dressed in girl's clothing, — from a stagecoach 
by Indians and "her" eventual rescue by the U. S. Cavalry. The 
Wyoming State Journal" relates, "It was filled with all the thrills 
of a real Indian kidnapping — for in those days such things were 
not unknown in real life. ' 

Since that initial performance "Stub" was to re-enact many a 
thrilling scene in subsequent rodeos covering seven states. As he 
says, "I was a fill-in man for years. Now they call them stunt 
men. I have been roped off of running horses by cowboys and 
dragged [to a stop]. This was called the 'horse thief drag.' I 
have been roped by the neck and hanged ten or twelve times, 
and have been burned at the stake right here in Lander." 1 " The 
burning at the stake incident was so realistic, it is recounted, that 
women fainted and strong men flinched. 

Besides "Stub's" love of horses and livestock, being early ex- 
posed to the rigors of the range undoubtedly was instrumental in 
developing his early skill at riding and roping. At the tender 
years of ten, twelve, and fourteen he did a full hand's work on the 
drive of beef herds from Lander to Casper. These herds averaged 
from 600 to 850 head and the trip took a month's time. At a 
more mature age he worked two summers at Fort Keough, near 
Miles City, Montana, breaking cavalry horses for the government. 
He wrote once that "this was fascinating work and the finest 
bunch of horses I ever worked with." 18 

A seasoned cowpoke at twenty-two years, "Stub" joined Charley 
Irwin's Wild West show, performing along with Tom Mix, and 
worked eight summers with the Cheyenne Frontier's Day outfit, 
seven with the late Charles Irwin as manager, and one year with 
Eddie McCarty and Vern Elliott. He nearly always won some 
of the top money, though in later years he was the first to admit 
with his big grin that there were times too when he walked away 
empty-handed — all part of the game. 

It was in 1908 that "Stub" Farlow won the highest purse relay 
ever staged at the state fair at Douglas, winning eleven out of 
twelve heats. He also won in competitions at Miles City, Boze- 
man, Billings, and Idaho Falls. In fact, at Idaho Falls he was a 
one-man show resulting in his being selected as the Wyoming 
all-around cowboy. Five days after he went alone to this show he 

10. Wyoming State Journal, April 2, 1936. 

11. Ibid. 

12. Wyoming State Journal, July 23, 1953. 

13. Ibid. 


walked off with three $500 silver-mounted saddles and $1,800 in 
cash. He had won first bronc riding, first in steer roping, first 
in five-day relay races, best wild horse racer, won the famous War 
Bonnet race and $200 for being the all-around champion cowboy! 

"'Stub'' finished his distinguished rodeo career in 1915, but he 
continued to live close to the cowboy life. He was instrumental, 
along with his father and brother, Jules, in conducting some of 
the early day Lander rodeos on the Farlow ranch between the 
years 1900 and 1920, 1 ' and was also arena director from about 
1925 to 1931. In 1921 he married Netta Ann Weedin in Lander, 
and the couple settled on the 4J Ranch north of Lander and 
raised cattle and sheep. He divided his time between such varied 
interests as supervising CCC camps in Jackson and Thermopolis, 
driving the school bus on the Milford-Hudson and Squaw Creek- 
Baldwin Creek routes, and serving as under sheriff in Lander, a 
post he held at the time of his death on July 24, 1953. He also 
owned a dude ranch in the mountains above Lander. It was not 
all work and no play for "Stub"', however. Though he spent most 
of his life in the livestock business, his favorite recreation was 
hunting and fishing, and he built himself a cabin to carry out 
these relaxing pursuits high in the mountains on Porcupine Creek 
near the headwaters of Baldwin Creek. 

Since his unexpected and untimely death, Wyoming's favorite 
cowboy has been honored twice. In September, 1953, an impres- 
sive list of real pioneers of Fremont county was engraved on a 
granite stone dedicated at Lander's Pioneer Grounds. Also en- 
graved were an ox team, a bucking horse and a stage coach. The 
bucking horse is an exact replica of the one used on the Wyoming 
license, and underneath it is inscribed "A. J. 'Stub' Farlow." 
Farlow's name has also been recommended by Senator Lester C. 
Hunt for commemoration in the proposed Rodeo Hall of Fame 
foundation. A bill is expected to be introduced in Congress seek- 
ing federal permission to incorporate a non-profit foundation to 
honor past and present cowboys, stockmen, and ranchers who 
have contributed to the development of the West. 

There has been a good deal of controversy, much factual and 
much pure speculation, about the identity of horse and rider on 
the Wyoming license plates. In fact, "Stub" Farlow has often 
been referred to "as the man on the Wyoming license plates," 
but this is something of a misnomer. The design was not taken 
from a photograph of a ride "Stub" made on the horse "Dead 
Man" at the War Bonnet Roundup at Idaho Falls nor from the 
picture postcard of "Stub" on "War Dog" which Senator Hunt 

14. "Stub" also ran sheep from 1907 to 1920 when he was taken in as 
a partner by his father. 


had in his office along with the original drawing 1 "' of bucking horse 
and rider by Allen True. Nor does the bucking horse represent 
that great black bucker, "Steamboat", who for so many years 
reigned supreme in the arena. It is indeed difficult, in face 
of the evidence, to deduce unequivocally that the license plate 
cowboy is "Stub" Farlow, anymore than that the horse is a specific 
one. In the words of Senator Hunt to Lola Homsher: 1 '" 

Your question with reference to Mr. Farlow is prompted by the 
fact that some time after the plate was in use, I gave a release to 
the effect that in originating and designing the plate, I had in mind 
"Stub" Farlow who was the most typical cowboy that it was my 
pleasure to know and for the further reason that he was a personal 
friend of mine. 

Many stories have appeared in the press from time to time — their 
origin I do not know — saying that the bucking horse license plate 
was a certain horse and the rider was Mr. Farlow. Such is not the 
case, but I did have "Stub" Farlow in mind when designing the plate. 
[Italics are the author's.] 

The Casper Tribune Herald of August 13, 1950, put it most 
accurately when they stated, "The famed Wyoming rider was the 
inspiration several years ago for the bucking bronc buster now so 
prominent on Wyoming license plates." However, the misleading 
headline over this news item — MAN WHO POSED FOR WYO- 
er example of the confusion that has arisen making it necessary 
for Senator Hunt to remark, "Many stories have appeared in the 
press from time to time . . . saying that the bucking horse license 
plate was a certain horse and the rider was Mr. Farlow." 

Though the silhouette of the rider of the bucking horse cannot 
truthfully be identified as A. J. "Stub" Farlow, that his spirit is 
identical there can be no doubt. "He represents all that is typical 
and symbolic of the West," says Senator Hunt. Perhaps this 
sincere expression not only explains "Stub's" connection with the 
rider on the plate but also explains the appeal of these colorful 
and imaginative plates themselves, an appeal sparked by the 
inspiration of Senator Hunt, the artistry of Allen T. True, and the 
spirit of "Stub" Farlow. 

15. Now in the possession of the Wyoming State Historical Department. 

16. Senator L. C. Hunt's letter to Lola M. Homsher, August 24, 1953. 

Zhe Kock Kiver Stage Coach 

Olive Garrett Kafka 

The old stage coach which is now the property of the children 
of Rock River has a history colorful enough to give it a place in 
the annals of early Wyoming history. 

For several years the old coach was a familiar sight in Rock 
River, always to be seen parked one place or another wherever it 
was most convenient to the last persons using it. 

During the year before it came into the present ownership, it 
stood along the side of the Lincoln Highway just outside of the 
fence of its then owner, and what a joy it proved to passing 
tourists who could be seen during that season climbing in it 
and on top of it and posing for snap shots. It was found later that 
they had also cut off and carried away as souvenirs a good bit of it. 

Before tourists thronged the highway as they have done for the 
past three decades, this old coach played an active part in many 
of the festivities of the town. For example no newly wedded 
couple was considered quite properly inducted into the state of 
matrimony unless they were given a ride in the stage coach, and 
they always got it. 

The late J. F. (Sam) White owned the vehicle for a number of 
years and, some months before his death, sold it to Lewis Butler, 
then cashier of Rock River's First National Bank. When that 
institution closed its doors, the stage coach, with other effects, was 
up for sale. It was about to be shipped to a party in Brunswick, 
New Jersey, when we learned of the deal, and the bare idea of 
its being taken away was unthinkable. Mr. R. K. Neiderjohn 
was receiver for the bank, and when he was approached and given 
the reason for keeping the stage coach in Rock River, he very 
easily agreed to hold up the shipment a few days so that the 
money with which to buy it could be raised. And that last was 
very easily accomplished. A subscription list was presented to 
the townfolk, its caption stating that the stage coach, when pur- 
chased, was to be the property of the children of Rock River to 
be held in perpetuity by them. Dr. Patrick made the appeal, and 
I feel safe in stating that not one person when shown the document 
refused to subscribe something. Had the price been twice or 
thrice the sum paid, it would have been as easily raised, for no 
one, when they learned of it, wished to see the old relic taken 
away; and everybody seemed pleased to see its ownership vested 
in the children. 

When Henry Ford's ten millionth car cavalcade on its coast to 
coast swing stopped to stage a parade in Rock River, the stage 


was put in the procession, (a movie was made of that parade). 
Drawn by four horses, with an experienced driver 1 holding the 
ribbons, it added its own unique and suggestive note to the show. 

It turned out that this coach, now so woefully out of repair 
and entirely paintless, was the same one that for several years had 
added its quota to the pageantry of Laramie's early history. 2 Dur- 
ing its years in that city it was carefully housed and was a beautiful 
thing to look upon with its gay coat of vermillion and in excellent 

During all of those years it was owned by the late Mr. Linscott. 
When interviewed, that gentleman betrayed a surprising knowledge 
of interest in early Albany County history, also a very unusual 
interest in stage coaches and their uses and the part they played 
in pioneer days. When told our mission was to obtain the history 
of the Rock River vehicle, he showed instant interest, exclaiming, 
"Say, I'm glad those little kiddies own the poor old wreck. I hope 
they take care of it." He then told us when and why he first 
bought the coach. "I expect," he said, somewhat self-consciously, 
"you will think I'm an old sentimentalist. Perhaps I am. Any- 
how, I bought that stage coach in Rock Creek a short time after 
it made its last trip with the mail, bought it just because I liked 
it, well — something like you might like a person. Bought it from 
the contractor for the stage line from Rock Creek north, over 
the Fort Fetterman to Fort McKinney and Junction City, Mon- 
tana, road; and they bought it from the Patrick Brothers who ran 
the Denver, Cheyenne, Deadwood stage lines. I know this old 
coach was in two holdups while on the Deadwood route — say, if 
it could just talk." 

Mr. Linscott told us where to find bullet holes in the coach 
body, and they were there, too, just where he said to find them — 
wherever the wood work was left to show them. 

After the stage coach was acquired for the Rock River children, 
care for its housing was taken and thanks are due to the Southern 
Wyoming Lumber Company, the late Sidney Morris, and D. E. 
Richards of the Lincoln Highway Garage, all of whom housed it 
in successive periods, extending over a considerable time. Plans 
were made for a glass enclosed shelter to be built on a corner of 
the schoolhouse grounds in which to keep the stage coach, the 

1 . Frank Franzen, Rock River merchant, drove the stage coach in the 
parade. He is an only son of the late Asmus Franzen, pioneer rancher and 
business man. 

2. Doubtless in many of the homes of the old families in Laramie, there 
are photographs of the stage coach behind a four or six horse team and 
filled with jolly folk riding in parade or pageant of some lodge or organ- 
ization. Or if it be a hunting party, coming home with its game, sage 
chickens, ducks or antelope — perhaps all three. Mr. Linscott stated to us 
that he sold his stage coach to J. F. (Sam) White of Rock River. 


building to bear a short legend of it painted in sufficiently large 
lettering to catch the attention of passing tourists; and, taking a 
tip from those earlier tourists, to give them opportunity for taking 
pictures about, in, or on the coach as desired for a price and 
under supervision, of course. School children of responsible age 
were to be placed in charge during the tourist season, two serving 
at a time for a week or two weeks, and while in charge to receive 
a percentage of the proceeds, the balance to be used to create a 
fund sufficient to put the stage coach in perfect repair and make 
it again the beautiful vehicle it once was. The idea behind this 
was to help the children to develop civic pride and love for their 
home town, to learn to transact business, and to cultivate a sense 
of responsibility. 

Regretfully we have to record that this plan, for some reason, 
was not carried out. The writer moved away from the town and 
thus lost track of its activities. Dr. Patrick left Rock River. Its 
leader was gone so Rock River citizens lost interest. 

Zke West 

Loujincy Polk 

Sunshine and sagebrush and a blue sky above, 

This forms the foreground of a story of love; 
In the background perhaps a thousand miles away, 

Or some decades removed by time, lies the dark on another day; 
Enter — ox teams and wagon, printing press and pen, 

Tents and rolls of bedding, fearless women and men; 
A moving line on the prairie, a halt by the side of a stream, 

The sound of ax and hammer, and a home fulfills their dream. 
Those pioneers met with hardships — the fitest stood the test, 

And we, their great grandchildren were given this glorious West. 
Sunshine and sagebrush and a blue sky above, 

Our heritage from those heroes with a thousand stories of love. 

Zhe Passing of the Range 

Written when Jireh became a town, 1911 

Lee Crownover Stoddard 

The cowboy's heart is sad tonight, 

As he watches the setting sun, 

For he knows the day of the range is past, 

And the cowboy's life is run. 

He sits in his saddle, the reins hung loose, 
His horse's head hangs low, 
For he hates to think he must move on 
And further westward go. 

Now he looks again at familiar hills, 

At the gently rolling plain, 

Then imagines he hears the trampling herd, 

And his comrades' voices again. 

His memory paints a picture now 

Of a roundup camp at night, 

How he rolled his bed on the soft green grass, 

With the stars as his only light. 

He thinks of the weary watches at night, 
When he sang to the restless herd, 
Then how he d sleep when he got to bed, 
To wake with the morning bird. 

His fancies now float further on, 

To the work of the branding pen, 

When he threw his rope with a practiced hand, 

With a good horse at the end. 

But the range has passed to the westward, 
And he must follow along, 
Altho he's weary and sad at heart, 
For his lips refuse a song. 

He has followed it many and many a mile, 
Hoping in vain it would pause a while, 
But the cowboy sits in his saddle still 
As he watches the range pass over the hill. 

Washakie and Zhe Shoshoni 

A Selection of Documents from the Records of the Utah 
Superintendency of Indian Affairs 

Edited by 

Dale L. Morgan 

PART III— 1852-1857 


Jacob H. Holeman, Indian Agent, to Luke Lea, 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Fort Bridger, 

Utah Territory, Nov. 3, 1852'" 

Sir — During the past Summer, there has been some excitement 
with the Indians and Whites, in this Territory in consequence of 
the establishment of a ferry and bridge across Green River, by 
the Legislature of Utah Teritory. It seems, that for several years 
previous, ferrys have been established by the Mountaineers, for 
the accommodation of travellers, on the various roads crossing this 
river. At the last session of the Legislature, a charter was granted 
to a Mr. Moore, (a Mormon) giving to him the exclusive privilege 
of ferrying, and thereby excluding all others — a certain portion of 
the tolls, were set apart, by this act, for the benefit and use of the 
Mormon Church.'' 7 A charter was also granted to a company, all 

56. H/201-1853. 

57. The legislature of the State of Deseret, precursor of the Territory 
of Utah, granted the first ferry rights to Green River on Feb. 12, 1850. to 
whom is not known; see Dale L. Morgan, "The State of Deseret," Utah 
Historical Quarterly, 1940, vol. VIII, p. 99. The first Utah Territorial 
Legislature, in an act approved Jan. 16, 1852, granted these ferry rights 
to one Thomas Moor; he was granted "the right of erecting one or more 
ferries on Green river, for one year, at any point within Utah Territory, 
for the accommodation of travelers: Provided he pay ten per cent of all 
moneys collected on said ferry, to be paid into the Territorial treasury, for 
the benefit of the Territory of Utah, on or before the first day of October 
next ensuing." A schedule of rates was adopted, ranging from 25 cents for 
individual animals to $6 for wagons over 4,000 lbs. The act also provided 
that if any person should erect "any public ferry across said river within 
Utah Territory, without permission of the Legislature of the Territory 
of Utah, said person or persons shall pay the sum of one thousand dollars, 
to be collected for the use of the Territory of Utah." Acts, Resolutions, 
and Memorials, Passed by the . . . Legislative Assembly, of the Territory 
of Utah. . . ., Salt Lake City, Utah, 1852, pp. 166-167. (These, the sessions 
laws, will hereafter be cited simply as Laws of Utah for the date in 


Mormons, for the purpose of building a bridge across this river. 5 * 
These charters, and the occupation of the country by the Mormons, 
have produced much excitement among the Indians, who express 
their disapprobation, in the strongest terms. 59 I received a few 
days since the following letter: 

"Fort Bridger, Oct. 9. 1852 
"Maj J. H. Holeman, Ind. Agt. 

"Dr Sir — I beg to call your attention to the disturbed state of the 
Snake Indians at this moment, in consequence of the occupation 
of a part of their country by the Mormon Whites. Being an Amer- 
ican citizen, and having the welfare and honor of my country in 
view I believe it is imperative for you, without delay, to allay, 
by all the means in your authority, the present excitement. I saw 
the Chiefs here, in council, at this Fort, and heard them assert, that 
they intended to immediately drive the whites from their lands, 
and much persuasion was used to pacify them for the present 
time. And now, dear sir, if you do not use the authority vested 
in you, speadily, 1 do believe and fear scenes of destruction and 
bloodshed will soon ensue. 

"Respectfully — Yours 
"A. Willson" 

The above letter is from a gentleman, passing through the 
country, on his return to the States from California, and who was 
remaining at Fort Bridger a few days. I visited, immediately, the 
section of country alluded to and found that a company of Mor- 
mons, under the charter of the Legislature of Utah Territory, had 
assembled on Green river, and had commenced the construction 
of a bridge, but finding so much opposition on the part of they 
[sic] Indians, they determined to abandon it for the present, and 
all have returned to Salt Lake City."" This satisfied the Indians, 

58. No charter for a bridge is recorded in Laws of Utah, 1852. But see 
Note 60. 

59. See Morgan. "The State of Deseret," p. 99 n., in which comment is 
made on the group psychology involved in these ferry grants. The Mor- 
mons, themselves essentially squatters, calmly ignored the squatters' rights 
of the mountain men. Unable to cope with the Mormons in the Terri- 
torial Legislature, the mountain men improved upon their close relations 
with the Shoshoni to stir up the Indians against the Saints and build a case 
they were better able to defend. The issues were complex, and they are 
argued at length in subsequent official correspondence, a major theme, in 
fact, of Indian relations in the Wyoming area over the next four years. 

60. A great deal of the history of the Green River area is here passed 
over very lightly; more should be said about this episode, for it marks a 
distinct forward step in the Mormon occupation of what became Uinta 
County, Wyoming. Expansion of Mormon colonization into the Shoshoni 
country had been foreshadowed in August, 1852, when apparent agreement 
was reached with the Shoshoni on this subject; see Document XVIII. Fol- 
lowing this up, Brigham Young on Aug. 30, 1852, addressed a letter "To 
the brethren who are emigrating to the valleys of the mountains," sent by 
Dimick B. Huntington, William Elijah Ward, and Brigham H. Young, 


who immediately left, and at present all is quiet. The Mormons, 
I understand, intend to resume their efforts to build this bridge 
in the spring — the Indians I also understand, have resolved, that 
the Mormons shall neither occupy a ferry, nor build a bridge 
on the river, which is some 160 miles from the settlements in Salt 
Lake valley. Both parties I understand are determined. Should 
the Mormons persist in their determination, a war will be the 

with advice concerning "our wishes pertaining to making a settlement on 
Green River." This letter, the original of which is in the L. D. S. Church 
Historian's Office in Salt Lake City, said in part: 

It has long been our cherished object to have a good permanent 
settlement located and established at that point. It is a very desirable 
location for many reasons which will be felt doubtless by the pecuni- 
ary advancement of those who shall make that place their home, 
but chiefly that a location may be established which will be calculated 
to strengthen this people and extend a favorable influence among the 
native tribes in the midst of whom we are located. 

It is extremely desirable to have one or two good bridges built 
across Green River, which should be accomplished while the water 
is low this fall and ensuing winter. Those can be toll bridges and 
inure to the benefit of the builders by such arrangements as shall be 
made with the Legislature the ensuing winter. No better place can 
be found for exchanging stock and trading with the emigrants as all 
concentrate at that point. It is also believed to be a good stock 
country and that grain sown early in the spring, say February or 
March, will mature in the best locations. No settlement has as yet 
been made upon the Shoshone's lands. They have always evinced a 
most friendly spirit and will no doubt, if correctly managed, continue 
to exhibit the same. 

It is also a place where a station is needed to produce mail 
facilities to keep a change of animals, etc. But the advantages which 
the place possesses in a pecuniary point of view for a settlement is 
not what we wish so particularly to present as the necessity for a 
settlement at that point, and the fact of its being calculated to be 
productive of much good in promoting the advancement of the cause 
which is dear to every Latter-day Saint. We therefore say unto 
you that we wish to have a sufficient number stop to organize a 
county at that place which was last winter named Green River County 
and attached to G. S. L. County for revenue, election and Indian 
purposes. [Laws of Utah, 1852, pp. 162-164] 

It is not our wish to oppress the brethren, but wish those who 
remain to do so of their own free will and choice, having and feeling 
an abiding interest in the cause which we have espoused. An exten- 
sion of the settlements in that direction will manifestly promote the 
emigration. . . . You can stop and while your teams are jecruiting 
select out the best place for a location; build up your cabins; and then 
come into the city so far as it shall be necessary to procure your 
winter supplies, after which you can return and make your arrange- 
ments for the ensuing season of emigration, etc. . . . 

The exact nature of the difficulties that developed does not appear in 
the Mormon sources, but on October 14, 1852, Brigham Young wrote to 
"Wm. D. Huntington, Brigham H. Young and others at Green River": 

I wrote to you on the 4th inst., per Indian Simons, to return from 


consequence, and great distress and suffering must follow, as it is 
on the main emigration route from to California and Oregon. 

In regard to the occupation of the Indian country, under these 
charters from the Legislature of the Territory, and their authority 
to grant them, I should be pleased to have advice and instruction 
immediately. Maj. [John] Hockad[a]y, who will hand you this, 
is fully advised of all the circumstances — I refer you to him for 
further information. In relation to these ferry's and bridge, the 
charter provides that 10 cents on every dollar received as toll, 
shall be paid into the tithing office, for the benefit of the Church. 01 
This seems to me, to be unconstitutional — advise me, in relation 
to this matter — I am called upon, almost daily, for information 
and am not able to give it, not knowing the power of the Terri- 
torial Legislature. 

I wish, also, advice in relation to the use of Spirituous Liquors — 
On the route from the states to Salt Lake City, there are two 
establishments for the accommodation of travellers and emigration 
— I have given them Licence, as Indian traders, being in the Indian 
country — they keep spirits for the use of the travel, but in no case, 
do they permit the use of it by the Indians — they are what may be 
termed Tavern Keepers.'' If it is improper for me to allow them 
this privilege, please advise me. 

The Mormon authorities have levied a tax on these Mountain- 
eers and have collected, in some instances — as the tax is consid- 
ered extravagant, and partly for the use and benefit of the Mor- 

that place and for all of you to come away and bring your effects 
with you to this city and leave not one behind. Owing to the uncer- 
tainty of your getting the letter from that source, I now write you by 
Bro. Hutchinson. It is needless to urge the matter of settlement at 
that place at the present. We do not wish to lay the foundation for 
any difficulty which by a little foresight may be avoided. 

If some of our people would go out with the Indians upon their 
trip hunting and get acquainted with them and with their chiefs, then 
a good influence might be exerted among them, which it would not 
be in the power of anybody else to counteract; but we must wait for 
the present; therefore, all of you come back and let things take their 
course a little longer. . . . 

Hosea Stout, who came as a colonizing missionary to the Green River 
area in the spring of 1854, wrote in his journal on May 15, "... we 
arrived at Russell's [after] Baiting with Batise at twelve Here at Russell's 
is where Huntington & Co. commenced a settlement in 1852 which was 
wisely abandoned afterwards." And next day, "we moved two miles 
down the River to the Mormon Crossing of Green River Ferry," which 
serves to fix the location of the initial Mormon effort at colonization in 

61. It will be seen that this does not square with the language of the 
law as quoted in Note 57. 

62. These "taverns" may have been located on Green River; but one of 
them was possibly Fort Bridger. 


mon church, it is producing much excitement, and I fear will 
produce bloodshed. These men declare their willingness to pay 
any tax which the Government may demand, but refuse to pay 
a Mormon Tax, as they term it. As I am frequently called upon 
for information on these subjects, I should like to be fully advised, 
as it may prevent difficulty and trouble in future. . . . 


Jacob H. Holeman, Indian Agent, to Luke Lea, 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Webber Station 

[Utah], March 5, 1853 M 

Sir — I addressed you a hasty note, in November last, from Fort 
Bridger in relation to difficulties between the Mormons and the 
Indians. I remained on Green River, had frequent conversations 
with the Indians until all matters were quieted for the present. But 
I fear a disturbance, if the country should be settled and occupied 
by the Mormons, or if they should attempt to build Bridges and 
establish ferries under the acts of the Territorial Legislature, allud- 
ed to in my note of November last. I am at a loss to know how 
to act — I have so frequently asked for information and instruc- 
tions, on various matters, without receiving any, that I fear my 
communications have not reached you. I hope, however, that 
they have not miscarried, and that I shall receive them by the 
first mail. We have not had a mail from the States since October. 
There has been so much snow, that the Mountains and roads have 
been impassable, except on foot, with Snow Shoes. I have been 
unable to reach Salt Lake — I was compelled to remain at Bridger 
until January, when a warm spell dissolved the Snow, and I made 
an effort — but could get no farther than this place, where I have 
been compelled to remain ever since, some three months — living 
upon wild game that we could kill. There are three Mormon 
families living here 1 ' 1 — all they have to live on is flour — they have 
no meat but such as they can kill. From these we have been 
enabled to get bread, and such other accommodations as they can 
afford, but at a very high price, and none of the best at that — 
they have but a scant supply for themselves. I have remained 
here in this predicament on account of my horses, being satisfied, 
that if I left them, they would be lost — I have a hired man with 
me, and by our constant attention we have been enabled to save 
them through the winter. The snow is disappearing on the South 
hill sides, the grass is commencing to grow, and I hope to be able, 

63. H/234-1853. 

64. The "Webber" or Weber Station from which this letter was written 
was probably in the locality of present Henefer. 


in a few days to reach Salt Lake City, when I will communicate 
to you more fully — there being no mails from this Territory, to 
the States, since October has prevented me from writing before. 
The mail carrier of October, was compelled to leave his horses, 
and part of his mail here, and take the letter bag to the City 
on foot. He has just arrived from the city, with the March Mail, 
after a laborious travel of five days, only forty miles, and will 
make an effort to reach the States. He reports the Mountains 
impassable for horses, particularly weak as ours are — but I hope 
to be able to leave in a few days. You will please receive this 
as my excuse for not communicating to you at the end of each 

My situation with Gov. Young, as Superintendent, is rather an 
unpleasant one — While I feel disposed to treat all parties fairly, 
and protect the Indians so as to prevent difficulties with the 
Whites, he seems to have no other anxiety but to favor his own 
church and people. If things are not changed I feel satisfied, I 
can be of no great service to the Indian department. My course is 
well known to the department — I have acted from circumstances, 
and to the best of my judgement, and hope that my conduct has 
been justified by the department. If matters are not changed, so 
as to produce a better feeling in the Mormons, toward the Gov- 
ernment, or if the authority and laws of the Government are not 
enforced, if it should be the wishes of the department I would like 
to be called home, as my duty to the Government compels me to 
act in such a manner, as to give offence, frequently, to the Mor- 
mons, who seem to recognize no law but their own self will. This 
is a very unpleasant situation and one that can be productive of 
not much service either to the Government, to the Indians, or to 
myself. They seem desirous to hold all the offices themselves — 
and when a Gentile is appointed he is never treated with respect, 
but is abused let him do as he will. I have, and do yet, disregard 
their abuse, but feel that my efficiency as a Government officer 
is impaired by such conduct. 

I have heretofore suggested to the department, various matters 
— having taken some pains to acquire information, and at the 
expense of the Government, and having formed a friendly ac- 
quaintance with the Indians and made myself acquainted with the 
country, if my suggestions should meet the views of the depart- 
ment, I will, with pleasure, give them such attention as the de- 
partment may direct — as I do not feel disposed to relinquish a 
duty imposed on me, however arduous and disagreeable the ser- 
vice may be — particularly, having recommended them. . . . 

P. S. I have written in a great hurry, on a board on my knee; 
you will therefore excuse the scrawl. . . . 



Stephen B. Rose, Sub-agent, to Brigham Young, Supt. of 
Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt Lake City, June 30, 1853'"' 

Dear Sir 

Since my last report there has nothing of importance occured 
amoungst the Indians under my charge, with the exception of a 
fight between the Sioux and Utes of Uwinfa Valley but I appre- 
hend there will be some considerable fighting between them as all 
the Tribes of Nebraska are collecting their warriors together for a 
general war with the Utes. I would respectfully call the attention 
of the Department to the Sale of ardent spirits by the French 
Traders or Freemen as they are called upon the rivers and road 
from the States to this City as they are carrying on the sale of it 
to a great extent I wish to have particular instructions as to what 
course to pursue in this matter as I think it a serious matter 
Accompanying this report you will find a Schedule and Vouchers 
of the expenses of this Agency up to the present time which I 
hope will meet with the approbation of the Department. . . . 


Edward A. Bedell, Indian Agent, to George W. Manypenny, 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated G. S. L. City, 

Sept. 30, 1853'"' 

Dear Sir, 

I arrived in this city on the 15th day of August ult, and on the 
same day reported to Governor Young that I was ready for duty, 
but could not releive Major Holeman according to the strict letter 
of your instructions, as he was away on a trip to Carson Valley; 
and as he did not return until yesterday I have not yet had time 
to receive and receipt for the Government property in his pos- 
session, and include the same in this quarter's return, but will 
attend to it forthwith. 

Under the direction of the Superintendent, I have written the 
Indian Chief named Little Soldier, and his band, who are at 
present near the mouth of Weber River Kanyon, about 45 miles 
north of this city; 1 also the Shoshones, and Yampah and Uinta 

65. Enclosure in Young to Manypenny, Sept. 30, 1853, U/26-1853. 

66. B/295-1853. Bedell had been named to succeed Holeman after the 
Democratic victory in the election of 1852. He came from Warsaw, 
Illinois, and had been on cordial terms with the Saints before their expul- 
sion from that state. 


Utahs, in the neighborhood of Fort Bridger. 67 I found them all 
friendly & professing much friendship, & made them suitable pres- 
ents, so far as I thought warranted under the strangely small 
amount appropriated for the expenditure of this Superintendency, 
but far short, in my estimation, of what they actually need and 

My Account Current, and accompanying papers are in the 
hands of Govr Young, & will be forwarded by this Mail, and I 
hope will prove entirely satisfactory. 

Please permit me to indulge in a few remarks, which, though 
perhaps not immediately pertaining to my duties, I deem of im- 

I will not stop to use argument but simply state what I know 
and most assuredly believe to be facts. This Territory is known 
as a whole to be exceedingly destitute of game, and to be poor in 
spontaneous edible roots, & Seeds; and the Lakes and Rivers afford 
but a limited supply of fish, and the crickets are abundant only 
for a short season, and in certain localities. The Indians inhabit- 
ing this region, like the great majority of their red brethren, delight 
in leading a life of indolence, and indulge in thieving at every safe 
opportunity. Very many of the Stock owners enroute for Cali- 
fornia, and emigrants to Oregon & California stop & winter in 
these valleys with large numbers of stock. This stock, as it re- 
cruits, is very tempting to the Indians, who would take it to the 
extent of their fancies, were they not prevented by the fear of the 
settlements. A great proportion, if not a large majority of the 
white Inhabitants of Utah, are American born citizens, and gen- 
erally the foreign population naturalize as fast as the laws will 
allow, and their is not a more loyal set of people, or inhabitants 
within the United States. 

I need not weary your patience with an extended detail of kin- 
dred facts, and characteristics relative to the inhabitants, Indians, 
and temporary sojourners of this Territory, as I have already 
stated more than may be sufficient to make it evident that the 

67. During the period covered by this report, Jim Bridger had been 
driven from his fort by a Mormon posse — the date, August 26, 1853, being 
fixed by the diary of a California immigrant. Dr. Thomas Flint (see His- 
torical Society of Southern California, Annual Publications, 1923, Vol. XII, 
Part III, p. 97. There had been hard feelings between Bridger and the 
Mormons for more than 4 years, and according to Bill Hickman, "About 
this time it was rumored that Jim. Bridger was furnishing the Indians with 
powder and lead to kill Mormons. Affidavits were made to that effect, 
and the Sheriff was ordered out with a posse of one hundred and fifty men 
to arrest him, capture his ammunition, and destroy all his liquors." Bridger 
easily evaded the posse, but Hickman says the liquor was destroyed "by 
doses." See William A. Hickman, Brigham's Destroying Angel, New York, 
1872, pp. 91-92. Bridger did not return to his fort until he came with 
Johnston's army in the fall of 1857. 


appropriations for the Utah Superintendency are altogether too 
small, unless the Government design to let these Indians starve, 
so far as it is concerned, or live by plundering, or be sustained by 
the voluntary contributions of the different settlements. Neither 
of these courses is presumable, and I fully and cordially coincide 
with the judgment of Governor Young that $40,000. is the smallest 
amount that ought to be appropriated for the years ending June 
30th 1854 & 55, and think a larger sum would be much nearer 
strict justice in the case. . . . 


Edward A. Bedell, Indian Agent, to Brigham Young, Supt. 
of Indian Affairs, dated G S Lake City, Dec. 31, 1853'" 

Dear Sir 

In compliance with the regulations of the Indian Department I 
have the Honor to submit my Second report in relation to the 
affairs of my Agency. Nothing of importance has occurred Since 
my last quarterly report dated Sept 30th 1853 made to your 
excellency except the Masacre by the Indians of the lamented 
Capt [John W.] Gunnison and his party. In the fore part of 
October according to your suggestion I visited Fort Bridger and 
Henrys Fork I found but few Indians there Antero a Ute Chief 
with a Small band I found on Henrys Fork Encamped I held a 
conference with him had a talk I made his band presents of a few 
Blankets shirts & Tobacco He seemed much pleased and they 
all promised to keep up a friendly intercourse with the whites 
and remain quiet and at peace — Early in November I started for 
the Severe [Sevier River] where Capt Gunnison fell but on meet- 
ing my interpreter Demick Huntington and being informed by him 
that he had recovered the Government propperty or all of it that 
could be got I returned from Utah Valey to this City. The night 
before my arrival in Provo City the Indians killed several head of 
cattle Col [Peter] Conover followed them with a small party of 
men some twenty miles in the mountains but was not able to 
over take them. I found a small boddy of Utes Encamped on 
battle creek had a talk with them They promised to be Peacible 
and friendly. I received your instructions the last of November 
to visit the vicinity of Green River but was not at the time able 
to go in consequence of Sickness Deeming it important I procured 
the Services of the Hon Orsen Hyde and Sent with him Wm Hick- 
man Esqr as Gua[r]d and Robert Coster 15 " they found a few 

68. Enclosure in Young to Manypenny, Dec. 31, 1853, U/28-1854. 

69. Here again some background must be filled in. After the false 
start in 1852, a Mormon settlement in the basin of the Green River was 
begun in the fall of 1853, as one of several missions sent to the Indians 


Indians made them presents and warned them against being led 

of Utah Territory. The official camp journal of the mission is copied 
into Andrew Jenson's History of Fort Supply, in his History of Lyman 
Stake, a manuscript in the Church Historian's Office at Salt Lake City. 
The company, consisting of 39 men with 20 wagons, 93 head of cattle, and 
8 head of horses and mules, left Great Salt Lake City Nov. 2 and reached 
Fort Bridger on the 12th. They had intended locating in the valley of 
Henrys Fork, but chose in preference to this a location on Willow Creek, 
a tributary of Smiths Fork, a few miles south of Fort Bridger. Here, 
on Nov. 17, Fort Supply was founded. An extended account of the mission 
by a member of it is James S. Brown, Life of a Pioneer, Salt Lake City, 
1900, pp. 304-374; brief mention by another member is found in Chris- 
topher Merkley, Biography of Christopher Merkley, Salt Lake City, 1887, 
p. 33. A formal history by Andrew Jenson is published in Utah Genealo- 
gical and Historical Magazine, January, 1913; see also Charles E. Dibble, 
"The Mormon Mission to the Shoshoni Indians," Utah Humanities Review, 
April, 1947. 

Orson Hyde did not leave Great Salt Lake City with the advance party, 
but paid the new fort a brief visit on Dec. 9-12. A letter he wrote on the 
subject of the mission is published in the Deseret News, Dec. 1, 1853. The 
manner in which the Mormons were able to combine public business with 
church interests is well shown by Bedell's letter, for Hyde was obliged 
to go to Fort Supply in any event. He wrote the following letter to 
Washakie before returning home: 

Fort Supply, Green River County 
Dec. 10, 1853 

Respected and esteemed friends: 

I have often heard of you but never had the pleasure of seeing 
you or of making your acquaintance, both of which I desire and hope 
the time will not be long until I see you and make your acquaintance. 

A little more than one year ago our people began to make a settle- 
ment (on your lands) on Green River, but learning that you and 
your people did not like us to form a settlement there, we left and 
gave up the settlement. Since that time we have heard by Mr. Battize 
Lauzon [a phonetic rendition of Baptiste Louisant] that you were 
willing that our people should make a settlement on your lands, on 
or near Green River, therefore our great Chief in G. S. L. Valley, 
Brigham Young, has sent me with a number of men to make a set- 
tlement on your lands. We have located on Smith's Fork, about 
ten miles from Sam Callwell's fort [i.e., what until lately had been 
Fort Bridger?]. I am now with them, but shall leave them in two 
more sleeps to go to G. S. L. City. I shall remain there until Spring 
and when the snow melts and the grass grows I shall come back to 
this settlement and hope to remain with them. I have heard that 
some whites have told you that we were a bad people, but in answer 
to this I would say to you come and see. Our young men are 
learning your language; they want to be united with your people and 
a number of our men want to marry wives from your people and we 
want to be friends. We want to be friends with the Utes and not 
kill them, but they will steal and rob us and we had to kill some of 
them and they have killed some of us. We are sorry that they live 
so bad. When you can learn all about what some white men have 
done on Green River you will not blame the "Mormons" for taking 
some of their stock, it was done according to the laws of our Great 
Father at Washington. Believe not all the bad things that some white 


a stray by the notorious Rian 7 " and I am satisfied that their visit 
had a good Effect and was well timed. As far as I can ascertain 
there is decidedly a better feeling towards the whites Generally 
among the Indians of this Territory You will find my account 
for this quarter for grain tolerably large My Excuse is to be found 
in the fact that the Horses I received from Major J H Holman My 
predesessor were in verry low flesh and I was obliged to feed them 
grain to keep them a live .... 

men say of us but come and see us. We would like some Lamanites 
of your people to come and live in our little settlement so that we 
may talk with them and learn your language. I sent you this letter 
by Bro. Barney Ward who has a Shoshone wife an,disome x o{ our 
young men go with him to see you. I send you t some tobacco and 
some shirts also and my best wishes. I hope to see you myself when 
snow melts and grass grows and then I want you to go with me to 
Salt Lake Valley and see our great chief Brigham Young and have a 
talk with him if you can when grass grows, come and see our new 
settlement and I expect to be here then and I will see you, but all our 
young men will be glad to see you [this winter] if you can come 
but I should not be with you then until grass grows and if you cannot 
come to see me then I will try to find where you are and come and 
see you and your people. I send you many good wishes and hope the 
Good Spirit above will be kind and good to the Shoshone nation and 
to their Great Chief and also to the Mormons and their Great Chief. 

Will you send me word by Barney Ward and the young men, what 
you think and how you feel and they will write the same and send to 
me and to our Great Chief in G. S. L. Valley. 

I am, your Friend 
Orson Hyde 
To Washakeete. 

The above letter is copied into the Fort Supply camp journal under date of 
May 9, 1854. Owing to severe weather, it was not possible to carry the 
communication to Washakie during the winter; it was finally taken to 
him in the spring of 1854, an episode James S. Brown describes at consid- 
erable length (op. cit., pp. 312-332). It may be remarked that the dates 
in Brown's book for this period check up very well with contemporary 

70. Ryan's first name was Elisha, but James S. Brown calls him L. B. 
Ryan. From Brown's account, it would seem that after Bridger was forced 
to leave his fort, Sam Callwell became the recognized leader of the Green 
River mountain men — or as Brown puts it, Callwell "was said to be at 
the head of the gang of desperadoes who plied their vocation from Bridger 
to Green River, and back on the emigrant route to Laramie; he was a 
large, trim built man. about six feet six inches tall, and very daring. But 
after a bowie knife was plunged into his vitals [by Louis Tromley, a 
Frenchman] he did not survive long, dying in about twenty-four hours. . . . 
L. B. Ryan [succeeded] Samuel Callwell as chief of the organized band 
of desperadoes. . . ." Brown, op. cit., pp. 310, 312. Bill Hickman has a 
considerable account of his own dealings with Ryan, who, he says (and 
this is shown to be the fact in at least one instance), accompanied him on 
three missions pertaining to Indian affairs in 1854-55. Hickman also says 
(op. cit., p. 106) that Ryan was subsequently killed by "a Spaniard," this 
apparently in the spring of 1855. 



Jacob H. Holeman to George W. Manypenny, Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs, dated Washington City, March 7, 1854 71 

Sir — In reply to your verbal request, for information, "whether 
at the time of the organization of the Territory of Utah, the Indians 
in that Territory, occupied, possessed or claimed title to the whole 
of the Territory — whether the possessions of the different tribes, 
bounded on each other, or if not, about how much was not pos- 
sessed by the Indians at the time of its organization." 

Having resided in the Territory, of Utah, as Indian agent, since 
1851, and having had considerable intercourse with the various 
tribes and bands of Indians in that Territory, I have no hesitation 
in stating, that within the boundary of the Territory, as I have 
understood it, the Indians claim all the land. — There are the 
Shoshonies — the Uwinte Utes — the Pi-Utes, — the Timpany Utes 
— the Parvante Utes — the Banacks — the Washaws — Sosokos, &c. 
Many of these tribes are divided into bands, under some favorite 
chief, and are scattered over the Territory, claiming large boun- 
daries of land. — They move from place to place, within these 
boundaries, in search of game, and other necessaries, but generally, 
confining themselves within the limits of the grounds claimed by 
the respective tribes to which they belong. — These claims seem 
to be acknowledged and respected by the different tribes and 
bands and are defined by Mountains, water courses &c. There is 
a small tract of country, lying on the North Piatt, between the 
Shoshonies, and the Sioux and Cheyenes, which is considered as 
neutral ground, and where they sometimes meet to trade with 
each other, or for war, as either tribe may feel in the humor. This 
ground is frequently occupied or visited by the various bands in 
the vicinity, when game is plenty, — each tribe concedes this priv- 
iledge to the other; no one tribe or band claims the exclusive 
right to do so. 

The land, in the valley of Salt Lake, upon which the Mormons 
have settled, was claimed and occupied by the Utes and Shosho- 
nies, until settled by the Mormons. Much complaint has been 
made by the Indians, an dfrequent difficulties have occurred, in 
consequence of this occupation of their lands, by the whites, with- 
out their assent. If something is not done, by which the Indians, 
and the whites may know their respective rights and privileges, 
much difficulty may be expected. . . . 

71. H/574-1854. 



Edward A. Bedell, Indian Agent, to Brigham Young, Supt. 

of Indian Affairs, dated Indian Agency Office, 

Utah Ty., April 6, 1854" 


In obedience to your instructions, Dated March 24 th 1854, 
informing me that you had received a communication from Maj 
Higgins commandant at Manti of the whereabouts of the Indian 
Chief — Walker, and wishing me to proceed with my interpreter 
to Fillmore City & hold talk with him. 

I have the honor to state most respectfully that I proceeded on 
the 25 th of March, in Company with D. B. Huntington Esq r Inter- 
preter. On the 27th of March, we held a talk with Panawick a 
Ute Chief with a Small party of Indians at Payson in Utah 
Valley. He informed me that he had used his influence to get 
the Indians belonging to old Squash-Head's band, who had stolen 
from the neighborhood of Springville, some Eighty head of Cattle 
a short time previous to return them to their owners, and we 
ascertained that he had succeeded in procuring the return of 24 
Head, I told him he and his band had done right, and that I would 
report their good conduct to you, and that you would inform the 
great father of his good conduct, I then made them some small 
presents of Shirts, Tobacco &c. they seemed well pleased & prom- 
ised to go again into the Mountains, and if the Indians had not 
killed the remainder of the cattle, to bring them in. I told them 
to tell old Squash-Head & Peteetneet to come in, & bring the 
Cattle back if they had not killed them, & be honest, and cease 
stealing. I also found quite a number of Indians at work on lands 
that had been ploughed for them by the citizens of Payson. 

We then proceeded on our way, and arrived at Salt Creek on 
the 29 th March, a fine flourishing Settlement, where I found 
Ammon, Walker's Brother, with 10 or 12 lodges of Indians. They 
seemed very much pleased to see us. Ammon talked very much 
in favor of establishing a permanent peace, & said he was glad 
we were going to have a talk with Walker, for he was sure Walker 
wanted to be friendly. I ascertained that Ammon furnished Cap- 
tain Fremont with the first provisions he got after entering the 
Valley in a Starving condition; the citizens also spoke well of the 
band, they surveyed off & set apart for them 80 acres of land near 
the Fort, and was assisting such of the Indians as would work to 
plough and Sow wheat. 

I gave Ammon two Blankets, and his men some Shirts, & To- 
bacco, & explained to them the object of the great father in having 
the Surveys made by Col Freemont, and the late lamented Captain 

72. U/31-1854. 


Gunnison. They seemed much pleased and said, that the Parvan 
Indians that murdered Captain G had done very wickedly, and they 
were sorry, for they beleived he was a good man. 

We arrived at Fillmore City on the 31 st of March, and found 
the celebrated chief Walker encamped near the Fort with about 
75 braves with him. I visited him at his Lodge on the morning 
of the 31 st March, in Company with the officers of the Fort and 
my Interpreter. He appeared quite reserved, but glad to see us. 
Said he had a great deal to say, and hoped we would make a stay 
of several days I told him I could not spend more than a day: 
he said Kenosh a & other chiefs were there, and he wanted the 
Indians all as also the officers of the Fort to hear what he had 
to say, for my Interpreter M r Huntington could understand him. 

I procured a large room from the Hon James McGaw, and 
commenced a talk with Walker in presence of the Officers of the 
Fort Authorities of the City & about Eighty Indians, which con- 
tinued all day. I furnished dinner for the Chiefs at the Hotel, 
& furnished provisions for the other Indians also. Walker said 
from the first he had been opposed to this difficulty, & that he had 
done everything in his power to prevent it, but that he could not 
control some of his men, and when he found they were determined 
to steal & murder, he went off to New Mexico to get away, for 
he felt bad. I told him that the Report had gone to the States, 
that he & his men had murdered Captain Gunnison & part of his 
Surveying party, and that the people and also the Great father 
were justly indignant that such a terrible cold blooded murder 
should be committed upon men in the service of the United States, 
and sent by the Great father to locate a Road that would enable 
them to get a much larger amount of presents, by reducing the 
cost of transportation. He said, he had heard about it, & seen 
one party South, making a similar survey & had rendered them 
assistance & was much pleased. He said he was truly sorry the 
Pauvants had acted so hastily and indiscreetly, in committing the 
assault & murder on that party, but tried to apologise for them. 
Said a train of Emigrants a few days before, had killed an Indian 
without any provocation, and that the friends & relations of the 
Indians came upon the party while their hearts were bad. I told 
him Captain G & his men knew nothing of that, & were entirely 
innocent, & tried to show and explain to them how wrong it was 
to punish & murder innocent men, for the acts of bad, and wicked 

The Pauvant Chiefs Kenosh & Parashunt were present, and quite 
a number of their men. They seemed very uneasy, and much 
alarmed. Walker wished me to ask you to inform the Great 
Father, & the people of the States, that it was not him, or his 
party that done the deed, & also to ask the Great Father, not to 
send soldiers to punish the Pah-vants, for he was afraid some 


innocent Indians would be dragged into difficulty. I talked with 
him in reference to selling his land to the general government. 
He said he would prefer not to sell if he could live peaceably 
with the white People, which he was anxious to do. 

The citizens of Fillmore had set apart Eighty acres of excellent 
land for the use of the Indians. 

I asked Walker, if he or his men desired to raise wheat & 
Potatoes &c. He said he would much prefer to trade & hunt him- 
self, but he would be glad to have the Indians work & raise wheat 
& Corn &c (which many are doing). 

Walker I found with a large band of horses, which he wanted 
to trade, or sell, & other property. Walker said that the Shoshones 
in November last, stole 150 Horses from the Utahs. I promised 
them to enquire into it & endeavor to get the Shoshones to return 
the Horses. 

I made Walker, presents of Blankets, Shirts, and Tobacco; and 
also presents to his men. They all said, they were anxious to 
live in peace, & promised to be friendly to Emigrants & citizens. 
Said they would not steal any more Cattle, for when they came 
into Fillmore hungry, the Citizens gave them a beef ox. & Wheat 
bread &c. 

I am firmly of the opinion, if the Emigrants treat them with any 
degree of kindness & forbearance, as also the citizens of the Ter- 
ritory, they will be peaceable and quiet, which is greatly to be 
desired. 73 

In February last, a Deputation of Seven Bannack Indians visited 
this City for the purpose of having a talk with Your Excellency 
and myself; the weather was extremely cold & Stormy, & I was 
compelled to keep them in my Office for several days until the 
storm abated, and also keep their horses. I think the General 
Government should build a carroll, and some kind of cheap 
quarters for the Indians when they come in; for it is almost 
impossible to get them Kept, while in the City on business. 

I am much indebted to D. B. Huntington Esq r for the favor 
of providing for them, as also Col [J. C] Little. 

The Bannacks are a friendly race of Indians, & quite intelligent; 
they say they have never received any presents from the Great 
Father, but that the citizens of the Territory have been usually 
very kind to them, and that you have been uniformly been [sic] 
good to them. I made them presents of Shirts, Tobacco, pro- 
visions, and such things as I had and could procure. They seemed 
much pleased, & promised to continue friendly &c. They said it 

73. The peace talks with Walker, described here and in Document 
XXVI, as also in S. N. Carvalho, Incidents of Travel and Adventure in the 
Far West, New York, 1856, pp. 187-196, settled the difficulties with the 
Utes which are remembered in Utah history as the Walker War of 1853-54. 
Walker took no very prominent part in the war, and died soon after, on 
January 29, 1855. 


was not good to steal from, or murder the whites, although, they 
said on several occasions, the emigrants had treated them badly. 
I told them, that you & the Great father would do everything in 
your power to have their wrongs atoned for, & that if they would 
inform me, I would always endeavor to regain any property that 
the emigrants wrongfully deprived them of. 

The Shoshones, as far as I can ascertain, continue to be friendly, 
they say they do not receive as many presents as they are entitled 
to, the price of goods is so high here that the appropriation does 
not seem to go far, for the Indians of this Territory are so very 

Hoping that we may be able to live in peace with the Native 
tribes. . . . 


Brigham Young, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to George W. 

Manypenny, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated 

Great Salt Lake City, June 30, 1854 74 


Since my last quarterly report, our relations with our red 
neighbors have remained uniformly friendly towards the whites, 
so far as I have information. 

I have recently heard rumours of hostile feelings between the 
Shoshones on Green River, and Country adjacent, and the Utahs 
of Uinta Valley. As these tribes are in the agency assigned to the 
late Agent E. A Bedell, who died on Green River [on May 3] on 
his return to the States, and as no authentic information has yet 
reached me, of any serious outbreaks upon each other, I have not 
deemed it best, up to the present date, to incur the expense of 
sending an express party to enquire into the matter; and, also, as 
1 expect to visit that region personally during the next month, 
when I shall be able to learn definit[e]ly the facts in the case. 

On the 3rd of May Ult. 1 left this City on a tour South, with 
the design of visiting, and talking with the various Indian tribes 
which might at the time be reasonably near the traveled route, 
and returned on the 30th Ult. having seen, and conversed with a 
majority of their principal men, and made such presents of cattle, 
clothing, &c as the exigences of the case seemed to require, all 
the Indians thus met with, expressed strong desires for ""good 
peace,'' and thus far have acted in accordance with their profes- 
sions. But they are generally very poor, and have few and scanty 
resources for subsistence, and are much given, very naturally, to 
contrasting our apparent wealth with their destitution, and from 

74. U/36-1854. 


the contrast make onerous demands upon the white settlers for 
food, and clothing, which, when not complied with from any 
cause, occasions ill feelings on the part of the Indians, resulting 
often, even now, in thieving, and on the other hand renders it 
difficult for me to make our poor citizens understand at all times, 
that it is cheaper, and far better for us to feed & clothe the Indians, 
learn them to labor, and to read & write, than it is to fight them, 
more especially as they deem that to belong to the ; proper sphere 
of duty of the General Government, in accordance with her pro- 
claimed policy. 

Doubtless Congress in their appropriations, and the Jndian 
Department in auditing my accounts, will duly appreciate the cir- 
cumstances, and position of our recent & aboriginal population, 
and adopt a course that will tend to lighten the difficulties under 
which we are struggling to make the desert blossom as the rose, 
to extend the area of enlightenment, and civilization, and to 
ameliorate the condition of the untamed, & untutored savage*/ 

As the only Agency as yet allowed to Utah is made vacant by 
the death of Major E. A. Bedell, and our only Sub-Agency will 
soon be vacated by the removal, to the States, of the present in- 
cumbent Major S. B. Rose, I beg leave to call your early attention 
to this subject, and most respectfully suggest, that James Brown 3 rd 
be appointed Indian Agent, 75 & Dimick B. Huntington Indian 
Sub-Agent for Utah Territory, as persons every way qualified to 
act efficiently and with correctness and good judgment in official 
duties, both towards the natives, and the Department. 

You are already familiar with the extent of this Territory, & 
with the number, & scattered situation of her tribes; would it not 
therefore be just to allow Utah one or two more Sub-Agents? 
Should your judgment permit you so to decide, it would be gratify- 

75. James Brown 3rd, as then called, later changed his name to James 
Stephens Brown, to distinguish himself from other Browns in Utah. In his 
quarterly report to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs of Dec. 31, 1853 
(U/28-1854), Brigham Young had recommended that sub-agents be ap- 
pointed for "Carson Valley, Mary's river, & that region, one for Green 
River County, one for the tribes who can be easily reached from the con- 
fluence of Grand and Green Rivers, and one for Washington, Iron, and 
Millard Counties"; he named as suitable persons George P. Dykes, Levi 
Stewart, Dimick B. Huntington, and John D. Lee. That James S. Brown 
was now recommended for an agency shows that Young appreciated the 
services he had performed during May and June in making contact with 
Washakie, a difficult and dangerous mission. Soon after writing these 
remarks, Brigham Young wrote in his History, "Learning that the principal 
chief of the Shoshones had invited Elder James Brown to go into his lodge 
and remain and identify himself with them, I wrote to Brother Brown 
counseling him by all means to do so, for it was what was needed and 
the very purpose for which the mission was established. The hand of God 
was in it. So that we could gain influence with the tribe to make them 
peaceable and do them good." (History of Brigham Young, 1854, p. 64. 
quoted in L. D. S. Journal History, July 18, 1854.) 


ing to me, and highly beneficial to all parties concerned, if you 
would appoint John D. Lee, and Isaac Bullock. 7 ' 1 

I presume you will extend to Utah all the facilities in your 
power, to enable her population to be benefitted, at the earliest 
practicable date, by such treaty regulations with her tribes as the 
liberality of Congress may provide. 

Accompanying this my Report, I forward the vouchers from 
No. 1. to 10. inclusive, the a/c Current, and the abstract for the 
4th Quarter, ending June 30 th , 1854, and amounting to $2185 

Trusting that the official papers now forwarded will be found 
just, correct, & satisfactory. . . . 


2d Lieut. H. B. Fleming, comdg. Fort Laramie, to George 

W. Manypenny, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated 

Fort Laramie, Aug. 15, 1854" 


A copy of a letter has been sent me requesting me to forward 
the same to you for your decision thereon. There has been a 
great dal of trouble between the Mountain Men and the Mormons 
for some time past, which has resulted in the death of several per- 
sons on both sides. The Mountain Men have wives and children 
among the Snake Indians, and therefore claim the right to the 
Green River country in virtue of the grant given them by the 
Indians to whom the country belongs; as no treaty has yet been 
made to extinguish their title — The Mormons, on the other hand, 
claim jurisdiction over the country, paramount to all Indian titles, 
in virtue of it being in Utah Territory. 

Now, the question, in issue, appears to me this; since the country 
lies in the Territory of Utah, have the Mormons or have they not 
the right to dispose of the country to settlers, to dispose of its 
resources, revenues, and finally everything in the country or exer- 
cise judicial power over revenues before the actual Indian Title 
has been extinguished 

These questions have been and are now agitated among the 
people of the new Territories — have caused a great deal of trouble 

76. Bullock subsequently became probate judge of Green River County. 
He led to Fort Supply the second company sent there, which arrived close 
on the heels of the first, Nov. 26, 1853. The company consisted of 53 
men, and brought 190 head of cattle. 

77. F/ 11 7- 1854. The questions raised in this and the document follow- 
ing were on September 15, 1854, referred by the Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs to the Secretary of the Interior. The Interior files in the National 
Archives do not indicate that any reply was ever made. 


and will cause more unless permanently settled by proper author- 
ity. Since the large emigration to Oregon and California, the 
Ferries, Bridges, &c, have been profitable investments. 

Your decision in this case I consider of great importance as 
it is time such things were settled and unnecessary blood-shed 
saved by placing the right where it properly belongs. Both parties 
contend for the right & I might add I think both equally honest 
in their convictions 

Enclosed I forward the letter for your decision. . . . 


John M. Hockaday to George W. Manypenny, Commissioner 

of Indian Affairs, dated Great Salt Lake City, 

June 17, 1854 7s 


Whereas the Boundaries of Green River County in the Territory 
of Utah were defined and attached to Great Salt Lake County for 
"Election, revenue, and Judicial purposes" by a special act of the 
legislature of said Territory approved March the 3rd 1852, and 
was detached from said Great Salt Lake County by another act 
of said Legislature approved January 13th 1854, and is now 
organized with its Judiciary and officers and lies in the first Judi- 
cial District of the United States Court for said Territory and; 79 

Whereas an act was passed by said Legislature, approved Jan- 
uary 17th 1853, Granting a Charter Unto Daniel H. Wells Esqr 
the right to Erect Ferries for the Conveyance of stock waggons, 
Passengers &c Over Green River in said County of Green River 
in said Territory, on the lands claimed, by the tribe of Shoshone 
Indians,"" and which said Charter or Right of erecting ferries has 
been transferred by said Wells to others and at present Capt. W. J. 
Hawley, James H. Jones & John Kerr (of the firm of Jones & 

78. Enclosure in Fleming to Manypenny, F/l 17-1854, Document 
XXVII. The copy transmitted by Hockaday himself is H/628-1854. 

79. The citations are Laws of Utah, 1852, pp. 162-164; and ibid., 1854, 
pp. 259-260. 

80. Compiled Laws of Utah, 1855, Chapter L, pp. 237-238. The charter 
required Wells to pay into the treasury of the Perpetual Emigrating Fund 
Company 10 per cent, of all proceeds; the right to the Green River ferries 
was granted to him for three years, from and after May 15, 1853. Wells 
was expected to maintain ferries "at two of the most convenient and safe 
places of crossing," i.e., on the Sublette Cutoff and on the Salt Lake road. 
Subsequently, by an act of the Utah Legislature approved Dec. 27, 1855, 
Isaac Bullock and Lewis Robison were granted the exclusive right and 
privilege of ferries across Green river . . . for the space of three years 
from and after the 15th day of May, A. D. 1856. (Laws of Utah, 1856, 
pp. 16-17.) Thus they succeeded Daniel H. Wells as the statutory owners 
of the Green River ferry rights. Robison became more or less the pro- 


Kerr) Frances M Russell & John M, Russell are proprietors of said 
Ferries (the said Charter Expiring on the 15th day of May A D 
1856) And: 

Whereas the said Shoshone's are displeased with the said grant- 
ing of such Charter, and being in Possession of "white men" not 
married into their nation or tribe and Claim the right, and Juris- 
diction of Granting or giving the land, timber, River and the Right 
of erecting Ferries, to whom they please, Claiming all as belonging 
to them on their Lands, in said Green River County and that 
they have given the said River and the right of erecting Ferries on 
the same to the white men that have married Squaws of their 
tribe, and have children among them and which said Ferries or 
the right thereof said white men claim, contending that there has 
been no treaty made with the Indians and that the land, Timber 
Rivers &c legally belongs to them, until purchased of them by 
treaty with the U States Government, and that the Legislature of 
the Territory of Utah, have no right or authority to grant such 
Charters on Indian lands; but are willing to submit the same to 
the decision of the legal and constituted authority at Washington 

Now in Order to allay all excitement or ill feeling that may exist 
in the heart of said Indians or White men at the present time in 
regard to said Ferries, and to conduce to peace now and hereafter, 
we sent this letter of Enquiry to you, that we may have your hon- 
orable opinion or decision of the same, Whether or not the said 
Legislature of Utah, have the right to Grant Charters for Ferries 
on Green River, or any other Rivers or waters in said Territory, 
w[h] ether in organized Counties or not, where said Rivers and 
lands are claimed by the Indians. If said Legislature have not, 
we wish to be informed and have the matter In dispute settled at 
the Proper Department and an answer returned at as as [sic] early 
a day as possible and to which decision all concerned will cheer- 
fully submit. . . . 

John M. Hockaday 

N. B. Selected by the parties to address you this 
letter of Enquiry 

N. B. Please direct your answer to the Commanding officer at 
Fort Laramie — S1 

prietor of Fort Bridger after buying from Louis Vasquez, on August 3, 
1855, the claim of Bridger and Vasquez. (The records concerning the 
purchase of Fort Bridger are in the Salt Lake County Clerk's Office. 
"Records," Book B, pp. 68, 125-28.) Alfred Gumming, who succeeded 
Brigham Young as Governor of Utah Territory, was averse to the granting 
of special privileges in the shape of herdgrounds, ferries, etc., and in 1859 
all such special grants were repealed. 

81. This document is the primary source of information on the owner- 
ship of the Mormon ferries or ferry at this particular time. Hawley may 


have taken over the ferry in the spring of 1854, at which time a reinforce- 
ment was sent out to the Fort Supply mission and steps taken to organize 
Green River County, to give the Mormons better political control over it. 
Hosea Stout's diary interestingly develops this background. Stout left 
Great Salt Lake City, in a company which included Orson Hyde and Wil- 
liam A. Hickman, on May 1, and arrived at Fort Supply May 7, finding 
it "the most forbidding and godforsaken place I have ever seen for an 
attempt to be made for a settlement & judging from the altitude I have no 
hesitancy in predicting that it will yet prove a total failure but the brethren 
here have done a great deal of labor." His diary continues: 

[May 9.] Judge [W. I.] Appleby organized the County of Green 
River by appoi[nti]ng Robert Alexander Clerk of Probate Court, 
W. A. Hickman Sheriff also assessor and Collector as well as pros- 
ecuting attorney. He also appointed the other requisite County offi- 
cers, after which Isaac Bullock, James Brown, Elijah Ward and James 
Davis were appointed to go to the Shoshonee Indians to assure them 
of our good wishes and feelings towards them also to allay the 
predjudice which some unprincipaled mountaineers had raised against 
us after the council was over we celebrated the inaugeration of the 
newly appointed officers in the usual way. . . . 

[May 10] Elder Hyde, John Leonard, Ute Perkins & John Fawcett 
left about noon for Great Salt Lake City 

[May 11] ... Captain Hawley arrived this evening meeting Hyde 
& co at sulpher Creek. They were undoubtedly under forced march 
In fact Elder Hyde seems to [have] an invincible repugnance to 
Fort Supply. 

[May 12] ... Some six waggons started to Green River ferry to 
day. . . . 

[May 14] Crossed Ham's Fork which we had to ferry in Hawley's 
Skiff Here we found Mr Shockley's waggon loaded with alcahal and 
other things This we all knew what to do with so after helping our- 
selves we took his waggon on with us some 4 or 5 miles and camped 
soon after which Shockley & Russell came after their wagon, both 
very glad that we had brought it along for with [out] Hawley's skiff 
they could not have crossed Ham's fork. Bullock & company also 
came and put up with us on their way to the Shoshonees so all was 
well now & plenty of good company. 

[May 15] ... we arrived at Russell's [after] Baiting with Batise 
at twelve Here at Russell's is where Huntington & Co. commenced 
a Settlement in 1852 which was wisely abandoned afterwards. 

[May 16] ... moved two miles down the River to the Mormon 
Crossing of Green River Ferry and ferried our traps & waggon across 
in Hawley's skiff Here was three log buildings in which we took 
possession of shielding us only a little from the Storms for they 
were in a bad condition. . . . Nearly all the mountaineers came to day 
to pay us our first visit 

[May 18] ... Mr Hawley put his rope across the river and Joseph 
Busby came from Weber ferry to commence suit against Bridger & 
Lewis in a matter pertaining to Ham's fort ferry last year wherein 
all three were partners. 

[May 19] Attending legal business Joseph Busby vs James Bridger 
& Suece Louis. A large company of Bannack indians crossed the 
river to day. . . . 

[May 27] . . . Hickman & Hawley started their teams to Hams 
Fork with a boat to start a ferry at that point. 

[May 28] . . . The Mountaineers as usual throng in here to day 
drinking swearing & gambling. 


[May 29] Law suit before Judge Appleby. John H. Bigler vs 
F. M. Russel administrator of the estate of saml. M. Caldwell deced 
in Replevin for the recovery of a mare Hickman was council for 
plaintiff & myself for Defence Judgement no cause of action & 
const apportioned equally. 

The day was wound up in hard drinking & gambling. . . . 

[May 30] Squalls & hard wind, cold and uncomfortable while we 
are all shivering around in these miserable old log huts and suel & 
Winters are quite sick & I have took up my boarding with Hawley. 
He has returned from Ham's Fork having started the ferry there 

[June 1] Bullock, Brown, Ward & Davis came here this evening 
on their return from their mission to the Shoshonees. 

They report the indians somewhat ill disposed but some were 
friendly & expect some of them here in a few days. . . . 

[June 6] Suit of Busby V. Bridger & Lewis came up to day at' 
ten a. m. I was on the part of the plaintiff & Hickman for Defence 

This was an interesting trial which terminated in a judgement 
against the defendants for 540 dollars & about 75 dollars cost. 
; An appeal was called for by Plff. which was however was waived 
afterwards and Mr Bovee who was an agent for Bridger & Mr Hawley 
give bonds for the payment of judgement and costs in ten days. 

The day was wound up according to custom by fiddling, drinking 
& gambling in Earl's & McDonald's grocery and finally about 1 1 
o'clock in the night wound up by two of the party's having a knock 
down The fact is our place is improving fast. Earl & McDonald, 
has a grocery and gambling table both well patronized every law day 
Hawley another grocery & Blazzard a Brewry, so when Emmegration 
& law gets in full blow every body can be accommodated 

[June 8] ... Emmegrants are coming and crossing 

[June 9] The Judge and officers of court are busily engaged re- 
pairing to miserable log house which we occupy for a Court house. 
Vasques & Strongfellow arrived bringing the report that Mr James 
Bridger was left by them very sick & not expected to live. He was 
some where on the Missouri river. 

[June 11] ... Benjamin Hawley returned from Salt Lake bring- 
ing Hickman's & McDonald's wives. Hitherto only two women, 
Hawley's wife & daughter-in-law were the only women who graced 
our society. This in a company of some twenty Mormons seems to be 
verging into a state little short of Modern Christianity but since we 
have been blessed with two more female arrivals the aspect of our 
society seems to brighten 

[June 12] . . . one man drowned at Kinney's ferry [which was 9.92 
miles above the Pioneer or Mormon ferry; see the Deseret News, 
Oct. 24, 1855]. . . . 

[June 15] Mr Elisha Ryan with some seven Shoshonee Indians 
arrived here. There is several lodges of shoshonee's been encamped 
here sevral days. In the after noon we had a regular talk with Ryan, 
as chif, and his braves He said he was sent by the Head Chief to 
learn what our intententions were. Whether we intended to take 
their land & if so whether peaceably or not. What was the feelings 
of the General Government & also Governor Young and the mor- 
mons, towards them. That they did not want their timber cut or 
have houses built on their land nor have settlements established. That 
if we did not and were friendly all was well for they desired to live 
in peace with all men but at the same time they would not allow any 
infringement on their lands. 

That they had given Green River to him the said Ryan and those 
mountaineers who had married shoshonee wives. They complained 


bitterly about the general government neglecting them in never mak- 
ing a treaty with them and not sending men to trade for their skins 
and furs &c Ryan said he had been robbed of his last bottom dollar 
(refering to the suit against him last year) That he considered this 
land his own and no one had a right to keep a ferry here but himself 
and those who had married shoshonee wives. He said he [had] 
nothing against the mormons as a people but had againts those indi- 
viduals who robbed him last year, and many such things spake he. . . . 

[June 16] . . . Another talk with Ryan and his braves 
He claims all the ferrys on Green River in the most positive terms, 
denying the right of the Legislature of Utah to grant a legal charter 
without the consent of the shoshonees who own the land. He does 
not quite threaten hostilities but at the same time says he will have it 
and seems to want us to understand that he he has the power to 
redress his own grievances, and offers to arbitrate his claim by refer- 
ring his right & the right of the ferry company to Chief of the Indian 
Beureau at Washington which Hawley agrees to do on the part of the 

The conditions of this I will not relate. 
He agrees to have another meeting and grand talk in about fifteen 
days. . . . iSfi 

[June 17] Ryan on the part of those who claim Green River on 
the one part & Jones, Russells, and Hawley on the part of the com- 
pany entered into bonds of 50.000 dollars to abide the result of the 
arbitration and Ryan gives bond to the same amount to keep the 
Indians peaceable in the mean time. . . . 

[June 18] ... The plot thickens and a considerable excitement 
Mr F. M. Russell came this morning complaining that Ryan had 
broke his treaty or arbritation and had attempted to take forcible 
possession for the ferry at Kinney and had made an attempt to cut 
the rope Judge Appleby issued a writ for him but while this was 
going on Mr Shockley came express reporting that Ryan being 
joined by eight other mountaineers had actually taken possession of 
the ferry and was crossing Emmegrants and taking their money. The 
writ was however given to Mr Hickman the sheriff who with a possee 
of six men besides Russell & Shockley started after Ryan. The 
excitement quite well got up now. When the sheriff arrived at Kin- 
ney's he found Ryan in a sound drunken sleep. 

Ryan was drunk when he took the ferry so after occupying untill 
the sober second thought returned he gave up the ferry & money he 
had taken & fell quietly asleep. 

Circumstances being thus & Ryan agreeing to behave in future 
those on the part of the ferry concluded to drop the matter and the 
excitement ended without smoke 
And thus ended the Sabbath day on Green River. 

[June 21] Ryan & company executed the affrsaid bonds. . . 

[June 23] ... Sokoper a Shoshonee Chief came. Another big 
talk. He don't want his timber cut or his land settled but says his 
heart is good towards us. 

[June 26] . . . Judge Appleby & several others went to Kinney's 
to the sale of the property of the Estate of Caldwell. 

[June 30] Wash-a-keek the Head chief of the Shoshonees and 
another Indian came He was not here long before he became intox- 
icated when he acted very bad but when sober he professed to be 
all very good He left mad creating considerable excitement. 

[July 1] Hawley moved two waggon loads over the river & 
cached his liquor for fear the indians might come & get drunk and 



Brigham Young, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to George W. 

Manypenny, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated 

Great Salt Lake City, Sept. 30, 1854 s2 


I transmit by the Mail of the 1 st proximo, the vouchers num- 
bered 1 to 1 7 inclusive, the account Current and the abstract for 
the first quarter ending at date, amounting to $4176 61 1/2/100 
and report of employees, together with this my quarterly report 
now due. 

Since my Report, the Indian tribes in this Superintendency have 
observed peaceful relations towards the whites and each other with 
two exceptions so far as I am informed. A few reckless Indians 
in Cedar Valley unprovokedly killed two whites who had gone to 
the Kanyon for wood. Some friendly Indians succeeded (in ac- 
cordance with agreements previously entered into) in capturing 
two of the murderers, and delivered them up to the U. S. Marshal. 

They had a fair and impartial trial before the U. S. District 
Court of ths District where the deed was committed, Hon Leonidas 
Shaver presiding Judge, were sentenced to be hung, and were 
executed accordingly. Ni 

In addition to killing those two men, a few of the small bands 
of Utahs at Provo, and Nephi are at times very ugly in their con- 
duct and conversation, frequently taking garden vegetables, wheat 
&c. not only without leave, or compensation of any kind, but 
insolently in the presence of the owners, occasionally shooting 
cattle, and often threatening. 

This course on their part makes it very difficult to restrain the 
feelings natural to American citizens, and induce them to realize 
the ignorance and degradation of the red men, and preserve peace- 
ful relations; and how suddenly gross aggravation on the one hand, 
and a hasty retaliation on the other, may result in bloodshed and 
rapine is not always foreseen. 

thereby create a difficulty. Several left for home [I] among the 

rest. . . . 

[July 6] Went to Weber [River] which we found barely fordable 

But we crossed on the boat. Here I paid Joseph Busby 283 dollars 

and 55 cents of the [money] collected for him of Bridger & suice. . . . 
The better-known accounts of this period by James S. Brown and William 
Hickman may be read in comparison. The Hosea Stout diary is quoted 
from a typewritten copy in the WPA Collection of the Utah State His- 
torical Society. See also A. L. Siler's letter of May 19, 1854, in the 
Deseret News, June 22, 1854. 

82. U/39-1854. 

83. The hanging of these two Indians for the killing of the Weeks 
brothers in Cedar Valley was the first execution under judicial process 
performed in the Territory of Utah. 


It is obvious that means are necessary, and that too in at least 
a just proportion, to enable me to carry out the Pacific designs of 
the government towards its red children, and it would seem reason- 
able that the accounts of this Superintendency be audited and paid 
promptly, and with all that liberality towards any unknown, or 
accidental & immaterial informality which can be consistent with 
Justice, and well established usage. 

Last week a small party of Shoshones fell upon some Utahs 
near Provo City, killed four and wounded a few, and after some 
skirmishing and having two of their party wounded, returned to 
their usual camping grounds. The Shoshones made this attack 
when searching for some of their Horses which they said the 
Utahs had stolen, Such outbreaks will sometimes occur, not- 
withstanding the most vigilant effort to the contrary, unless force 
be resorted to, which I have invariably deemed it most prudent 
to avoid, even against the anxious desires of each party for us 
to side with them. M 

Finding the indians in Iron and Washington Counties naked, 
peaceful, and disposed to cultivate the arts of peace, I forwarded 
a small amount of plain clothing, cheap and substantial, to be 
distributed among them as per accounts now rendered, and which 
I feel to say, are at the lowest reasonable total for their real 
necessities at the time. 

On the 1 st Inst at their earnest solicitation I made a short visit 
to some chiefs, and quite a company of Shoshones who had 
assembled just north of Ogden City. They were very friendly 
and appeared well pleased, and highly gratified with the presents 
my Judgment dictated as suitable for the circumstances, & their 
condition and feelings.** 

It affords me pleasure to commend the faithfulness and vigilance 
of the Employees in this Superintendency, and to congratulate 
the Department upon the beneficial results to the natives, notwith- 
standing the limited amount of facilities & means with which to 

84. It is more probable that these Shoshoni came from the northern 
part of Utah than that they were Wyoming Shoshoni. Some frictions 
involving the latter are, however, intimated by the Deseret News of July 
20, 1854: "Our red neighbors remain friendly towards the whites; but 
there are rumors of slight disturbances, and one or two small fights be- 
tween the Green River Snakes and the Uinta Utahs." For a fuller account 
of the Provo fight, see Almon W. Babbitt's letter, Sept. 26, 1854, in the 
St. Louis Luminary, Nov. 22, 1854. 

85. James S. Brown, op. cit., p. 346, back from the Green River country 
for the winter, describes this visit to what he calls "Chief Catalos' camp 
of Shoshones, four miles north of Ogden." Another account is found 
in the Deseret News, Sept. 7, 1854. Elsewhere the chief's name is given 
as Katat or Ka-tat-o, and he is termed chief of the Shoshoni bands of 
northern Utah. 


It would materially facilitate my operations if the Department 
would transmit official blanks. 

I have drawn upon the Department in favor of the Hon John 
M. Bernhisel, Utah Delegate, for the sum of $4176 61 1/2 /100. 

Trusting that these papers will be found in due form and receive 
audit & allowance conformable with the position of business upon 
reception. . . . 


Brigham Young, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to George W. 

Manypenny, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated 

Great Salt Lake City, June 30, 1855 s " 


Herewith I forward my accounts for the Quarter ending the 
30th of June/55. 

The Indians are universally quiet, and many appear inclined 
to work, and raise Grain, although, the Grasshoppers, and low 
stage of water, in all the Streams used for irrigation, affords but 
poor encouragement the present season. 

The Shoshones have expressed a desire to commence farming 
operations next spring, and have solicited me to make a location 
for them, which I intend to do, this season, probably in the month 
of August." 

I have met several of the bands of Utahs, the present season, 
during my tour to the Southern part of the Territory; they all 
seem friendly disposed, though considerable fault is found by 
them, in regard to not paying them for the use of their lands, 
although they have universally acknowledged that they were essen- 
tially benefitted by the settlements being made among them. It is 
not an unfrequent occurrence, to see an Indian driving team, and 
performing other common labor in the Southern Settlements, nor 
Indian children playing with those of the inhabitants; clothed, fed 
and Schooled the same as their own. 

The idea of cultivating the earth, for a subsistence, gains slowly 
among them, for it is very adverse to there habit of idleness; still 
their necessities reason strong with them, and furnish forcible 

86. U/48-1855. 

87. Somewhat more precisely, George A. Smith wrote on June 20, 
1855, in a letter from Great Salt Lake City to the editor of The Mormon, 
"The Indians are very quiet, and are disposed to learn to raise grain. 
Wa-she-kik has sent a request to Governor Young to select him a farm 
on Green River, as he is unacquainted with farming. He is anxious to 
farm, as game is scarce." (L. D. S. Millenial Star, vol. XVII, p. 636.) 
The contact with Washakie was made by James S. Brown early in June, 
1855; Brown found the chief in the upper Green River Valley, apparently 
on the heads of Horse Creek. Brown, op. cit., pp. 350-368. 


reasons why, they, should pursue the peaceful avocations of Agri- 
culture, raising Stock &c, for a subsistence, instead of longer fol- 
lowing in the habits of savage barbarity, idleness, and war, to 
which they have so long been accustomed. 

In many places, however, they may be said simply to exist with- 
out either hunting or war; wikeup, or Lodge, utensils, or clothing 
of any kind. This Class are a constant prey to other more warlike 
bands, who steal their children; they possessing no means of 
defence, seek their safety in flight, & concealment; they live upon 
roots insects, and seeds gathered from a Kind of Tmisquit grass, 
which yeilds quite bountifully. Indians of this description remain 
in their localities, and until hunted up and meet the traveler, 
have never seen white men, they are mostly to be found bordering 
upon the Deserts, and are called Diggers. 

I am happy in informing you that the Indians on the Humboldt, 
or Marys River, are more peacefully inclined than heretofore; they 
have not committed any depredations of importance upon travelers 
this season so far as has come to my Knowledge. Although, I 
heard, during my recent trip North, that two or three Indians 
have been inhumanly Killed by California Emigrants, but I hope 
that it may not result disastrously to succeeding traveling. 

The Pah-vante Indians, who inhabit Millard County, are much 
inclined to go to work, owing principally to the influence of their 
young Chief Kenosha, who has long sought to bring about this 
result. Ken-osha, is quite young, and many of the Old warriors 
of his tribe do not like the idea of labor, hence, he meets with 
more, or less difficulty, in his laudable endeavors of introducing 
such of them, an extreme innovation. 

He has some Stock, over which he exercises great care, and 
begins to realize, the benefit accruing therefrom. Arrow-pin, the 
Newly elected Chief of the roving band of the Utahs, is also, 
more or less, engaged in raising Stock, but careless about Agri- 
culture, as his Stock can travel with him in his wanderings; never- 
theless, he is extremely gratified, as was also his brother, late 
Chief Capt. Walker, in having grain Sown, Cultivated, and har- 
vested by the inhabitants for them, which has been done every 
Season in most of the Settlements, more especially South. There 
should be an agency established in the Uinta Valley, or there- 
abouts, as the Indians of that region are frequently brought into 
collision with different tribes, by seeking trade with the mountain 
men, inhabiting in the vicinity of Green River. Its impossible to 
establish such agencies, in a manner to accomplish much good 
without some means to commence with. In order to have any- 
thing successful, there should be means to build a Fort, some 
carols, furnish farming utensils, teams, some oxen, & cows, & 
wagons; as also some provision, and Clothing. 

If an arrangement of this Kind could be made, it would soon 


induce more, or less families of whites to settle there also, which 
would soon prove beneficial in rendering assistance to the Sub 
Agent who would have charge, and be greatly instrumental in 
exercising a beneficial influence among the natives. 

This location would contain the Uinta Utahs, the Elk Mountain 
Utahs, Yampa Utahs, and would be convenient to the main tribe 
of the Shoshones, who inhabit farther north, but sometimes fre- 
quent in that region. Not having personally examined as yet for 
a location, for a farm, for the Shoshones, I cannot speak with as 
much certainty, as I shall be able to, after my return from my 
contemplated visit in August; but I expect to find a suitable place 
for their farming operations near Green River, in the direction of 
Fort Supply, at which place grain was raised last year, and a 
tolerable fair prospect of raising some this. 

So far as I can at present determine, the Shoshones, or Snakes, 
number about 300 Lodges, but they, as well, as the Utahs, Cum- 
um-bahs, Piedes, Pah Utahs, Pav-Vants and Diggers are so broken 
up into small bands, that it is impossible to tell with any degree of 
accuracy their numbers. ss 

As the settlements extend, and the people make more explora- 
tions, as before remarked, Bands are found, who have never be- 
fore seen White men. 

I received pr last Mail, a request for estimates for the appro- 
priation of Forty five thousand dollars in which letter it was also 
observed, that a similar request had previously been made, but 
not Complied with. I have only to state, that the desired estimate 
was made, and forwarded to the Department via of Independence, 
and Duplicates via of California in January 1 st 1855. 

Immediately after the receipt of your last letter, a Triplicate 
Copy was made out, and forwarded by last Mail, some of which 

88. In conformance with these views, the L. D. S. Journal History, 
under date of Nov. 30, 1854, records: "'During this month I [Brigham 
Young] wrote to Washakee and Katat, two Shoshone chiefs, advising 
them to not let their people divide into small parties, as their enemies 
would have more power to injure them, also advised them to not depend 
on hunting for a living, but to settle on good localities where they could 
raise grain, and 1 would send them men to teach them the arts of hus- 
bandry and civilization." 

James S. Brown says that on Oct. 10 he received a letter from Orson 
Hyde "stating that Governor Young wished me to go on a mission among 
the Shoshones that winter. I answered the call, but when I got to Salt 
Lake City, on the way, it had been learned that the Indians had gone out 
so far into the buffalo country that it was not advisable for me to follow 
them. . . ." (Op. cit., pp. 346-347.) 

Other events of the winter pertaining to various Snake bands are not 
reflected in the Superintendency records, especially some trouble with the 
Shoshoni in the Ogden area. For some account of these, see D. B. Hunt- 
ington's letter of Dec. 5, 1854, in the Deseret News, Dec. 21, 1854; Wilford 
Woodruffs journal entry for Dec. 3, 1854, printed in the News of Dec. 28; 
Brown, op. cit., pp. 347-350, and Hickman, op. cit., p. 105. 


I presume you have received. If you have not, and no movement 
has yet been made, in regard to that matter, it is rather late to 
make much out of it this season. If the funds could now be 
placed, at the disposal of some Agent, or person authorized to 
hold the treaty with the Indians, and expend the appropriation, 
it would be none too soon to effectually bring the business to a 
bearing another year. 

The goods wanted, as set forth in the estimate, would have to be 
brought from S l Louis, and it is too late now, to make a successful 
operation of that matter this season. The goods could probably 
be obtained here but it would be at such an advance, that it would 
be much better, and far more economical to purchase them in S' 
Louis, and freight them out. 

I cannot in justice to my feelings, conclude my Report, without 
expressing my sentiments in relation to the true policy to be 
exercised towards the Indians, to keep them friendly, and slowly, 
but surely lead them to adopt a more peaceful, industrious, useful, 
and civilized existence. I am also happy to learn, that my views, 
opinions, & policy upon this subject, so intimately correspond 
with yours. To feed, and clothe them, is not only much cheaper; 
more humane, but far the most effectual, and if rigidly adhered to 
must make its impression, and eventually be successful. 

It is with profound regret, that I witness the preparations for 
waging war upon the Sioux; they have generally, I might almost 
say, always, manifested the greatest friendship toward the Whites. 
In all of our intercourse with them, (and it has been considerable 
within the last nine years,) we have ever felt safe in their country, 
and had the most convincing proofs of their friendly disposition 
toward the Whites. 

In all their depredations which have come to my knowledge, 
(with perhaps the single exception of the attack upon the mail, 
last September,) they have been strongly incited thereto by some 
mismanagement, or wrong on the part of the whites. And so far 
as regards that perticular instance, I have no doubt, but that those 
who were actually guilty of the act could be brought to justice 
which would be much better than to visit wholesale destruction 
upon all alike, both the innocent, and guilty. Indeed I find, that 
in all such cases, the guilty are the most apt to escape. I do not 
entertain a doubt, but all the difficulty with those Indians could be 
amicably arranged, leaving a much better & more favorable, and 
lasting impression of friendship without, than with the aid of Mili- 
tary force. You will please excuse me, for thus deviating from 
my subject, but while seeking a location in 1846 & 7. and at 
various times then, and since, not only myself, but hundreds, and 
thousands, of others, not only citizens of this Territory, but emi- 
grants to Oregon, and California, having experienced not only 
friendship, but hospitality, and protection, which rude though it 
might be, nevertheless, being genuine and effecient, seemed to 


require a word in their favor from me; which, although, it may be 
considered obtrusive, and make nothing in their behalf, will still 
be an abiding satisfaction to me. ft 

I understand that your influence has been, and is enlisted ad- 
versely to hostile operations against the Sioux. I can only say, 
may you be successful, in restraining the horrors of war, and the 
shedding of innocent blood, of the native tribes, to cry like Abel's 
for vengeance from the native soil. 

In carrying out the policy indicated by you, and I beleive by 
many other influential members of the Government, for the exten- 
sion of good to the native tribes; also securing their friendship, 
and peaceful disposition to the frontier settlements, traveler, and 
passing emigrant, you may confidently rely upon my most cordial 

I have forwarded by this mail to your address George W. Arm- 
strong's bond which I hope you will duly receive. His papers, 
or quarterly Returns, have not come to hand. Doctor Hurt's the 
Indian Agent came in too late to be examined at this office, to be 
forwarded by this mail. 

Hoping that my a/cs may be found satisfactory. . . . 


Brigham Young, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to George W. 

Manypenny, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Utah 

Territory, Great Salt Lake City, Sept. 29, 1855 s " 

Sir: It gives me great pleasure to inform you of the steadily 
increasing success of the pacific policy, which you so properly 
and ably direct and advocate should be invariably pursued towards 
the red men, most wisely considering their degraded and ignorant 
condition, and advocating a course not only the least expensive 
to the general government, but the only one that promises any 
success in ameliorating the circumstances of a race who have 
long been a prey and enigma to their brethren, the whites. 

As an incontestible proof of the last assertion, and an argument 
which you can use without fear of successful contradiction, the 
natives within Utah's borders are universally at peace among 
themselves, also with their white neighbors and the passing trav- 
ellers; have begun to bend their unwilling backs to the useful toil 
of the laborer and husbandman, and realize the benefits thereof; 
and all this has been accomplished at far less expense than has 

89. The original of this letter not being found in the Superintendency 
files — a usual circumstance when a letter has been printed — the text is 
derived from the version in the Report of the Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs for 1855, 34th Congress, 1st Session, Senate Executive Document v, 
Part I (Serial 810), pp. 515-517. 


ever been incurred under anything like similar circumstances. The 
force of this comparison, and the small amount disbursed for the 
attainment of such rapid beneficial and flattering results, will be 
readily appreciated by yourself and by all who are in the least 
familiar with the great number of numerous, wild, and unusually 
degraded tribes claiming this Territory for their home, few of 
whom, until quite recently, had ever seen the abodes of civilization. 

True, the cheap rates at which these results have been attained 
have to be debited with the large amount of expense to our popu- 
lation accruing through the begging and thefts of the original 
settlers; yet, with this sum added, I am sanguine in the belief 
that Utah would compare much to her credit, in expenditures and 
results, by the side of any other portion of our extensive terri- 
tories; and I can but trust that your honor, and all candid men, 
will at once subscribe to the correctness of my briefly expressed 
though firm belief. 

The hitherto small amount of expenditures; the expectation 
(rightfully, perhaps,) raised in the minds of the Mary's River 
Indians by Major Hurt's predecessor; the general understanding 
of the various tribes, through some source, that a large appro- 
priation had long ago been made for the purpose of making 
treaties with them, and the actual extensive occupancy of their 
lands, will easily account for what might otherwise be deemed 
the large disbursements for the quarter now ending, more espe- 
cially those made by Agent Garland Hurt; still, after a careful 
examination of all the accounts and reports now forwarded, I am 
not able to state in what particular the total could be lessened 
in justice, and presume the department will come to the same 
conclusion, and duly honor the corresponding drafts. 

I have at different times divided the Territory, and allotted the 
agents and sub-agents, the last division being by the territorial 
road running north and south nearly through the centre, which was 
made on account of its definiteness and to accommodate the 
officers so far as consistent, all of whom hitherto have preferred 
to live in this city, with the late exception of Agent G. W. Arm- 
strong, whose residence is at Provo. Death, changes, &c, have 
caused the last named line to remain until now, but as the present 
agents bid fair for a greater permanency, another division may ere 
long be deemed necessary. 

On the 7th instant I had the gratification of meeting large bands 
of Shoshonees (Snakes) and Utahs in council in this city, where 
they made a "good peace," which I hope will prove lasting. 

They came into this city during the latter part of August, had a 
friendly meeting on the 2d instant, and of course had to be fed 
and required presents; this I caused to be complied with as eco- 
nomically as my judgment could dictate, as will be seen by a por- 
tion of my own and Agent Hurt's vouchers. That you may be- 
come cognizant of the minute particulars of this visit, I take the 


liberty of forwarding to you Nos. 27 and 28, volume 5, of the 
Deseret News.'" " ' 

You will at once perceive that not only myself, but the sub- 
ordinate officers of this superintendency, find it impossible, as 
proven by our united best endeavors and judgments, to carry out 
your admirable policy — which we all most heartily coincide with — 
except at considerable expense; hence may I not rely upon your 
powerful mediation with the next Congress for appropriations 
commensurate with the justice of the case and the magnanimity 
of our nation? 

I take pleasure in forwarding the reports and accompanying 
papers of Agents Ma'or Garland Hurt" 1 and Major G. W. Arm- 
strong, for the quarter ending September 30, 1855, trusting that 
their suggestions will meet with due consideration, their papers 
prove every way acceptable, and their accounts be satisfactorily 

So far as careful supervision gives me information, I am happy 
in being able to commend the diligence, economy, and success 
of the few employes under our control. 

To prevent future misunderstanding, permit me to enquire 
whether I have a right to request agents and sub-agents to lodge 
in my office a copy of their quarterly reports and other documents 

90. The enclosure is now lost, but Young had reference to Dimick B. 
Huntington's two accounts of the treaty-making published in the News, 
and these are consequently made our Document XXXII. 

91. The original of Hurt's report is also now lost, but the text is re- 
coverable as in Note 77, pp. 517-521, and some parts of it merit quotation 
here. Referring to his journey to the Humboldt, Hurt says: "The first 
Indians we saw after leaving this place [Great Salt Lake City] were a 
band of the Treaber [Weber] Utes, at Bingham's Fort [near Ogden], num- 
bering about 60 or 70 men, under a chief by the name of Little Soldier. 
or Showets. We gave them some presents, at which they were much 
pleased, and soon left for their camps near by. On the evening of the 
next day we camped at Willow creek, and scarcely had time to unharness, 
when we discovered, in the distance, a perfect cloud of dust, which we 
perceived was produced by a large band of Indians coming towards us in 
a sweeping gallop. In a few minutes they were in camp, when we dis- 
covered them to be a band of Shoshonees, or Snakes proper, from the 
Green River country, numbering something over one hundred, who had 
come over to the mouth of Bear river to fish; and hearing that we were 
in the neighborhood, said they supposed we had come to give them 
presents, and I soon saw they were not disposed to leave disappointed. So 
I gave them all some shirts and tobacco and some bits of calico for their 

"These are a good looking band of Indians, and left a favorable im- 
pression of their friendly disposition towards the whites. . . ." 

After describing his experiences on the Humbolt and return to Salt 
Lake City on August 22, Hurt recounts the treaty-making in these terms: 
"... a band of the Shoshonees, or Snakes proper, under a chief by the 
name of Ti-ba-bo-en-dwart-sa, (white man's friend,) numbering in all 
about three hundred, who had come to this place, according to previous 


of theirs, which the law requires me to examine and forward in 
addition to the one forwarded, and that remaining in their offices. 

Owing to Mr. James Case (farmer for the Sandpitch Indians) 
having left for the States,"" I appointed Mr. Warren Snow in his 
place on the 2d of July last. 

I transmit by the mail of October 1st, proximo, this my report, 
the account current, abstract return property, and vouchers, from 
1 to 15, inclusive, for the quarter ending September 29, 1855; 
also abstract of employes, and have drawn upon you in favor of 
the Hon. John M. Bernhisel, Utah delegate, for $2,949 50, that 
being the amount shown in the accompanying account current. 

Trusting that this report may be found sufficiently explicit, and 
not tedious through minute detail, and that the accompanying 
above named papers may prove to be correct in accordance with 
prescribed requirement. . . . 


Meeting of the Snakes and Utahs'" 

By Br. D. B. Huntington we learn that Ti-be-bu-tow-ats (mean- 
ing the White man's son, so named, by being made a chief by the 

arrangements with the Utahs, for the purpose of holding a treaty with 
them [visited him on Aug. 24] . And in compliance with your instructions 
I selected camping ground, and supplied them with provisions, fuel, and 
some hay for their horses. In a few days they were joined by the Utahs 
and Cuniumhahs [Cumumbahs], making in all about five hundred souls; 
and as my expenditures in presents and provisions to them were larger 
than may be anticipated, it may be necessary to state the reasons which 
induced me to make them. It was well understood among the Indians of 
this Territory, as early as last spring, that large appropriations had been 
made by Congress for the purpose of making presents to and treaties with 
them. I am not prepared to say how they came in possession of these 
facts, but they had been looking for something to be done in this way 
all summer. I perceived that their expectations were up, and that there 
was no way to avoid making these presents without serious disappointment. 
The season was passing away and the Indians were anxious to know why 
these presents did not come. The Snakes complained that they had per- 
mitted the white people to make roads through all their lands and travel 
upon them in safety, use the grass and drink the water, and had never 
received anything for it, all though the tribes around them had been get- 
ting presents. Under these circumstances, I saw no way to retain their 
confidence but to meet these expectations. And as they have succeeded 
in making peace among themselves, and renewed their pledges of friend- 
ship to the whites, we have reason to hope that harmony will prevail 
for a season. . . ." 

92. The life of James Case would reward investigation. At the time 
of the Mormon movement west of the Missouri River in 1846, he was a 
farmer to the Pawnees on the Loup Fork in Nebraska. He joined the 
Saints, was consequently expelled from his post, and eventually went on 
to Utah. 

93. Deseret News, September 12, 1855. The letter by Huntington which 
follows, dated Sept. 11, 1855, is from the News of Sept. 19. 1855. 


U. S. Agents at Laramie in 1 852. )'" one of the Chiefs of the Snake 
Indians, and Ka-tat-o Chief of the northern Snakes, had come into 
this city for the purpose of making a treaty with the Utahs; they 
were met on Sunday 2nd Sept. By T-shar-poo-e-ent (White eye), 
An-ta-ro Chiefs of the Yampa Utes, Tin-tick, the hereditary chief 
of the Timp-no-quint band; Sow-i-etts son represented his father 
and band, Tab-be-, a Chief of Ar-ra-peen's band, and Pe-teet-neet, 
chief of the Spanish Fork band, accompanied by subordinate chiefs 
and braves on each side. 

The Utes met at the Governors office fully armed with bows and 
arrows, and guns, at 10 a.m. 

The Snakes formed a line opposite the Tabernacle unarmed. 

A messenger went from the Utes to tell the Snakes to stop where 
they were; they tarried awhile and then moved east opposite the 
Deseret Store, led by D. B. Huntington, Utah and Sho-sho-nee 
Interpreter, where they encountered the Utes, who formed a line 
painted black as if for battle, and completely armed in violation 
of the usual Indian custom of making peace. 

Huntington went over and told the Utes to put away their guns, 
when they dismounted, and all placed their guns against the wall, 
except Squash and To-ma, and Batieste retained his war spear. 
When the Utes had laid down their guns, many of them com- 
menced concealing their bows and arrows under their blankets, 
which Kat-tat-osaw, when he lifted up the pipe of peace towards 

94. This is the same assertion James S. Brown made, and which was 
too easily rejected by Grace Raymond Hebard in her Washakie, pp. 82-83. 
Some further research in the Federal archives seems indicated, to establish 
under just what circumstances an officer of the government treated with 
the Shoshoni, or some Shoshoni, at Fort Laramie in 1852. Brown's re- 
marks, when he sought out Washakie somewhere on the upper North 
Platte on the mission previously referred to, in the spring of 1854, are to 
the following effect: "Washakie told us that only a few snows before then 
he was chief of all the Shoshones, and the Indians acknowledged him as 
such, but he was called to Fort Laramie, to have a talk with the agents 
of the big father at Washington, and to receive blankets and many other 
things. There the agents called a quiet, unobtrusive man, who never had 
been a chief, nor was in the line of chiefs, and designated him as head 
of the Shoshones, telling the Indians that they must have him as chief, 
and respect him as such, and that they, the agents, would recognize him 
in that position, and through him they would do all government business. 
Then the agents passed out a great quantity of blankets and other Indian 
goods, through their appointed chief. In this act, the Indians saw that 
the agents had chosen a favorite of their own, so the red men called him 
'Tavendu-wets' (the white man's child), but never recognized him as chief. 

"That act of the government agents was the opening wedge to divide 
the Shoshone tribe into discontented factions, and thereby weaken it. 
Possibly that was the purpose in view, for before the tribe was very 
powerful, with a chief at their head unexcelled for bravery, skill and far- 
sightedness. Chief Washakie was a bold, noble, hospitable, and honorable 
man. As an orator. I think he surpassed any man I ever met." Brown. 
op. tit., pp. 318-319. 


Heaven, as high as he could raise his arm and shouted in a loud 

At this time Batteiste, the coward, commenced dancing the War 
dance and singing the War songs in front of his men, and thrusting 
his spear to the earth. Huntington told the Utes to come and 
meet the Snakes in peace, when Old Pe-teet-neet started, followed 
by the other chiefs and braves. On approaching the Snakes, 
Pet-teet-neet offered Ti-be-bu-tow-ats his hand, who refused to 
take it. He then raised his own hand towards the Heavens, 
whereupon Pe-teet-neet did the same, then they solemnly lowered 
their hands low towards the earth, then raising up looked each 
other in the eye, eagerly grasped each other by the hand, and then 
embraced each other in their arms. The several Chiefs then went 
thro' the same solemn ceremonies. 

The Snakes maintained their position in the line, when the Utes 
passed along the line, measuring arms and shaking hands, and 
embracing each other. When this portion of the ceremony was 
done, it was agreed they should adjourn to the encampment of 
the Snakes, on Union Square. They went promiscuously, and the 
Utes encamped in D. B. Huntingtons door yard. 

The Snakes and Utes then formed two parallel lines, about two 
rods apart and sat down on the grass. Ka-tat-o and Ti-be-bu- 
tow-ats then filled the two large pipes with tam-i-nump and to- 
bacco, commenced on the right of the line of the Utes, presenting 
the pipe to the first man, not allowing him to touch the pipe with 
his hands; who having smoked until satisfied, the pipe was pre- 
sented to the next; and thus passed through the entire company. 
If any one was unaccustomed to smoking, he was excused, by 
putting his right hand on the shoulder of the Snake, and drawing 
it slowly down his arm and along the pipe. 

After the Snakes had passed the pipe to all the Utes, Pe-teet- 
neet and Tin-tick presented the pipe to the Snakes in like manner. 
They spent the remainder of the day in eating and refreshing. 

Great Salt Lake City, Sept. 11, 1855. 
Editor of the News — Dear Sir: — 

On Friday, Sept. 7, Ar-ra-pine, or Senioroach, the Utah Chief 
in Walker's place, came into the city to make a treaty of peace 
with Ti-be-bu-tow-ats, the Chief of the Snakes. The Utahs were 
about thirty in number, the Snakes about sixty. 

The Utahs called at the Governor's Office to pay him a visit: 
the Snakes on hearing of their arrival, came up in line in the 
usual manner of receiving each other, singing as usual. When 
Ar-ra-pine heard them singing, he said it was not good that they 
should sing the war song: I went out and told the Snakes to stop 
their singing, when Ar-ra-pine requested me to go out with him. 


We met the Snakes in front of T. S. Williams & Co.'s store. I 
introduced the two chiefs to each other, and after shaking hands, 
Ar-ra-pine took the Snake chief in his arms and gave him a tre- 
mendous hug, and raised him clear from the ground. 

They went through the usual compliment of shaking hands 
and then repaired to the Temple Block, and were seated under 
the bowery to smoke until the Governor should come to talk to 
them. I seated the two tribes in front of each other. Ar-ra-pine 
took the presidency of the meeting, and having requested the 
citizens to be seated, he called upon all his men to raise their 
hands toward Heaven as a token or covenant of peace. They did 
so twice; all the Utahs then knelt down, and Ar-ra-pine made a 
lengthy prayer. He prayed like unto the ancients, for his wives 
and children, flocks and herds, and for all that he could think of. 

The pipe of peace was passed around until the Governor arrived, 
when Ar-ra-pine requested all who wanted to speak to do so, re- 
serving his own until the last. Several spoke on both sides, ex- 
pressing a desire to be on friendly terms with each other. The 
Governor gave them some good counsel. 

It was agreed that the Utahs should visit the Snakes, encamped 
on Union Square, and the Snakes agreed to take their lodges and 
move about four miles south, to where the Utahs were encamped. 

The Indian Agent, Dr. Garland Hurt, kindly furnished them 
provisions, and gave the Utahs some presents; they appeared to 
be well satisfied. I visited the encampment the next day; they 
were enjoying themselves well. They say they have not had so 
good a treaty for twenty years. 

Ar-ra-pine has just returned from the Navijos, and reports that 
they have raised a good crop of corn this season. He has estab- 
lished friendly relations between the Navijos and the Elk Mountain 
Utahs, and is doing much to reconcile the different tribes and 
bands to each other, teaching them to cultivate friendship with 
the whites. 

The Utes and Snakes have agreed to meet on White River, and 
hunt buffalo together this winter. 

Yours respectfully, 
D. B. Huntington, Interpreter. 


George W. Armstrong, Indian Agent, to Brigham Young, 
Supt of Indian Affairs, dated Provo, Dec. 31, 1855"" 


In compliance with the regulations of the Indian Department, 
I have the honour to forward this my report for the Second Quar- 
ter of the fiscal year beginning December 31 st 1855. 

95. A/38-1856. 


Since my last report and in compliance with your recommen- 
dation I have visited a portion of the Shoshonee or Snake Indians. 
As I was informed by good authority that Wash-a-keek the chief of 
this tribe was camped on Green River or near that point I left 
this city on the 3 d of October for the purpose of meeting him and 
his band at Fort Supply, a white settlement about fifteen miles 
South west of Fort Bridger having previously sent word to him 
that I would be at that place on or about the 10 th of October. 
On the morning of the 9 th about 8 o'clock I was met by an Express 
from Fort Bridger informing me that Fort Supply was Surrounded 
by a Hostile band of Indians and that they had threatened to burn 
the Fort and also threatened ths lives of the citizens; desiring me 
at the Same time to make all possible haste and render what 
assistance was in my power. I complied with his request and 
made all possible haste to Fort Bridger which is Situated imme- 
diately on the main road to the place of excitement. When I 
arrived at the Fort I found Considerable alarm at that place in 
consequence of the various reports that was in circulation con- 
cerning the hostility manifested by the Indians against the people 
of Fort Supply. After making various enquiries I deemed it un- 
safe to take my wagons containing the property belonging to 
Government along with me to the place of excitement as I thought 
my guard was not sufficiently strong to defend it in case of an 
attack (only nine men) and as there was none at Fort Bridger 
that could be spared I concluded to place the property inside of 
this fort leaving two of my men in charge and proceed with the 
balance on horses to Fort Supply. Before leaving, however, I was 
informed that the Indians on learning by Some means or other 
that a Government Agent would be at Fort Supply that day, had 
left and had camped on a small stream known as Smith's Fork 
a tributary of [Blacks Fork of] Green River about eight miles 
east of the Fort. I afterwards concluded to venture into the Indian 
camp before going to the Fort having procured at Fort Bridger 
the very best Sho-sho-nee Interpreter that could be found. When 
within sight of the Indian camp I was met by a half breed splen- 
didly attired in Indian costume who spoke very good English and 
who gave the camp a sign that something very unusual was at hand 
by galloping his horse round making a circle three times, then 
bringing him suddenly to a halt. He spoke in a very co[u]rteous 
manner and informed me that the chief was at his lodge. I was 
met by the chief Te-boo-in-dowetsey who was informed by the 
Interpreter that I was an Agent of the Government of the United 
States, he extended his hand in a friendly manner and bid me 
welcome to his camp. I learned that this was only a small portion 
of Wash-a-keek's band numbering one hundred warriors with 
their squaws and children and who had been located near Fort 
Supply during the Summer and fall. I made known to him that 
I had been informed that a misunderstanding existed between his 


band and the inhabitants of Fort Supply and requested him to 
accompany me to the fort where we could hold a Council and 
settle the matter satisfactory to both parties. He expressed his 
willingness to comply with my request and immediately left his 
camp being attended by thirty of his warriors armed with bows 
and arrows as a guard. On arriving at the Fort I found all the 
men under arms (being only fifteen) Supposing the Indians were 
about to attack the fort, and presuming that myself and guard 
were mountaineers who had joined them for that purpose. Before 
arriving at the Fort, however, their picket-guard discovered and 
informed the fort that we were friends and on arriving we were 
permitted to enter. I had previously disarmed the Indians and 
taken possession of their bows and arrows, at the same time 
assuring the chief that I would be responsible for their Safety 
The citizens at my request immediately put away their arms. I 
then informed them that I wished to hold a council to ascertain 
the nature and extent of the difficulty. We held a council of about 
three hours duration and I learned that the Indians had made a 
demand on the fort for a large quantity of provisions, a demand 
which the citizens did not and would not comply, in fact the de- 
mand was unreasonable and had it been complied with would 
have left the fort destitute. I would here state that the grasshop- 
pers here as in almost every Section of the Territory had been 
very destructive to the crops and the wheat which was then stand- 
ing at this late season of the Year was the result of the Second 
sowing the first having been entirely destroyed. The Indians 
asserted that promises had been made to them by the fort that 
when the crops were harvested that they were to have much the 
largest portion which the citizens denied, but admitted that they 
had promised a certain amount which promise they were and had 
been willing to fulfill. To this the Indians took exceptions and 
threatened that if their demands were not Complied with to pos- 
sess themselves at all hazzard with as much as they desired. The 
citizens informed the Indians that they would resist to the extent 
of their power any and every attempt to dispossess them of their 
property. The Indians admitted that they had behaved in a rude 
manner on several occasions by throwing down fences, riding 
their horses through the grain, making threats &c against the citi- 
zens; they excused themselves, however, by saying, that as the 
citizens would not do as they had agreed, and as they considered 
themselves as the rightful owners of the Soil believed themselves 
justified in doing as they had done. After explanations on both 
sides had been made I then addressed the Indians at some length 
showing them the impropriety of their course telling them that 
the great chief at Washington (the President of the U. S.) should 
he hear of their conduct would be much displeased and would look 
upon them as bad Indians. After I had done speaking they ex- 
pressed through their Chief their determination to renew their 


friendship with the people of the fort and promised not to disturb 
the property of the citizens for the future. I then returned their 
bows and arrows when they all left for their camp well Satisfied 
with the proceedings of the Council. They expressed a great 
desire to see the President and hear him talk. I remained at the 
fort four days to satisfy myself as to the sincerity of the Indians, 
they returned several times to see me and manifested the most 
friendly feelings towards me as well as to the people of the fort. 
The day previous to leaving them I sent for the entire band and 
gave them presents at the same time assuring them that if they 
should renew their hostilities that the President would not send 
them any more presents and that I would be under the necessity 
of resorting to measures to enforce peace. I have since been 
informed on good authority that the Indians have faithfully kept 
their promise and are now in the Buffaloe country on a hunt. I 
would here state that the chief who acted as spokesman at the 
council was Tab-aboo-in-doweteey (or white man's Son)' the 
chief of the band being on a war party with Wash-a-keek in the 
Crow country. I would also state that this band had not been 
visited by an Agent nor received any presents from Government. 
Their presents were distributed by the Chief in a very satisfactory 
manner, when they all left the fort. The Sho-sho-nee or Snake 
Indians have heretofore manifested the most friendly feelings 
towards the emigrants to California, Utah and Oregon in fact they 
boast that their tribe have never shed the blood of a white man 
and this is the first difficulty of any magnitude as far as I am 
informed that ever has taken place between them and the whites. 
I would further add that the message which I sent Wash-a-Keek 
did not reach him as he had previously left on a war party against 
the Crow Indians, Consequently I was disappointed in Seeing him 
but learn from good authority that his expedition proved very 
profitable to him as he has taken about seventy five horses and a 
large amount of skins and furs from the Crows. Many of the 
Sho-sho-nee Indians expressed a great desire to be instructed in 
farming having learned by the example of the white man that it 
is much better to raise their bread than to depend upon the chase 
for their Subsistence. I regret that I did not see Wash-a-keek as 
I have since learned that he expressed a great desire to see me 
on hearing that I had visited Fort Supply for the purpose 
of meeting him and that he wished me to to [sic] communicate 
his feelings to the great Chief at Washington (meaning the Presi- 
dent of the U. S.) As I purpose visiting him in the Spring as 
soon as the snow on the mountain, will admit of travelling, I will 
then be able to learn the number of his band, his intentions &c 
and communicate through Your Excellency to the Department 
of Indian Affairs. . . . 90 

96. Compare Brown, op. cit., pp. 364-369. A letter written by Isaac 


Bullock to George A. Smith from Fort Supply on Oct. 20, 1855, so inter- 
estingly illumines Armstrong's letter that it is quoted in full despite its 
length; the original is in the L. D. S. Church Historian's Office: 

Dear Brother Geo. A. Smith. 

Since I last wrote (Oct. 5th,) there has been some trouble here with 
the Indians. One of the chiefs by the name of Tababooindowetsy 
and band came to our fort Oct. 10th. They demanded a present of 
potatoes and wheat from Brother [James S.J Brown, telling him that 
he had promised it to them. He told them he had made no such 
promise. They told him that he lied and were very bold and impu- 
dent. There had been a promise made to them by Brother Zera 
Pulsipher before they went into the valley that when the leaves fell, 
the potatoes and wheat were ripe, if they should come we would give 
them some wheat and potatoes that grew on their land. This promise 
was made in Brother Brown's absence and he knew nothing of it. 
Brother Pulsipher, having the charge of affairs, made this promise 
to get rid of them until the crops were matured, for they were 
grappling the potatoes before they were as big as hazle nuts and also 
they wanted flour. They were put off by telling them that the flour 
we had did not grow on their land and the men had only enough 
for themselves. It was brought from another land, for them to wait 
till it grew on their land and for them to go to farming; if they liked 
potatoes, they must raise them, etc. The chief was in a bad humor. 
He had two of his children die in the valley and partly laid it to 
Brigham's talk killing them. The spirit to complain and find fault 
seemed to be with them, yet at times they manifested the most 
friendly feelings. I had been away while Pres. Brown and chief had 
their talk. I returned just as the chief and quite a number of his 
braves were leaving. I informed Pres. Brown of the promise, for I 
was present when it was made. He wished me to go and see them 
and tell them that it was not Brown but Pulsipher that made the 
promise, to which I did go and partially reconciled them, at least 
to all appearances. The next day I went to dig some potatoes for 
the chief, as I had promised him some. He went along with me. 
Nearly his whole band followed and commenced grappling all around 
me. I spoke to the chief to see what his people were doing. He 
very carelessly replied that he had no eyes and could not see them. 
I told him that I had eyes and could see and I worked hard to water 
and raise them and that it did not make my heart feel good to have 
them do that way when I was just going to give them some. He 
called to his people and left the field. I saw that his feelings were 
not first rate. Just about this time three (two young bucks and one 
little chief) came to where Pres. Brown was standing at the bars 
and wanted to go through. He said they might if they would keep 
the path and not run over the grain. They passed through and went 
galloping over the wheat, saying it was good to run over the "Mor- 
mon's" grain. These same three came to me and wanted something 
to eat. I did not know of their running over the grain. I promised 
them some and went to the house. Having none cooked, they pro- 
posed to take a little flour as it was most sundown and go to their 
own wickeups and cook and eat it. I gave them 4 pints of flour 
and they seemed well pleased and wanted to know if they might 
come the next day and dance. About this time Pres. Brown came up 
and knew that they were the ones that run over the grain. He com- 
menced talking to them for running over the grain. One bold, impu- 
dent fellow said, Yes, he had run over it and would do it again and 
it was good to run over the Whites' grain. Pres. Brown told him if 
it was good for him to run over it and if he did it any more that they 


would go for him to whip him. He spoke up and said, 'Whip me, 
whip me." And the other little chief said for [us] to whip him. 
They pressed and insisted that Brown should whip him, daring him 
to strike him. Coming close to Brother Brown to get him to 
strike the first blow, Pres. Brown told him to go away and leave 
the fort. He got so mad at Pres. Brown that he drew his bow 
and arrow and was about to shoot him, when Pres. Brown cried out 
to the brethren to get to their arms. They had not any more than 
got to them till another order to come quick with our arms. This 
happening close to my room door, I quickly stepped in and got my 
revolver and handed it out to Pres. Brown. As soon as they saw him 
with a pistol, they broke out of the fort. Brown followed close 
after them, telling them not to go through the field, when they 
instantly asked where they might go. He showed them to go around 
and they were perfectly cornered, and turned and went around. By 
this time the excitement had run like wild fire. The Indians came 
running with their bows and arrows. None seemed to be mad but 
these three, but still to see all the "Mormon" boys coming out with 
their arms in a bustle which they never had seen before, waked them 
up. A strong guard was placed around the fort and kept up all 
night. Pres. Brown posted a man with an express to Gov. Young. 
Had it written that night, started at 2 o'clock the next morning; also 
Brother McCray left at the same time to go to Fort Bridger, under 
strict orders not to take the road, but go round down Black's Fork, 
so as not to be discovered by the Indians. Our orders were to have 
our guns ready, for we might expect an attack. Our horses were 
sent out next morning with a guard to a place where, if an enemy 
were to come, they could see the enemy before it could get to them, 
and if they saw any dust or appearance of Indians, that the guard 
should run the horses into the corral in the fort. About one or 
two o'clock a large dust arose in the distance. Pretty soon here came 
the guard full charge, with the horses. The cry was, "The Indians 
are coming." Orders to arms. Bring everything into the fort. They 
mustered to arms in a hurry. Every man was at his post, expecting 
every moment to hear the war whoop. A cry from the guard house, 
that it was white men. Next cry was, whites and Indians, which 
gave our hearts another flutter, (for it was presumable that the moun- 
tain men and Indians might colleague together). As they neared our 
fort, it was authentically declared that it was the Indian agent, for 
here he was in person, followed by the Indians, who were stopped 
at the gate by Pres. Brown's request. The agent had their arms taken 
from them before he would let them come into the fort. It truly 
happened very lucky for us that Major Armstrong, U. S. Indian agent, 
and party, were so near by when this excitement commenced, and 
before any serious injury was done to lay it. No sooner than the 
Major got the news, he leaves his wagons at Fort Bridger, mounts 
a horse and with the guard, he brought with him, goes to the Indian 
camp, has a talk with them, finds that they were for peace, or in 
other words, they said they did not want to fight, that there had been 
some misunderstanding with them and the "Mormons" at Fort Supply. 
He brought them along with him to Fort Supply that the parties might 
be together, so he could hear both sides, and then he could tell who 
was to blame. As I said before, he disarmed them before he would 
let them come inside of the picketing. He then held a council with 
them. The thing was all talked over and they, the Indians, agreed 
to throw away all of their mad feelings. I must say the course that 
Major Armstrong took was truly commendable. He manifested 
a deep feeling of interest to establish peace between the red men and 



Brigham Young, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to William A. 
Hickman, dated G. S. L. City, Aug. 11, 1856 97 


Inasmuch as Agent Garland Hurt is still on a visit to the Indians 
in the neighborhood of Carson Valley, and as Agent G. W. Arm- 

whites in this region. He showed a willingness to render us all the 
assistance to settle the difficulty that had occurred. 

Oct. 13, Tababooindowetsy and band met the agent again at Fort 
Supply. He had a long talk with them. They appeared to put all 
confidence in him, as they called him their father or their great 
Father's Papoose. He told them to look at the Sioux nation and see 
how they done. They commenced to kill the whites and their Great 
Father was mad and sent men to fight them; and it would be so with 
them, if they should commence to fight the whites. 

Brother Smith, pray pardon me for being so lengthy, but to make 
an apology would be to add more, so I will close at present by sub- 
scribing myself. 

Your Brother in the Gospel of peace, 
Isaac Bullock 

(P. S.) 

Nov. 6, 1855. As 1 had no chance to send this until today, I will 
add a little more. Major R. T. Burton with a company of 25 minute 
men, arrived at our fort Oct. 18th; they came to see how things 
were getting along, but had not much to do with the Indian diffi- 
culty, for they had most all gone. After their talk with the agent, 
they promised the agent to go away to the buffalo and they promptly 
fulfilled thus far. Major Burton's stay was short. He left on the 
21st Oct. Everything seemed settled, and so it appears up to the 
present date. Brother Joshua Terry and Brothers Walley and Ben- 
jamin Roberts went out to Tababooindowetsy's camp which was 
beyond Green River the last day of October. Returned and brought 
word very favorable, that the chief was on his way to meet Washakee 
(Indian Chief) over toward the Platte in the buffalo country. The 
chief said he was a very big friend now to the "Mormons" and all 
white people. 

I think that they will keep their covenant made with the agent this 
winter at least. The brethren here feel very anxious to learn the 
language of the natives, so they can preach to them. Four men are 
calculating to start in a few days to Washakee's camp and winter 
with them. There seems to be peace here now, both with the 
mountaineers and Indians. We have gathered everything which we 
raised into our fort and feel that we can protect ourselves this winter 
by the grace of our God. 

I calculated to give you a description of our fort before now, as I 
promised you, but owing to the press of business and Indian troubles, 
I have put it off. I think now soon I can attend to it, as we are . 
getting over with our hay. 

So no more at present. My love to yourself. Brother Thos. Bullock 
and clerk, 

I remain as ever your brother in the Gospel of Peace. 

Isaac Bullock 

97. Enclosure in Young to Manypenny, Sept. 30, 1856, U/13-1856. 
See Document XXXVII. 


strong has but recently returned from an official tour among the 
Indians south, hence is unable to start at once for Green river, 
and as the Shoshones on and about that stream will soon be 
obliged to leave on their hunt, you are hereby appointed to take 
an outfit of two wagons, 8 men, yourself, interpreter and teamster 
included, and proceed to Fort Bridger in Green river County to 
meet the Shoshone Indians who are on a visit to that post with 
their chief, Wash-i-kik." s You will provide yourself with some 

98. J. Robert Brown, Journal of a trip across the plains of the U. S., 
from Missouri to California, in the year 1856. . ., Columbus, O., 1860, 
provides some interesting background on Shoshoni affairs at this time. 
Brown traveled west with a trader, E. R. Yates, who had wintered on 
Green River in 1853-54, and reached Green River on July 23, moving on 
the 24th to a point not far from the Mormon Ferry. His journal continues: 

. . . After we had eaten, old Baptiste Louisant (pro Bat-eest Looee- 
zong) and the French gentleman [H. Duponey] whom I saw with 
Mr. Masure on the Platte, came to our camp. Uncle Batt, as he is 
called, lives opposite here, and owns the ferry; he is an old hunter 
and mountaineer. . . [Some of the party went off] to Jack Rob- 
inson's, a very noted character in these parts; he is a brother of Geo. 
Robinson of Bridgton, Mo. . . . Uncle Batt came over and spent the 
evening; we sang several songs for him, which pleased him much. 

[July 26] ... I find these mountaineers generally, to be a very 
interesting set of men, sociable, generous, free, frank, frolicsome, and 
fond of fun and whisky. About 10 o'clock, Jack Robinson and 
Yates came in. Jack Robinson is about fifty or fifty-five years of 
age, is much broken in countenance, but has a strong, muscular 
frame. For the last year or two he has hurt himself by drinking. 
He is never drunk, but goes upon the rule of "little and often," 
which he has kept up today. He is a kind of arbiter or judge 
among these rough men, and appears to be respected and loved by 
them all. He was chief of the Shoshones or Snake tribe for a long 
time, until, through his advice, the tribe elected Wassahu chief. From 
all that I can gather from these men, and others that I have seen, 
I think Wassahu is as great a man as Tecumseh, Blackhawk or Phillip 
— he is, no doubt, a much better man. I have heard the mountain 
men tell many pleasing anecdotes of him. I should like very much 
to see him. We were visited by at least twenty men to-day. Uncle 
Jack and I soon got into a conversation. ... he is very interesting. 
. . . Robinson and Yates left before sundown, to go up to Robinson's 
camp, about five or six miles from here. 

[Sunday, July 27. Forded the river without any great trouble.] 
Several more mountain men hearing that Yates had arrived, came to 
our camp. Yates lived here on this river all winter in 1853 and 1854, 
and this is the reason he is so well known; he owes Jack Robinson 
over $1500 from that time. . . . 

[Aug. 2. The company now was camped within a mile and a 
half of Fort Bridger, and Yates went to the fort to see if he could 
get some meat.] Yates came, without meat, in company with Barney 
Ward and another mountaineer. This Barney Ward is an old moun- 
taineer, and the only one the Mormons have proselyted. . . We 
were soon off on the road again, and came to Fort Bridger. This 
was built and owned by Col. Bridger. The Mormons bought him 


goods, as per bill shewn me by Levi Stewart, merchant in this 
place, ammunition and provisions as presents for them and hold 
a council with Wash-i-kik and his principal men, during which 
you will endeavor to inculcate friendly feelings, and give such 
instruction as shall have a tendency to induce the Indians to 
abandon their wandering and predatory mode of life, and induce 
them to cultivate the earth, and raise stock for a subsistence. You 
will also seek to impress upon their minds the benefits of civilized 
existence, and of their locating themselves so that schools may be 
established among them. You will seek to conciliate them towards 

out [in 1854], and now keep a store and post here. They persecuted 
him, and tried to cheat him out of his pay. They bought the fort 
and section of land for $3,000 [$4,000], and owe $4,000 of it yet 
[which was paid in 1858]. Col Bridger is now acting as guide for 
Lord Gore, at $30 per day and found. This is what a man gets by 
knowing these mountains. . . . 

[Aug. 5, encamped at the head of Echo Canyon, west of Bear 
River] . . . While preparing breakfast, an Indian came into camp. 
He could only say Shoshone, and strike his breast in token of friend- 
ship. Soon there came another, and from their signs we understood 
that Wassakee was coming. I was all interest now. We, however, 
divided our little portion of bread with these sons of the wilderness. 
While we were eating Yates treated them to whisky, which is against 
U. S. law; I told him so. He was making some remark, when I 
interrupted him by saying that I heard horses' feet coming. We all 
now listened, and these Indians said Wassakee, Wassakee, in a low 
voice. Very soon 7 or 8 Indians came around the point of the hill 
and partially held up, and came slowly up to camp. When they 
came up Yates recognized one of them as being Brazil [Bazil], whom 
he had seen often two years ago. He shook hands and all dismounted 
and came to the fire, and Brazil and Wassakee shook hands all 
round. I soon picked out Wassakee by his appearance. We found 
out through Brazil which was Wassakee for certain; an Indian will 
not tell his own name. I was somewhat disappointed in the appear- 
ance of this chief; 1 thought he was an old Indian, very large, and 
possessing great dignity. On the contrary, Wassakee is a medium 
sized man, aged about 35 or 40 years, but of a perfect form, straight, 
muscular and firm, and possesses the most beautiful set of teeth I 
ever saw. He was out on a hunt, and was dressed in a kind of coat 
and pants made of an old white blanket. Yates made the whisky 
flow freely now, and Wassakee drank much, but he would pour some 
into a tin cup and then fill it up with water, and then portion out a 
little to each Indian except Brazil, whom he allowed to take the raw 
material. I could not see that it affected Wassakee any; but Brazil's 
eye began to brighten. After the Indians had drank he would wave 
his hand, and the Indians would mount and away. About 35 visited 
us during the morning. Wassakee could speak but a few words of 
American, but promised us "antelope, heap," after Yates told him 
about where we would camp. I told Yates I was afraid he would get 
these Indians drunk. Soon after this we started and traveled down 
a valley until we nooned. . . . 

I forgot to mention that we had not left our camp far this morn- 
ing, before Wassakee and Brazil, and another Indian, followed us. 


each other and with other tribes as well as towards the whites, with 
whom however it is believed thay have ever been at peace and 

Upon your return you will make report to this office of your 
expenses, and of all occurrences of interest transpiring during your 
visit & interview with the Indians, persons employed in your service 
&c. You will particularly consider economy and promptness in 
the performance of these duties, and seek to make as favorable an 
impression as possible upon them. 

In the distribution of the presents you will collect as many of 
the Indians together at Fort Bridger as you can, and call to your 
aid M r Lewis Robison of that place and M r . Isaac Bullock of Fort 
Supply. I also suggest the name of M r . Joshua Terry as Inter- 
preter. . . . 

They had started up the road, but I suppose they had not yet had 
enough whisky, so Yates rode back and met them. When they came 
up he stopped the wagons and filled a sardine box with whisky and 
gave it to W., who then called for a pipe and some tobacco, which 
was found and given to him, when they took their gifts and sat 
down beside the road. Wassakee, before he left us, shook hands with 
me only, and spoke the word "che-bungo," which Yates says means 
"good." We had not gone more than a mile before here come Brazil 
in a gallop. Yates now tried to hide himself in the wagons. Brazil 
came up and asked me, in American, "where's Yates? Mr. Yates." 
Says I he's gone on. "No," says he. Just then the wind raised the 
wagon cover and he saw Yates in the wagon. He made him get out 
and give him just one more "leetle dram, Mr. Yates." Then he 
gave back the pipe and left us. He was getting very tight, and his 
tongue was thick; he promised us "antelope heap, much, me." 

[Aug. 7] ... We have seen no more of the Snake Indians since 
yesterday; we suppose they could find no game for us. Wassakee 
wanted us to tell Brigham Young and the Mormons that he was 
mad at them. When a chief says that he means no child's play, for 
it is their declaration of war. (I have since learned that the Mormons 
had to make him many presents to keep him from fighting.) Yates 
says Wassakee is rich, and can dress as fine as any chieftain in the 
mountains. . . . 

[Aug. 12, on Mountain Dell Creek, having the previous day crossed 
Big Mountain] ... I neglected to mention yesterday of having met 
"Bill Hickman," in charge of the presents for Wassahu, two wagon 
loads sent by Brigham, to pacify the chief. This Bill Hickman is a 
most foul and bloody murderer, but one would not suspect it from 
his appearance. . . . 



William A. Hickman, Isaac Bullock, and Lewis Robison 

to Gov. Brigham Young, dated Fort Bridger, Green River 

County, Utah Territory, Aug. 19, 1856 !! * 


We address you a few lines to inform you of the intercourse we 
have had with Wash-i-kik and his tribe. There were present 40 
lodges, 300 persons. On the arrival of the Indian goods at Fort 
Bridger, pr. William A. Hickman, Isaac Bullock of Fort Supply 
sent Joshua Terry in Search of Washikik and his band, found 
them high up on Bear River on the eve of Starting to this place. 
Terry informed them that W m . A. Hickman was at Bridger with 
presents for them. On the 16 th Wash-i-kik & his band arrived 
here. We Smoked, had dinner and & gave them a beef, after 
which we had a treaty or Council with Wash-i-kik and Some 15 
of his braves, explained the nature of Hickman's Coming and by 
whom Sent. A good Spirit Seemed to prevail and after much 
conversation adjourned till next day at which time Wash i kik was 
notified that he Should have another beef, and also his presents 
as sent by GoV. Young per W m . A. Hickman, and that Isaac 
Bullock & Lewis Robinson were his assistants in the matter, which 
Seemed to render good Satisfaction to all the Indians present. 

The following morning according to promise the presents were 
Spread upon the green adjacent to Fort Bridger Wash i kik and 
his band amounting to over 300 came. We again explained the 
nature of the presents, that it was because they had been good 
they had been Sent, after which Wash i kik gave a long and good 
address to his band who paid great attention to what he Said. 
We then with the assistance of Wash i kik and 3 of his men made 
a distribution, all were well pleased. 

We find him friendly to the whites, and willing for them to 
occupy as much of his land as they want or any other favor his 
country affords. 

While distributing Said presents the best of order was preserved 
by Washikik and his people they Seemed to observe with great 
reverence all that he Said to them, not a violation of any order he 
gave by any of his band. While writing this letter Wash-i-kik 
came in, Said his heart was good and wanted to talk, and hear us 

99. Enclosure in Young to Manypenny, Sept. 30, 1856. U/13-1856. 
Hickman's book does not refer to this particular mission, though he 
does tell of an earlier unavailing effort, in company with Elisha Ryan, 
to "hunt up and invite in Washakie, a Shoshone chief, and his band 
of Indians," for a council with Brigham Young. That mission was 
evidently in the winter of 1854-55; the unsuccessful search for Washakie 
was pursued in the northern part of the Green River Valley. Hickman, 
op. cit., pp. 105-106. 


talk. M r . Bullock expressed to him our mind and feelings concern- 
ing all good Indians, which made him rejoice much, also to have 
peace & good feelings towards all Indians & whites. Washikik 
replied that he had been to the Sioux and all the tribes near, and 
had wished much that they all might be friends, that they would 
promise, but would Soon break it, which made him feel bad that 
he did not know what to do, had thought he would Stay on his 
own land and not go about any more of them, but he felt very 
good over what he had heard today. The Indians were well 
pleased with their presents, and departed upon their hunt express- 
ing the most friendly feelings towards the whites. . . . 


Brigham Young, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to George W. 

Manypenny, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated Great 

Salt Lake City, Aug. 30, 1856 100 


[Encloses two drafts, one for $840 in favor of Joseph F. Mason 
of Weston, Mo., and one for $3,756.50 in favor of Levi Stewart 
& Co. of Great Salt Lake City.] 

The above amounts have arisen through the necessity of making 
purchases of certain presents for the Shoshonee Indians, and have 
the fullest Sanction of my judgment as to the most judicious man- 
agement of the affairs of this Superintendency as far as that tribe 
is at present concerned. > 

I deemed this disbursement, and the requisite steps for the early 
distribution of the presents purchased therewith, the more impera- 
tive from the fact that those numerous Indians, located imme- 
diately upon the Emigrant Road have been invariably friendly 
to the whites: also because thay received no presents of conse- 
quence while at the treaty held at Laramie in 1851, wheere and 
when nine tribes were presented, all of whom except the Sho- 
shonees received presents, and still they nearly if not entirely 
alone of all those tribes have stood fast by the agreement there 
made to be at peace; and also because they visited the upper cross- 
ing of the North Fork of the Platte by the request of the U. S. 
Troops, as they allege, and again had no presents given them. 
These circumstances, together with the invariably peaceful course, 
and pacific disposition of the Shoshonees, will, I trust, most amply 
justify in your estimation, the small outlay now made in their 
behalf, not only as a matter of justice in past but as another step 
in that conciliatory policy you so correctly and ably endeavor to 
have carried out. . . . 

100. U/10-1856. 



Brigham Young, Supt. of Indian Affairs, to George W. 

Manypenny, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated 

Great Salt Lake City, Sept. 30, 1856 101 


Accompanying herewith you will find my abstract, account cur- 
rent and vouchers from one to thirty inclusive amounting to 
$6813 25/100. As advised by last mail a draft was given 

to Levi Stewart & Co for $3756 50/100 and one in favor of 
Joseph P. Mason Weston M° for $840 00/100 which amount 
was entirely expended in Sending out presents to the Shoshones 
or Snake Indians at Fort Bridger, and distributing the Same to 

The occasion which demanded this expenditure is Simply this, 
1 st The Shoshones have never had any presents of consequence, 
while almost every Surrounding tribe have had more or less given 
to them. 2 nd They have always been friendly to travellers, and 
have long felt that while other Indians who have been more or 
less troublesome and unfriendly have received considerable quan- 
tities of presents, they have received nothing. 

In the Shoshones country which lies in this Territory and 
through which the trading routes to Oregon and California pass, 
no traveler or whites have ever been molested, those acquainted 
with this feel perfectly Safe when they arrive in their country, and 
can rest in quiet and peace. 

For over two years these Indians have been expecting presents 
from the appropriation of $45,000, which from Some cause has 
been retained as yet — by the department. For these reasons, and 
believing that it would meet with the views of the department, 
determined me, when informed that the main body was encamped 
at Fort Bridger waiting for an Agent to visit them and make them 
Some presents to forthwith respond to their wishes. D r Hurt, 
being absent on his Carson County expedition, and Major Arm- 
strong, who having just returned from his Southern trip, not being 
able to go in time to meet them, I appointed M r William Hickman 
to take charge of the expedition and to call to his assistance M r 
Lewis Robinson [Robison] of Fort Bridger, and Isaac Bullock 
both residents of Green River County, to aid and assist him in 

101. U/ 13- 1856. Nothing is said of it in this or other official reports, 
but some 30 bushels of wheat and some vegetables were raised this year 
at Fort Supply by Bazil, marking the first effort at agriculture by the 
Wyoming Shoshoni. Isaac Bullock, in a letter to the Deseret News of 
Oct. 1, 1856, said that Bazil and his squaws had harvested the wheat 
"clean and neat, and appear to feel well satisfied with their prospects for 
grain this winter." 


the distribution of the presents to the Indians. A copy of instruc- 
tions to them, as well as their report to me upon their return is 
herewith forwarded. 

I am happy to be able to Say that the Indians throughout the 
territory are generally friendly, although I have heard of Some 
difficulty being experienced by travelers on Marys River the par- 
ticulars of which I expect will be found in Agent Hurt's report, 
which with major Armstrong's I yet hope will be in time for this 

The report of this quarter Should Show the employees of this 
Superintendency, and these failures of Agents reports not coming 
in in time, I fear will disenable me from giving it in full. 
Agent Hurt has visited the Indians in Carson County, and the 
Indians on the route usually travelled by the emigrants to Cali- 

He has also continued his farming operations, which I consider 
have been quite Successful. Major Armstrong has also been quite 
active in visiting among the Indians, having visited Since his return 
from South the Ivanpah Indians about 140 miles west, bordering 
upon the Desert, and among whom Tintick harbored with his 
hostile band last winter and Spring. The operations altogether 
involve considerable expense but I assure you it is needful and 

The Indians in the vicinity of the Settlements have long de- 
pended upon the liberality of the people for a great Share of their 
Support. Hence whenever Scarcity prevailed, So that provisions 
could not be Supplied to them, it often caused much ill feeling and 
was calculated to incur hostilities. They moreover frequently be- 
come unreasonable in their requisitions and get angry if they are 
not immediately complied with. These considerations are Suffi- 
cient in themselves to justify opening up a few farms for their 
temporal benefit, to Say nothing of the Salutary influence which 
it is calculated to exercise over them in leading them back to the 
arts of civilized existence. 

I need hardly Suggest to one So well acquainted with the diffi- 
culties with the natives in other territories, that it is by pursuing 
this conciliatory course towards them that in this territory we 
enjoy that degree of peace and quiet So happily existing 

They are now [page frayed: five or six words lost] Somewhat 
appreciate the efforts making for their relief and benefit 

For amount of balance for this quarter to wit, $2216 75/100. 
I have drawn as usual in favor of our Delegate in Congress, Hon. 
John M. Bernhisel. 

Trusting that my course, and those associated with me, may 
prove Satisfactory to the department. . . . 

P. S. Oct. 1 st Agent Hurts report and accompanying accounts, 
came to hand last evening and owing to the detention of the mail 
one day has given us an opportunity to forward them herewith, 


though not Sufficient time to So thoroughly examine them as I 
should have done. His report is interesting and true and his 
expenditures reasonable and just, and should be promptly met, and 
I take great pleasure in recommending their favorable considera- 
tion to the department 

State Historical Society 



Frank L. Bowron 

A report on the current status of the Wyoming Historical Society 
after its first six months of existence must necessarily deal primar- 
ily with finances. 

In our first six months, we have six of our 23 counties already 
organized and chartered. We have a membership in excess of 
400 throughout the State and in other states. Our expenditures, 
while large, have generally been less than were anticipated in 
getting a new organization going. The major expenses have been 
for printing charters, membership cards, and stationery. Our 
payment to the Annals of Wyoming is routine and money from 
your dues is automatically set aside for that purpose. 

At its initial meeting last January, the Executive Committee de- 
cided to set up a permanent fund to be composed of life member- 
ships, contributions and such monies as from time to time might 
be transferred from the general fund. This fund is to be invested 
and only the interest and dividends derived from such investment 
will be expended. In short, this permanent fund will comprise 
the capital of our Society. This fund is already in excess of 
$1,000.00. Adoption of this policy on the one hand means that 
your state society is going to be unable to undertake any large 
scale expenditures for a number of years. On the other hand, 
it is our opinion that by using this conservative money policy from 
the very beginning, we can insure a sound and solid future for 
our organization. 

The more rapidly this permanent fund is increased, the more 
rapidly we will be able to move aggressively into the fields of 
collecting and preserving our state's historical data and materials. 
At our state executive meeting in Lander last May, it was decided 
to investigate the possibilities of incorporating the Society and 
setting up a board to administer our permanent fund. Incorpora- 
tion would also make more feasible the holding of land and other 
property by the Society. Further action on this matter will be 
taken at the next board meeting. 

I doubt if the State Society will actively solicit contributions 
for this fund. It is hoped, however, that persons financially able 
to contribute who are interested in the future of the Society and 


in the furtherance of the study of Wyoming history and other aims 
of our Society will make contributions so that we can actively 
undertake the placing of markers, the purchase of data and source 
materials, and eventually perhaps assist our counties in the con- 
struction of local museums. 

Until such time as our Society can afford to make large expendi- 
tures to forward our objectives, your state officers are endeavoring 
to put the following program into effect: 

First, by the organization of local societies throughout Wyo- 
ming and the increase in membership, we expect to be able to 
influence legislation which will assist our county chapters and the 
state in carrying out our aims. 

The 1955 Wyoming Legislature can expect to receive Society- 
sponsored legislation which will enable county boards of commis- 
sioners to levy taxes for the construction and support of county 
museums. May I suggest to our membership that during the 
coming campaign you contact candidates of both parties regarding 
such legislation and get them committed to the support of such 
a bill. 

We also expect to give support to larger appropriations for the 
existing state historical activities. 

Our Society has also shown interest in the possibility of securing 
passage of legislation so that Wyoming will have a statue in 
Statuary Hall in Washington, D. C. 

The above three objectives are generally our legislative program 
for next year; additions and changes may be made by our annual 
meeting next fall. We should, however, have representatives 
present in Cheyenne during the next legislative session to work 
with the Legislators on historical enactments and explain our 
position to the Legislature. Each member of our Society can 
help bring a victory in the legislature for our measures by con- 
tacting his local representatives and explaining our program to 

Until such time as our financial reserves are large enough to 
allow us to undertake more expensive projects, it is the concensus 
of your state executive committee that we can best serve our aims 
by encouraging other associations and individuals to undertake 
projects for the preservations and collections of historical matter. 
I have appointed Mr. W. L. Marion of Lander to act as chairman 
of a committee to arrange that recognition be given to outstanding 
efforts in promoting Wyoming history. 

Two such enterprises come to mind as perhaps deserving awards 
from our state society. One is the Oregon Trail trek series spon- 
sored by State Engineer L. C. Bishop. Mr. Bishop's fine work 
has done a great deal to bring our state's citizens a deeper interest 
in the Oregon Trail and the history surrounding the Trail. 

Another enterprise which certainly merits our praise is the work 


being done on Old Fort Caspar by the Sertoma Club of Casper. 
Faced with the fact that the reconstructed fort was fast going the 
way of the original landmark through vandalism and wear of the 
weather, the Sertoma Club has taken over the care and mainte- 
nance of the buildings at the Fort. Members are working on 
week-ends to construct a fence around the property to keep out 
vandals. Several members have borrowed money on their per- 
sonal note to finance the project of repairing the fort itself. 

These two examples are being repeated every day throughout 
Wyoming as our citizens become more alert to the dangers of 
losing great portions of our historical heritage through neglect. I 
hope that our state and county societies, limited though we may 
be financially, will do everything possible to encourage and recog- 
nize the wonderful efforts that other groups are making. 

Wyoming Mckaeological Notes 


He knelt beside his wigwam chipping flint 
Bowed low with many years — an ancient man; 
Into his faded eyes there came a glint, 
For he was proud to labor for his clan. 
Deep shadows lengthened with the setting sun 
Grim warriors rode again upon a raid; 
Their deerskin quivers dangled at their sides, 
Filled with the deadly arrows he had made. 

That night his spirit rose to face the gods 

And stood before their chief, the Manitou. 

Greeted with acclaim and kindly nods, 

They honored him in every way they knew. 

Old trails have gone, the warriors are dust, 

Swift traffic rolls across the broad highway; 

The plowshare, cutting through the earth's dark crust, 

Reveals strange relics of an earlier day. 

Author unknown. 



L. C. Steege 

Implement making is a definite human characteristic. Since 
the beginning, primitive man made and used artifacts. Some were 
fashioned for tools; others for weapons; still others were made 
for ornamental and ceremonial purposes. One of the ma^or 
tasks of an archaeologist is the collection and classification of these 

Probably one of the first materials used by primitive man was 
wood. A club in his hands would be an effective weapon against 
most enemies. A sharp-pointed stick handled with force would 
also be respected. Since wood is a perishable substance, any 
artifact made of it, that is found today, would undoubtedly be of 
more recent origin. 

Bone was also utilized. The earliest known phase of bone 
industry dates back to the middle Palaeolithic period during the 
final Mousterian Culture. From this period until the end of the 
stone age, we find rapidly increasing development of bone arti- 
facts. Many bone artifacts have been found in Wyoming, but 


unless they are found associated with the "Folsom" or "Yuma" 
complex, or some culture of a similar age, it is quite possible that 
they too are of a more recent origin. 

Stone is a material found on every continent. Stone is practi- 
cally indestructible, therefore, artifacts made from it have sur- 
vived through countless centuries. 

The aborigines in Wyoming used a wide variety of stone in 
their work. Quartzite, chert, jasper, agate, chalcedony, petrified 
wood, and obsidian were the most extensively used. The beauty 
of both material and workmanship of some of the weapon points 
found in this state are surpassed by none. 

In our study of various stone artifacts found in Wyoming, 
arrowheads are probably one of the most interesting and most 
easily recognized by the average person. 

Many persons, after finding the arrowheads or other artifacts, 
promptly "cache" them away with other keepsakes and heirlooms 
without a single thought as to the historical significance attached 
to them. To the historian, that point is absolutely worthless. It 
doesn't take long to record all the facts when an artifact is found. 
Was it a surface find? Was it associated with bones? If so, 
what specie of animal was this? If you cannot positively identify 
those bones, why not notify some trained archaeologist of your 
find, and let him do the necessary identification work? If this 
point was partially eroded out of a bank, record the depth from 
the surface where it was found. Any bit of information about 
the find should be written down. Don't trust your memory as 
most times our memories play tricks on us after a few years of 
lapsed time. 

Perhaps you are a person who has never found an arrowhead. 
I have found hundreds of arrowheads and each one has its own 
special significance and personal meaning. One cannot help but 
thrill to the romance of the past as you wonder who left it where 
you found it and when. 

No doubt many centuries have passed since strong bronze hands 
fitted that point on the tip of a feathered shaft and then released 
this arrow from a bow in a soaring flight. Where it fell to earth, 
the sun, wind and rains had ample time to turn the shaft to dust 
long before you came along. Only the stone point remained to 
span the ages between its parting from that hand of long ago, 
until you found it. Did this arrow strike its objective and get 
carried away before the victim died? Did it miss and never get 
retrieved? This tiny bit of flinty craftsmanship will answer many 
of these questions when you find it, if you will only listen to it. 

How was this point made? Many persons ask this question. 

In every locality the arrowmaker has shown, first of all, a won- 
derful acquaintance with materials at hand as though he had 
searched all the resources of the mineral, vegetable and animal 


world, and after studying all there was, had selected the best. We 
have now discovered that the savage could not have found any 
better material within his own environment. In manufacturing 
the arrowhead, the savage was a mineralogist. He not only knew 
the qualities of rocks but also their best methods of working as 
well as the best conditions in which they existed in nature for his 
purposes. In each locality, the material employed is in every 
case, the best from that region. In working these materials, this 
primitive inventor soon found that the physical properties and 
availability of the material changed by natural surroundings. He 
knew by experimentation that a stone lying in a brook yielded 
better results to him than one exposed to the sun and the weather 
on the open prairies, and that a boulder buried in the damp earth, 
where it had lain for many centuries, gave him safer results with 
far less work than the brook pebble. He not only became a 
critical expert in the qualities of materials but also was led to 
become a quarry man in order to exploit the proper materials for 
his use. The "Spanish Diggings" in the east central part of our 
state are a good example of this quarry — man's industry. 

As soon as the arrowmaker had secured his stock, he began 
to work it up into shape. At first he knocked off a flake or spall 
of the proper size and shape by a blow from another stone or 
percussor. This flake was then shaped, either by the percussion 
method or the pressure method of chipping. 

Percussion chipping was the oldest and most general method 
used. It consisted simply of striking the flake with another stone 
used as a hammer or percussor. By well directed blows, the flake 
could be progressively shaped by removal of chips from the edges 
wherever the necessity developed. 

The pressure method of chipping was invented much later and 
appeared towards the end of the Middle Palaeolithic period. It 
was used extensively towards the end of the Old Stone Age and 
continued in practice during the New Stone Age. This method 
of chipping was well known and practiced by the early inhabitants 
of Wyoming. Many beautifully chipped artifacts have been found 
which were made by the pressure method. "Fulsom" and "Yuma" 
points are the masterpieces of this ancient art. This type of 
chipping was accomplished by the use of a flaking tool. This flak- 
ing tool was made from the point of a deer antler or a fragment 
of bone. In some cases other stones may have been used. The 
main qualifications of the flaking tool were to be able to with- 
stand a great amount of pressure applied by the worker and to 
"take hold" or "bite" the edge of the flake which was being 
chipped. The flaking tool was grasped in one hand and the flake 
in the other. Small ribbon-like chips and small scales could then 
be removed by pressure on the flaker against the edge of the 
artifact. Pressure could be applied either upward or downward. 


whichever suited the individual's taste. This flake, having been 
previously "roughed out" by the percussion method, was now 
perfected by pressure chipping by giving it a more symmetrical 
form, a sharper edge and a thinner body. 

Many of these flaking tools have been found in Wyoming. 
These tools still display the scars grouped around the point where 
the pressure had been applied on the edge of an artifact in the 
process of being manufactured. 

Anyone interested in the further study of this science of stone 
artifact manufacture, Bulletin 60, "Handbook of Aboriginal Amer- 
ican Antiquity" by W. H. Holmes, published by the Bureau of 
American Ethnology, Washington, D. C. is an excellent manual. 
This book gives much information about the working of prehis- 
toric stone quarries and the methods of producing artifacts by 
American Indians. It also furnishes many illustrations covering 
the explanations in the book. 

The descriptions and classifications of Chipped Stone Artifacts 
will be given in the next issue of the Annals. 


Fred Hilman 

In attempting to write up the history of the Wyoming Archaeo- 
logical Society, I shall give the doings and findings of the group 
as viewed by me, the Society's first President, as best I can for 
the year 1953. 

Before going further I want to express my gratitude, as well as 
that of my entire Society, to Miss Lola M. Homsher, of Cheyenne, 
for her invitation to share some of the pages of the Annals of 
Wyoming through that most worthy Society, the Wyoming State 
Historical Society, of which I am also a member. I feel further 
indebted to her for her invitation to join this last mentioned 
group as I have always felt that archaeology is in no way com- 
plete without a comprehensive chronology or history of any ar- 
chaeological item no matter how small or insignificant. In other 
words, when an archaeological find is made and the data is scien- 
tifically recorded and the item placed in a museum, the archaeolo- 
gist's work is done and the whole thing passes into history. It is 
my belief, therefore, that the two Wyoming Societies should go 
hand in hand towards the betterment of a greater and more en- 
lightened Wyoming. As a collector of Indian artifacts for years, 
I have dreamed of forming an Archaeological Society here in my 
own home state, that, through concerted efforts, we could secure 
legislation that would save, to the State of Wyoming, her precious 
store of stone-age artifacts. 


On Feb. 4, 1953, my dreams began to be a reality when a few 
of my friends gathered here at my home, and we planned the first 
steps in what has become the Wyoming Archaeological Society. 
I was elected the Society's first President while John McClintock 
was elected Vice-President and Pauline Mcintosh, Secretary-Trea- 
surer, the latter two of Sheridan. There were six members present 
at this meeting and their names are as follows: Pauline Mcintosh; 
Dr. Raymond Bentzen; John McClintock; Margaret Powers; my 
wife, Alice Hilman, and myself. 

While on a trip to Colorado, previously, I had contacted a 
member of the Colorado chapter of Archaeology, Mr. H. N. Mc- 
Connell of Boulder, and he was kind enough to forward me later 
a copy of their by-laws which we, in part, used as a basis for our 
own Society. Since that date we have changed our by-laws as 
seen best to fit our own needs. 

During the year 1953 our Society grew from its six original 
members to forty paid memberships and four honorary members. 
The annual dues and membership fee in the Wyoming Archaeo- 
logical Society is $2.50. The eligibility? — to have previously been 
bitten by that most elusive of all bugs, the "artifactis" bug, and 
a desire to work to achieve, in a scientific manner, the preserva- 
tion of our so-called Indian artifacts. 

I herewith enclose a copy of our by-laws which, at the present 
writing, we are using as complete except for the fact that we are 
in the process of incorporation. 

Many of our members have fine and extensive collections, some 
that would rival any private collection I have ever seen anywhere. 
None that I know of are for sale, and to offer to buy an artifact 
from one of our members is almost taken as an insult. 

To give a summary of the various types and kinds of artifacts 
found here in northern Wyoming would consume considerable 
space, but suffice it to say that the usual western plains types 
predominate with here and there an object of foreign vintage in 
evidence. Now and then some members of our group find an 
artifact that was manufactured many hundreds of miles away from 
Wyoming. For instance, arrows and spear points made of Mis- 
sissippi Valley chert are occasionally found here, and I have in 
my collection two or three points that, through some unknown 
channel, found their way here from the much famed Cahokia 
mounds in Illinois. I have found points here that were made in 
Mexico, or as far away as the Rio Grande. There are occasional 
finds made here which include the much discussed Yuma and the 
Folsom and Yuma half-breed; also the willow-leaf, which is typical 
of the Arkansas valleys; and now and then the beautiful black 
obsidian points from the shores of Oregon. Very little pottery 
is found here in northern Wyoming. Few effigies and ceremonials 


have made their appearance here, but the famed corner tang and 
back tang are found to exist in many collections. 

To get back to the history of the Wyoming Archaeological 
Society, we meet the first Monday of each month at eight o'clock 
P.M. at each member's home previously arranged. We arrange 
our programs for a full year ahead, giving us ample time to arrange 
for lecture course and details. Throughout the summer season, 
and weather permitting, we intend to hold field meets on Sundays 
and holidays, this in addition to our regular monthly meetings. 
One of our most interesting meetings last year was a field trip to 
our famed Medicine Wheel which lies atop the Big Horn Moun- 
tains and is considered by many authorities to be an ancient 
shrine. Another interesting field day was a trip into one of our 
large caves where we dug test holes to find if primitive man had 
one day lived within. 

We are holding ail-American Indian Days here again in Sheri- 
dan, Wyoming, and our Archaeological group had several fine 
artifact collections on display in business windows; and, again 
this year we- intend to have a much finer display than ever before. 

During the 1953 season our Archaeological members found 
many fine artifacts. Most predominant in numbers, of course, 
were the scrapers, then arrows and spear points, drills, reamers, 
piercers, hammers, manos, metates, smoothing stones, etc., and 
even a few corner tangs and lances. 

I would like to stress one very important point and that is the 
absolute necessity of proper handling of skeletal finds and any and 
all other finds that are of any importance because, once an object 
is removed from its original resting place, its value to science may 
be lost entirely without having first been properly photographed, 
its position as related to its surrounding objects carefully noted, 
ana all other possible data carefully saved. Much has been lost 
on account of indiscriminate digging, and I would strongly recom- 
mend that a capable party be called in before a find of this 
nature is disturbed. 

At the Society's last meeting it was decided that members of 
our group will take an Archaeological course here at Sheridan 
through our local Northwest College as soon as a suitable teacher 
is secured. The Wyoming Archaeological Society finished its 
first year's existence on Feb. 4, 1953, and at that time opinion was 
expressed that we, as a Society, had at least made a start in the 
right direction and had accomplished considerable, at least for a 
bunch of amateurs. The following officers were chosen to head 
the Society for the second year: Fred Hilman as President; Mrs. 
Margaret Powers of Big Horn, Wyoming, Secretary-Treasurer; and 
Claude Gettys, of Story, Wyoming, Vice-President. 



Article I — Name 
The name of this organization shall be Wyoming Archaeological 

Article II — Purpose 

The purpose of the organization shall be to promote the study of 
the archaeology of Wyoming and other States among its members 
in the community, to take part in further investigation in that field, 
to assist in the protection of the antiquities of the State. 

Article III — Membership 

Section 1. Any person interested in archaeology may become an 
active member of the Society by making application and paying the 
annual dues. 

Section 2. All persons who made application previous to the 
adoption of the constitution shall be charter members. 

Section 3. Active memberships shall lapse in case of non-payment 
of the annual dues, within a reasonable period after notice has been 
given by the secretary. 

Section 4. Associate members and honorary members may be 
elected in accordance with the rules of the Society. 

Article IV — Dues 

The annual dues shall be two dollars and fifty cents ($2.50). 
Article V — Officers 

Section 1. The officers of the organization shall be President, 
Vice-President, Secretary-Treasurer, and such others as the Society 
may provide for. 

Section 2. The duties of the officers shall be those usual to the 
offices named, with additional duties as the Society may impose upon 

Section 3. The officers shall constitute an Executive Committee, 
with power to arrange for programs and to attend to other business 
and interests of the Society, subject to the Society's approval. 

Section 4. Officers shall be elected for a term of one year, the 
election to be held, ordinarily, at the last regular meeting of the 
academic year. 

Article VI — Meetings 

Section 1. Regular meetings of the Society shall be held each 
month during the fiscal year. 

Section 2. Special meetings may be called at any time by the 
officers, or by any five members. Members must be duly notified 
of such meetings in advance. 

Article VII — Quorum 

At regular meetings the members present shall constitute a quorum. 
At all other meetings a quorum shall consist of one half the active 

Article VIII — Amendments 
This constitution may be amended by a majority vote of the mem- 
bers present at any regular meeting of the Society, provided that 
notice of the proposed change was given at a previous regular meet- 
ing, and that all members have been notified of the proposed amend- 

Wyoming Zephyrs 


The Editor 

Wyoming State Historical Society 

Should anyone have the temerity to state that Wyomingites are 
not interested in their history, he could quickly be proven wrong. 
The response to the organization of the Wyoming State Historical 
Society has certainly been almost more than could be anticipated 
at the meeting in Casper last October when seventy-five people 
met to start the Society. 

During the first eight and one half months of its existence the 
charter membership has reached a total of 650, and eight county 
chapters have affiliated with the State Society, including Fremont, 
Campbell, Goshen, Laramie, Albany, Natrona, Carbon, and 

While the State Society will promote the recognition of out- 
standing work in the historical field in Wyoming and will initiate 
state-wide projects, the local societies will bring to the people of 
the localty a realization of what local history means to a commun- 
ity and will do the very important work of collecting and con- 
serving local history, one of our rapidly disappearing natural 

Charter membership to the State Historical Society closed on 
July 1, 1954. 


Life Members 

Berry, Miss Henryetta, Cheyenne Hines, Mrs. Mary D., Denver, 

Big Horn County Library, Basin Colorado 

Boodry, David E., Lyman, Nebraska Homsher, Miss Lola M., Cheyenne 

Brimmer, George E., Cheyenne Larson, Dr. T. A., Laramie 

Brimmer, William N., Rawlins McCullough, A. Stafford, Clifton. 

Coe, W. R., New York City Ohio 

Condit, Mrs. Thelma S., Kaycee Metz, Mrs. Percy W., Basin 

DeWitt, Mrs. Helen Holliday, Los Salisbury, Herbert J., Cheyenne 

Angeles, California Sackett, Carl L., Cheyenne 

Helvey, R. T., Sheridan Smith. Mack, Yoder 

Spencer, P. C, New York City 

Annual Members 

Albright, Mrs. S. Paul, Cheyenne Allen, Miss Cody, Cody 

Alexander, Dr. A. F., Dugway, Utah Allen, Mrs. Mary Jester, Cody 

Alleman, Mrs. Effie, Kemmerer Allison, J. A., Gillette 

Allen, Bess Opal, Casper Allison, Mrs. Ruby, Gillette 

Allen. Chester A., Sr., Laramie Allyn, Frank H.. Cheyenne 



Amoretti, Mrs. Eloise A., Dubois 
Andersen, Mrs. Marion R., 

Bethesda, Maryland 
Anderson, Elwood, Gillette 
Anderson, Mrs. G. D., Torrington 
Andrus, Herbert, Kaycee 
Angwin, Miss Lucia E., Evanston 
Arthur, Bill, British Columbia, 

Baker, Ranson, Rawlins 
Ballard, Thomas W., Torrington 
Barber, Mrs. Raymond, Rawlins 
Barclay, Rex L., Lance Creek 
Bardo, Gerald, Lusk 
Barker, Kenneth, Chugwater 
Barlow, L. H., Gillette 
Barnes, Mrs. Lottie, Torrington 
Barquin, Mrs. James, Sr., Riverton 
Bartek, Clarence, Rock Springs 
Bartholomew, Mrs. Evelyn, Worland 
Bass, Charles, Jay Em 
Beach, Mrs. Mary A., Mountainview 
Beard, Mrs. Cyrus, San Gabriel, 

Beck, George T., Cody 
Bell, William J., Cheyenne 
Bellamy, Mrs. Mary G., Laramie 
Bender, Miss Dorothy, Thermopolis 
Bender, Mrs. Walter, Encampment 
Bennett, Mrs. Ed. F., Rawlins 
Bennett, Ed. F., Rawlins 
Bennett, Mrs. W. E., Buffalo 
Benninghoven, Walter, Lyman, 

Bentley, Mrs. Helen M., Casper 
Berlet, Walter H., Casper 
Bernfeld, Seymour S., San 

Francisco, California 
Berry, G. W., Denver, Colorado 
Bible, Mrs. George A., Rawlins 
Bishop, L. C, Cheyenne 
Bishop, Marvin L., Casper 
Blakeslee, Claude L., Casper 
Blakeslee, Mrs. Claude L., Casper 
Bocott, C. H., Riverton 
Bocott, Mrs. C. H., Riverton 
Bogensberger, M. J., Cheyenne 
Boice, Mrs. Fred D., Jr., Cheyenne 
Boice, Mrs. Margaret Mcintosh, 

Bolten, Mrs. Ethel E., Rawlins 
Bon, Miss Lorraine, Cheyenne 
Bowen, Chester H., Gillette 
Bower, Mrs. Earl T., Worland 
Bower, Senator Earl T.. Worland 
Bower, Mrs. Ray F., Worland 
Bower, Ray F., Worland 
Bowron, Frank L., Casper 
Bragg, Mrs. Laura I., Worland 

Bragg, Mrs. William F., Sr., 
• Worland 
vBragg, William 'F., Sr., Worland 
Bragg, William F., Jr., Torrington 
Breitweiser, Wayne R., Powell 
Breitweiser, Mrs. Betty J., Powell 
Bremers, Ralph R., Omaha, 

Bresnahen, Miss Winfred, Cheyenne 
Brice, Mrs. David W., Wheatland 
Brimmer, C. A., Rawlins 
Brimmer, Mrs. Geraldine Z., 

Brock, J. Elmer, Kaycee 
Britton, Mrs. Roxie E., Basin 
Brokaw. Mrs. Ralph H., McFadden 
Brown, J. H., Cheyenne 
Brown, Mrs. Sholie Richards, 

Monterey, California 
Brownlee, Miss Beryl, Cheyenne 
Burdette, Mrs. Julius V., Cheyenne 
Burleson, Mrs. Ira, Riverton 
Burns, Miss Dorothy M., Sheridan 
Burns, Dr. Robert H., Laramie 
Burnside, Dr. Raymond A., Des 

Moines, Iowa 
Burt, Struthers, Moran 
Butler, Helen, Bartlesville, 

Bylund, Mrs. Ruth Kimball. 

Byron, Mrs. Elsa Spear. Sheridan 
Cahill, T. Joe, Cheyenne 
Campbell, Mrs. Joe, Walcott 
Canoso, Michael, Cambridge, 

Carbon County Public Library, 

Carley, Miss Maurine, Cheyenne 
Carnegie Public Library. Lusk 
Carnegie Public Library, Sheridan 
Carpenter, Miss Ellen M., Atlantic 

Carpenter, Miss Mary J., Cheyenne 
Carter, E. B., Orr, Minnesota 
Carter, Edgar N., South Pasadena. 

Carter, Miss Gladys, Laramie 
Cashman, Harry J., Rawlins 
Cashman, Mrs. Gertrude A., 

Casper Junior High School, Casper 
Cassinat, Louis, Rawlins 
Cathers, Mrs. William E., Cheyenne 
Catron, Peter H.. Sheridan 
Cavanaugh, Mrs. Frank, Worland 
Chadey, Henry, Rock Springs 
Champ, Mrs. Myrtle M., Gillette 
Champion, Mervin, Sheridan 



Chapman, Mrs. Mark A., Cheyenne 
Chassell, Norval W., Waterloo, Iowa 
Cheesbrough, John, Elk Mountain 
Cheesbrough, Mrs. Nellie, Elk 

Christensen, J. Marius, Laramie 
Christensen, Mrs. Reiva Niles, 

Clairmont, Mrs. Maude, Fort 

Clausen, Miss Esther M., Laramie 
Claycomb, Mrs. Geneva W., Cody 
Clemens, Miss Mary K., Torrington 
Cody Public Schools, Cody 
Colket, T. C, 2nd, Sheridan 
Colket, Mrs. T. C, 2nd, Sheridan 
Collins, Dabney Otis, Denver, 

Colyer, Oliver L, Torrington 
Conant, Mrs. E. M., Worland 
Conant, E. M., Worland 
Condit, Mrs. Lillian B., Laramie 
Conklin, Robert F., Cheyenne 
Cook, Malcolm L., Denver, 

Cooney, Thomas F., Grand Island, 

Cooper, Ralph, Kansas City, 

Cope, Everton B., Torrington 
Cordiner, A. H., Laramie 
Corthell, Irving E., Laramie 
Coulter, Mrs. F. S., Worland 
Coulter, F. S., Worland 
Cowley High School, Cowley 
Crisler, Miss Marie M., Cheyenne 
Crisman, Rev. H. C, Torrington 
Dahlquist, John E., Fort Bridger 
Dahlquist, Mrs. Laura, Fort Bridger 
Daley, P. E., Rawlins 
David, Robert B., Casper 
Davis, Mrs. Lillie G., Cheyenne 
Day, Hugh S., Riverton 
Day, Mrs. Kenneth P., Saratoga 
Day, Richard C, Rock Springs 
Dayton, S. Reed, Cokeville 
Dechert, G. F., Riverton 
Deering, Mrs. Jean Miller, Boone, 

Deimer, Henry, Lander 
Delaplaine, Mrs. John H., Cheyenne 
DeVore, Harold, Laramie 
Dickey, Hubert F., Gillette 
Dickinson, Norman R., Riverton 
Dillinger, Mrs. Delia C, Gillette 
Dilts, Fred, Douglas 
Dinsmore, I. W., Rawlins 
Diver, Mrs. Jessie S., Long Beach, 


Dobbin. Miss Anna M., Cheyenne 
Dobler, Miss Lavinia G., New 

York City 
Dodge, Mrs. Beulah I., Rock River 
Dodge, George W., Rock River 
Dominick, Dr. DeWitt, Cody 
Draper, Mrs. Mary, Rawlins 
Duggins, Miss Nellie R., Casper 
Duis, Miss Emma, Casper 
Dunn, Mrs. R. L., Cheyenne 
Eberstadt, Edward & Sons, New 

York City 
Ehernberger, Jim, Cheyenne 
Ekstrom, Mrs. Laura Allyn, Denver, 

Elder, T. H., Torrington 
Ellis. Erl H., Idaho Springs, 

Elmore, Mike, Gillette 
Emerson, Paul W., Cheyenne 
Erickson, Mrs. Katie Kinnear, 

Espy, Mrs. Day, Rawlins 
Fabian, Mrs. Harold P., Jenny Lake 
Farlein, Mrs. J. A., Worland 
Farlein, Dr. J. A., Worland 
Farlow, Mrs. A. J. (Stub), Lander 
Farlow, Jules E., Lander 
Faville, Mrs. A. D., Laramie 
Feltner, C. C, Pinedale 
Ferguson, Mrs. R. A., Wheatland 
Feser, Mrs. Donald, Los Angeles, 

Feuz, Mrs. Margaret C, Jackson 
Fish, Mrs. Edna, Cheyenne 
Flannery, L. G., Fort Laramie 
Forest, Alvin M., Laramie 
Fosnight, Mrs. Verryl V., Cheyenne 
Foster, Biford, Lander 
France, Walton E., Rawlins 
France, Mrs. Walton E., Rawlins 
Fremont County Public Library, 

Frink, Maurice, Denver, Colorado 
Frison, Paul, Worland 
Frison, Mrs. Paul, Worland 
Frison, Robert E., Buffalo 
Froyd, Colonel Erwin A., 

Fryberger, Mrs. Harvey D., 

Fryxell, F. M., Rock Island, Illinois 
Fuller, Mrs. Caroline, Thermopolis 
Fuller, E. O., Laramie 
Fullerton, Mrs. Ellen Miller, Los 

Angeles, California 
Gaber, Miss Mary A., Casper 
Gaddy, Mrs. Albert M., Cheyenne 
Gaensslen, Emil A., Green River 



Gage, Jack R., Sheridan 
Gallaher, Walter, Cheyenne 
Gallaher, Mrs. Marguerite, 

Gantt, Paul H., Washington, D. C. 
Garner, Miss May, Casper 
Garst, Mrs. Doris Shannon, Douglas 
Garton, Mrs. Maude, Casper 
Gaumer, W. B., Derby, Colorado 
Geddes, Mrs. R. W., Rawlins 
Gehman, Lester, Denver, Colorado 
Geier, D. O., Banner 
Gettys, Claude L., Story 
Gibbs, Mrs. Charles, Sheridan 
Gibson, Mrs. Elaine L., Pine Bluffs 
Gillespie, A. S., Laramie 
Gillespie, David, Dixon 
Gillies, Miss Catherine, Thermopolis 
Gillies. Miss May, Cheyenne 
Gieason, Mrs. Eleanor, Gillette 
Good, Mrs. Dorothea L., Wheatland 
Goodrich, Mrs. Ralph D.. Grand 

Junction, Colorado 
Goppert, Ernest J., Cody 
Gordon, Alex, Rawlins 
Gordon, Mrs. Alex. Rawlins 
Gose, Mrs. Etta M., Upton 
Gose, Vernie O., Upton 
Goshen County Library, Torrington 
Graf, Mrs. Louise Spinner, Green 

Graff. Everett D., Winnetka, Illinois 
Gratz, Miss Margaret, Gillette 
Gray, Mrs. W. O., Worland 
Greet, Fred, Worland 
Greet, Mrs. Fred, Worland 
Gress, Mrs. Kathryn, Cheyenne 
Grey, Donald C, Sheridan 
Griffith, James B., Sr., Lusk 
Griffith, Mrs. Vernon S., Sheridan 
Grigg. Mrs. Helen M., Riverton 
Groesbeck, Mrs. Betty, Cheyenne 
Guild, Lorin, Wheatland 
Haddox, Richard, Fort Francis E. 

Hahn, Mrs. Ethel, Daly City, 

Haldeman, Miss Ada M., Torrington 
Halsted, Miss Jessie Mae, Laramie 
Hanson, Dan, Hat Creek 
Hardy, Mrs. Marrabel, Gillette 
Harkins, Mrs. Charles H., Worland 
Harkins, Mrs. Donald J., Worland 
Harkins, Judge Donald J., Worland 
Harrington, Clarence L., Denver, 

Harris, Burton, Hackensack, New 


Harris, John, Pacific Palisades, 

Harris, Mrs. Leland, Lovell 
Harrower, James K., Pinedale 
Hart, Mrs. Shelia, Lander 
Hartsell, John R., Cheyenne 
Hartsell, Mrs. John R., Cheyenne 
Hatcher, Mr. Gunhild, Cheyenne 
Hayen, Charles, Lingle 
Hayden, Mrs. Dudley, Jackson 
Hayden, Francis T., Cody 
Haynes, Jack E., Bozeman, Montana 
Hays, Mrs. Alice C, Lander 
Hays, Irving C, Rawlins 
Hays, Mrs. Irving C, Rawlins 
Healey, Fred, Saratoga 
Healy, Mrs. Alex, Sr., Worland 
Healy, Alex, Sr., Worland 
Heath, Mrs. Evelyn E., Cheyenne 
Heath, Dr. Lillian, M. D., Rawlins 
Heidenreich. Mrs. Homer, Sheridan 
Henderson, Mrs. Paul C, 

Bridgeport, Nebraska 
Henry, Mrs. Joe, Denver. Colorado 
Heron, Lloyd, Worland 
Herring, Mora, Benkelman, 

Hesse, Miss Vivienne, Buffalo 
Hewlett, Mrs. George Wilson, 

Hieb, David L., Fort Laramie 
Hilman, Fred W., Big Horn 
Himebaugh, Mrs. Duke, Casper 
Hodgson, Mrs. Colin, Hanna 
Hodgson, Mrs. Nellie G., 

Holden, Miss Minnie, Riverside. 

Holliday, Mrs. F. A., Laramie 
Holmes, Mrs. Alice C, Saratoga 
Hook, James W., New Haven, 

Hoover, H. H., Kansas City, 

Hord, Mrs. Violet M., Casper 
Houser, George O., Jr., Cheyenne 
Houser, Mrs. Laura M., Cheyenne 
Houston, Miss Jane Hunt, Cheyenne 
Howell, Mrs. Helen C, Worland 
Huey, Goldie R.. Casper 
Hughes, Frank T., Yoder 
Hull, Mrs. Irene David, 

Hunt, Lester C, Washington, D. C. 
Hunter, Allen, Gillette 
Hunton, Thos. S., Los Angeles, 

Hurd, Mrs. Emilie, Denver, 




Hurd, V., Green River 
Huston, Mrs. A. T., Gillette 
Hutton, Miss Eunice, Green River 
Hutton, Mrs. Laura M., Cheyenne 
Hutton, William, Green River 
Ilsley, John P., Gillette 
Inghram, Harry C, Worland 
Inghram, Mrs. Harry C., Worland 
Ingraham, Mrs. S. Darlene Newton, 

Irving, Helen A., Rawlins 
Jack, Wm. "Scotty", Casper 
Jackson, Mrs. Stella R., Douglas 
Japp, John, Gillette 
Jayne, Dr. Clarence D., Laramie 
Jensen, A. W., Cheyenne 
Jepson, Carl E., Moose 
Jewett, Mrs. Lora Neal, Pinedale 
Jewett, Mrs. James J., Jr., Riverton 
Joelner, Mrs. Fred, Casper 
Johnson, Agnes S., Torrington 
Johnson, Carl D., Cheyenne 
Johnson, Fred J., Medicine Bow 
Johnson, Helen Childs, Rawlins 
Johnston, J. Pelham, Cast>er 
Jones, Mrs. J. H., Sheridan 
Kafka, Mrs. Olive Garrett, Rock 

Keeline, H. W., Gillette 
Kelley, Verona B., Torrington 
Kendall, Mrs. W. H., Sheridan 
Kennedy, Donald M., Sheridan 
Kent, Raymond D., Kelly 
Kerr, Ewing T., Cheyenne 
Kimball, Judge Ralph, Lander 
King, Norman D., San Francisco, 

Kintz, Ralph G., Gillette 
Kirby, Kenneth M., Cheyenne 
Kukura, Edna, Casper 
La Grange School Library, La 

Landers, Mrs. Gladys, Gillette 
Landers, Leland, Gillette 
Larmer, John, Bondurant 
Lane, Charles Elmer, Cheyenne 
Larson, Gordon, Torrington 
Larson, Irving A., Torrington 
Larson, Magnus, Hawk Springs 
Larson, Robert R., Laramie 
Latham, Wm. "Bill", Chugwater 
Latham, Mrs. Fairy, Chugwater 
Lawrence, W. C, Moran 
Leek, Holly W., Jackson 
Leermakers, J. A., Rochester, New 

Lindsley, Miss Alice Louise, 

Linford, Miss Velma, Laramie 

Linn, Ralph S., Moneta 
Littleton, Ernest A., Gillette 
Littleton, Mrs. Claire, Gillette 
Logan, Miss Clara, Torrington 
Logan, Edward O., Cheyenne 
Long, Dr. Margaret, Denver, 

Lott, Warren B., Buffalo 
Love, Mrs. Louise, Cheyenne 
Lovell Public Library, Lovell 
Lucas, Mrs. Cecil, Gillette 
Lusk High School, Lusk 
Lyall, Scott T., Billings, Montana 
Lynch, Mrs. H. B., Sunrise 
Lynch, Mrs. Michael, Lamont 
Lynch, Michael, Lamont 
McCormick, John S., Elk Mountain 
McCraken, Harry, Casper 
McCreery, John, Torrington 
McCuIlough, Joe J., Santa Maria, 

McFarling, Lloyd, Palmer Lake, 

Mcintosh, Marguerite G., Rawlins 
McMahon, Thomas B., Jr., Gillette 
McWilliams, Mrs. Harold, Hillsdale 
MacDougall, A. H., Rawlins 
MacLeod, Dr. D. G., Jackson 
Mahoney, J. Frank, Rawlins 
Mahoney, Mrs. J. Frank, Rawlins 
Malone, Miss Rose Mary, Casper 
Mankin, Mrs. Ora, Gillette 
Manley, Mrs. Frank A., Spur, Texas 
Marble, Fred W., Cheyenne 
Marion, W. L., Lander 
Marquiss, R. B., Gillette 
Martin, Miss Marguerite, Cheyenne 
Mason, Ellsworth, Bozeman, 

Mazzulla, Fred M., Denver. 

Meade, Mrs. Irene I., Kinnear 
Meade, Mrs. Virginia Haldeman, 

Tucson, Arizona 
Metz, P. W., Basin 
Mickelson, James F., Big Piney 
Mickelson, Mrs. Mae E., Big Piney 
Mihan, S. D., Lyman, Nebraska 
Millard, Mrs. Allie Hall, Riverton 
Millard, Lysle A., Riverton 
Miller, Mrs. Bert F., Laramie 
Miller, Mrs. Bertha A., Riverton 
Miller, Lael, Rawlins 
Miller, Neal E., Rawlins 
Miller, Mrs. Mildred M., Big Piney 
Miller, Thomas O., Lusk 
Mills, Luther C, Wheatland 
Mills, S. R., Wheatland 
Mitchell, Mrs. Minnie A., Cheyenne 



Mockler, Frank C, Dubois 
Mockler, Mrs. Frank C, Dubois 
Mokler, Miss Edness, Casper 
Monnett, Walt J., Sheridan 
Monnett, Mrs. Walt. Sheridan 
Moor, Mrs. Ross W., Lamar, 

Moore, Charles C, Dubois 
Moore, James K., Jr., Lander 
Morgan. Mrs. Noel, Worland 
Morgan. Noel, Worland 
Moudy. Mrs. Mable Cheney, 

M umey. Dr. Nolie, Denver, 

Murphy, C. Clyde, Thermopolis 
Murphy, Mrs. C. Clyde, 

Murray, Mrs. Maud 1., Cody 
Nagle, George Henry, Cheyenne 
Natrona County High School, 

Nelson. Lou J., Rawlins 
Newell, Most Rev. Hubert M., 

Nichol. Mrs. Virginia B., Torrington 
Nicholson, Oscar W., Riverton 
Nicholson, Mrs. Oscar W., Riverton 
Nicklos, Charles F., Albuquerque, 

New Mexico 
Nisselius, Jack, Gillette 
Nicholas, Tom, Casper 
Noble, Mrs. Lin I., Thermopolis 
O'Callaghan, J. G., Casper 
Oedekoven, Mrs. Ryllis Rae, Gillette 
Ohnhaus, Mrs. Charles J., Cheyenne 
Oldman, Mrs. Bert, Encampment 
Oliver, Glenn W., Cheyenne 
Oliver, Mrs. Glenn W., Cheyenne 
O'Mahoney, Joseph C, Washington, 

D. C. 
Orr, Dr. Harriet K.. Berkeley, 

Orr, Raymond S., Cheyenne 
Orr, Mrs. Raymond S., Cheyenne 
Ostlund, Axel W., Gillete 
Ostlund, Mrs. Polly, Gillette 
Owens, Earl, Cheyenne 
Paddock, A. A., Boulder, Colorado 
Parks, William P., Sr., Gillette 
Patterson, Richard A., Rock Springs 
Payne, Mrs. Janet Smith, Riverton 
Pearson, W. E., Lovell 
Pearson, Mrs. Louise, Rawlins 
Pence, Mrs. A. M., Laramie 
Peryam, Mrs. Mable Large, 

Peter, W. D., Rawlins 
Peter. Mrs. W. D., Rawlins 

Peters, Mrs. Leora, Wheatland 
Peterson, Dr. Henry J., Denver, 

Peterson, Mrs. Ida Elizabeth, 

Peterson, Robert A., Cheyenne 
Peyton, Mrs. Pauline E., Douglas 
Peyton, Miss Pauline M., Douglas 
Phelan, Catherine E., Washington, 

D. C. 
Pool, Mrs. Gay E., Torrington 
Powers, Mrs. Margaret, Big Horn 
Prevo, Mrs. Jane, Worland 
Pryde, George B., Rock Springs 
Purdy, Jennie M., Cheyenne 
Raben, Roy C, Huntley 
Radford, Ben H., Torrington 
Raisty, L. B., Decatur, Georgia 
Rasmussen, Mrs. S., Rawlins 
Rasmusson, Arthur, Rawlins 
Rasmusson, Mrs. Edna Tierney, 

Rauchfuss, Mrs. H. D., Worland 
Rauchfuss, H. D., Worland 
Rawlings, C. C, Ranchester 
Reed, Lloyd R., Lincoln, Nebraska 
Rendle, Mrs. Irvine J., Rawlins 
Repsold, George L, LaGrange. 

Rettstatt, Lucien D., Rawlins 
Reynolds, Mrs. James C, Sheridan 
Reynolds, James C, Sheridan 
Rhoades, R. S., Dubois 
Ridings, Miss Reta, Laramie 
Riley, Mrs. Gladys F., Cheyenne 
Riter, Mrs. Franklin, Salt Lake 

City, Utah 
Ritter, Mrs. Alta, Gillette 
Ritter, Charles, Cheyenne 
Ritter, Raymond R., Gillette 
Riverton High School Library, 

Riverton Public Library, Riverton 
Robertson, A. E., Rawlins 
Robertson, Mrs. C. F., Worland 
Robertson, Miss Edith E., Green 

Robinson, H. A., Thermopolis 
Robinson, Mrs. Arlene, Thermopolis 
Rogers, Mrs. Mary, Cheyenne 
Romick, Charlotte, Rawlins 
Rosenstock, Fred, Denver, Colorado 
Rundquist, Albert N., Lusk 
Rusk, D. L., Rawlins 
Russell, Jean Beeler, Dixon 
Russell, Mrs. Elizabeth E., 

Russell, Mrs. J. S., Worland 
Russell. J. S., Worland 



Ryan, Mrs. Maude, Douglas 
Ryder, Mrs. Esther, Glenrock 
Rymill, Walter L., Boulder, 

Sander, Miss Dorris L., Cheyenne 
Schaedel. Mrs. John, Cheyenne 
School District No. 6, Medicine Bow 
Schroer, Mrs. Blanche, Lander 
Scifers, Mrs. Barbara, Casper 
Scott, Mrs. Mary Hurlburt, Riverton 
Seipt, Mrs. Henry M., Riverton 
Sheldon, Burton W., Cheyenne 
Sherard, Agatha, Gillette 
Shiek, Mrs. Frank N., Long Beach, 

Shields, Mrs. John T., Cheyenne 
Shirk, Mrs. H. C, Worland 
Shirk, H. C, Worland 
Sims, Albert G., Douglas 
Sinclair, F. H., Sheridan 
Sinclair, Mrs. Jack, Gillette 
Slack, Mrs. John, Sheridan 
Slack, Mrs. Mary, Cheyenne 
Slatt, Rebecca, Cheyenne 
Sloss, Mrs. C. C, Rawlins 
Smith, Mrs. Dwyer F., Cheyenne 
Smith, Mrs. Edith Carpenter, 

Helena, Montana 
Smith, Joe A., Wood River, Illinois 
Smith, Miss Louise S., Cheyenne 
Smith, William, Gillette 
Smith, Mrs. William, Gillette 
Snell, Miss Bernice, Lander 
Snoddy, Mrs. Joe, Gillette 
Snodgrass, George H., Casper 
Snodgrass, Mrs. George H., Casper 
Snyder, Mrs. Charles, Crowheart 
Snyder, Mrs. Elizabeth Rydahl, 

Spencer, Mrs. Pearl, Big Piney 
Spielman, Jesse E., Gillette 
Spielman, Mrs. Jess, Gillette 
Springs, Mrs. Agnes Wright, Denver, 

Stan, Charles S., Casper 
St. Clair, Mrs. Rosa, Worland 
Steckel, Prof. Wm. R., Laramie 
Steckley, Mrs. Velma, Douglas 
Steege, Louis C, Cheyenne 
Stephenson, W. R., Casper 
Stimson, Dallas, Gillette 
Stoddard, Mrs. Fama Hess, Manville 
Stoddard, Lee C, Manville 
Stolt, Miss Edna B., Cheyenne 
Storm. Archie, Sheridan 
Stratton, Fred D., Jr., South Pass 

Stratton, F. D., Riverton 
Stratton, Mrs. Nelle N., Riverton 

Streeter, Bessie, Gillette 
Stump, Mary Barbara, Cheyenne 
Swan, Henry, Denver, Colorado 
Swartz, Mrs. Kate, Gillette 
Sun, Mrs. Tom, Rawlins 
Sundin, Mrs. Clifford, Rawlins 
Swartzenbruber, Joe, Torrington 
Talmage, Mrs. F. D., Thermopolis 
Taylor, Mrs. Bertha B., 

Taylor, Harry A., Worland 
Taylor, Mrs. Harry A., Worland 
Taylor, Mrs. James W., Jr., Casper 
Taylor, Livingston L., Columbus, 

Teton County Library, Jackson 
Templin, Curtis, Chugwater 
Thorn, John C, Buffalo 
Thompson, Mrs. Jessie C, 

Thomson, Mrs. E. Keith, Cheyenne 
Thompson, Melvin F., Big Piney 
Thorp, Russell, Cheyenne 
Tierney, Mrs. Margaret S., Rawlins 
Tillett, Mrs. Bessie F., Kane 
Tonkin, T. C, Casper 
Toppan, Fred W., Jackson 
Topping, Mrs. Fred J., Elk 
Towns, H. C, Cheyenne 
Travis, Maury M., Casper 
Trenholm, Mrs. Virginia, Glendo 
Trew, Charlotte, Rawlins 
Turk, B. E., Sussex 
Turnbull, Roy, Lusk 
Tyrrel, Mrs. Jane P., Lusk 
University of Kentucky Margaret I. 

King Library, Lexington, Kentucky 
Upton, William B., Jr., Denver, 

Van Burgh, Dana P., Jr., Casper 
Van Burgh, Mrs. Lucile, Casper 
van Hatten, C. J., Powell 
Vivion, Charles, Rawlins 
Wakeman, E. E., Newcastle 
Waldo, Mrs. W. A., Worland 
Wales, Mrs. Nellie L., Hamilton 

Walker, Mrs. Meda Caley, 

Wall, Max M., Torrington 
Wallace, Taylor, Casper 
Wallis, Mrs. Alma A., Laramie 
Wallis, Bert, Laramie 
Wallis, Miss Martha, Laramie 
Wallis, Mrs. Oliver, Laramie 
Ward, Mrs. Orland W., Laramie 
Warlow, Eugene A., Gillette 
Warlow, Mrs. Viola, Gillette 
Washakie County Library, Worland 


Watson, Judson P., Lusk Williamson, A. P., Lake Andes. 

Webb, J. Early, Kaycee South Dakota 

Wentworth, Col. Edward N., Williamson, C. D., Hanna 

Chicago, Illinois Wingett, Charles W., Cheyenne 

Werner, George, Sr., Gillette Winter, Mrs. Zita, Green River 

West, C. F., Longmont, Colorado Woodard, Mrs. Jocelyn Charde. 

Weston, Mrs. Perry D., Cheyenne Casper 

Wheatland High School, Wheatland Woodhouse, Mina T., Rawlins 

Whittenburg, Miss Clarice, Laramie Wyoming Typewriter & Equipment 

Wickersham, Miss Orpha, Cheyenne Co., Cheyenne 

Wiley, Mrs. Lucille B., Cody Wyoming Tuberculosis Sanitarium, 

Wilkins, Mrs. Edness Kimball, Basin 

Casper Zollinger, Mrs. W. J., Tulsa, 

Willford, Carl, Saratoga Oklahoma 

Willford, Mrs. Maude Jones, Yoder, Dr. Franklin D., Cheyenne 

Saratoga Yoder, Oscar, LaGrange 

Williams, Alfred R., Fort Collins, Young, Harry C, Glenrock 

Colorado Zid, Major Frank A., San Francisco, 

Williams, R. Roy, Sheridan California 
Williams, William B., Banner 

Museums in Wyoming 

Tourists are interested in the history of Wyoming, and at the 
State Museum inquiries are often made as to where other museums 
are located in the State. As a result of such inquiries a survey 
was made last year and the following information was compiled. 
If this information should prove to be inadequate or erroneous, 
corrections will be appreciated. 

BUFFALO: Gatchell Drug Store. Highlights: Guns and relics 
picked up on battlegrounds of Wagon Box, Custer and Dull 
Knife fights; Indian artifacts. 
CASPER: Ft. Caspar, located at end of West 13th St. Replica of 
old Fort Caspar built by WPA during 1930's. Highlights: 
Relics of the early fort and the Oregon Trail. 
CHEYENNE: State Museum, State Office Building, 23rd and 
Capitol. Regular hours: 9:00-4:30 Monday-Friday, 12:00- 
5:00 Sunday. Summer hours also include Saturday from 
9:00-5:00. Highlights: Indian Collection, Wyoming Stock 
Growers Collection of saddles, brands, etc., geology collection, 
pioneer relics, original State Constitution, pictures, Deadwood 
Stage Coach relics. Lola M. Homsher, Director. 
U. P. Depot: Stagecoach used on Overland Trail out of Jules- 
burg, Colorado. 

Frontier Park: Jim Baker Cabin, formerly located in Little 
Snake River country. 
CODY: Buffalo Bill Museum in west Cody on Yellowstone High- 
way. Open June-October 15. Highlights: Buffalo Bill's me- 
mentos, Indian relics, artist's exhibit. Mrs. Mary Jester Allen, 
curator. Entrance Fee. 


COMO: Como, Wyoming. Open daily during regular business 
hours in connection with service station. Highlights: Museum 
is built of dinosaur bones and exhibit relates to the nearby 
Como Bluffs area from which many prehistoric bones have 
been removed. Mrs. Tom Boylan, owner. 

DOUGLAS: Wyoming Pioneer Association Museum on State 
Fair Grounds. Open only during the State Fair at the end of 
August. Highlights: Pioneer and Indian relics. 

FORT BRIDGER: On Highway 30 across the parade ground in 
town of Ft. Bridger. Hours 8:00 a.m.-7:00 p.m. daily. Fea- 
tures relics of the old fort. Mormon Wall, Pony Express barn 
and other buildings are still standing. Custodian, D. R. Hicks, 
under the Wyoming Historical Landmarks Commission. 

FORT LARAMIE: Three miles from Highway 26 at town of Ft. 
Laramie. Hours 8 : 00-4 : 30 Monday-Saturday, 8 : 30-5 : 00 Sun- 
day. Museum has pictures, maps, relics, illustrative of period 
1834-1890. The fort itself features the surviving buildings 
and ruins of Ft. Laramie which recall its distinguished role in 
the conquest of the West. Fort Laramie National Monument, 
administered by National Park Service. 

relating to the Teton mountains, wild flowers of the area. 
Equipment used by climbers on exhibit. Administered by 
National Park Service. 

GREEN RIVER: William Hutton's Private Museum, 185 E. 2nd 
N. St. Hours 5:00-10:00 p.m. Highlights: Petrified wood 
fireplace, relics. Admission fee, 250. 

GUERNSEY : Mr. Henry Frederick's Private Museum, three miles 
west of town on U. S. 26. Highlights: Pioneer relics picked up 
along Oregon Trail, Indian items. 

KEMMERER: Triangle Park in center of business district. Open 
June 1-Sept. 15. Hours 12 noon-9 p.m. except Sundays and 
holidays. Highlights: Pioneer relics, fossils, early western 

LANDER: Located in Pioneer Park. Opened by appointment. 
Highlights: Harvey Morgan skull with king bolt still imbedded 
(1870), Esther Hobart Morris chair (1868), first monument 
stone to Esther Morris, pioneer items from early homes, guns, 
numerous excellent pictures and photographs. Fremont County 
Pioneer Association, Mr. and Mrs. Jack Hoffer, caretakers. 

LARAMIE: Basement of Court House. Opened during Red 
Cross hours, 2:00-4:00 p.m. Monday-Friday. Pioneer relics, 
pictures, Bill Nye items. Under sponsorship of Albany County 
Historical Society, R. H. Burns, President. 

LUSK: Located at 4th and Main. Hours, 8:00 a.m.-8:00 p.m. 
during summer, other times by request. Highlights: Cheyenne- 
Deadwood stagecoach, Indian artifacts, ranch and livestock his- 
torical information. Hans Gautschi, Curator. 


MOORCROFT: Basement of Library building. Opened upon 
request. Highlights: Rock specimens, arrowheads, old guns, 
confederate money. 

NEWCASTLE: Jenny's Stockade building on Court House 
grounds. Now Chamber of Commerce tourist information 

PINE BLUFFS: Mr. Dewey Edmunds Private Museum. Hours, 
open Sunday. Highlights: Indian relics, fossils, antique articles, 
freak animals. 

RAWLINS: Carbon County Court House. Hours, 1:00-4:00 
Fridays. Highlights: Pioneer relics, pictures. Mrs. Ed Bennett 
and Mrs. Cliff Sundin, Curators. 

SUN RANCH: Located on U. S. Highway 220 at Devil's Gate on 
Oregon Trail. Hours 10:00-11:00 a.m., 1:00-5:00 p.m. High- 
lights: Dishes, guns, articles picked up along Oregon Trail. 
Mrs. Tom Sun, owner. 

SUNDANCE: Basement of Public Library. Opened upon re- 
quest. Highlights: Dinosaur specimens, guns, rocks, ox yokes, 
artifacts, pioneer relics. 

THERMOPOLIS: Located in City Park facing west, near Carne- 
gie Library. Open June 15 for remainder of summer. Hours, 
1:00-5:00 p.m. Highlights: Relics of the 90's, ranch items, 
stage coach, guns, household articles, memorial fireplace. Un- 
der jurisdiction of Hot Springs County Pioneer Association. 

Pioneer Monument 

The story of the erection of the Pioneer Memorial to the Fre- 
mont County Pioneers was told in the January issue of the 
Annals of Wyoming. Mr. Jules Farlow and Mr. J. K. Moore of 
Lander have continued to work on this project during the past 
year, and approximately 170 names of pioneer families who set- 
tled in Fremont County prior to 1906 will be added to the stone 
before the annual reunion meeting on Sunday, August 29. 

Mr. W. L. Marion of Lander, who has for a number of years 
authored the column "Peek at the Past" in the Lander State 
Journal paid high tribute to the pioneers who settled the Lander 
Valley and reviewed briefly a few of the highlights of the history 
of that area. He commented as follows: 


Mr. Master of Ceremonies, officers and friends of the Fremont 
County Pioneer Association: Just why your committee settled on 
me to make this dedicatory address is something more than I can 
understand when there are so many more capable ones who could 
do a much better job. However, guess you will have to bear with 
me — I will try to make it short. Here in everlasting granite from 


our native hills are carved the names of 152 pioneers who settled 
Fremont County and who organized this Association. 

It is a fitting tribute to these old timers and should have been 
done long ago when the monument was first set up. A monument 
to a group of people without the names of those people means 
very little. Now we will have the names preserved. Books and 
records have a penchant for getting lost; these names will not 
be lost. 

Time does not permit giving the deeds that each pioneer played; 
each deserves credit, all deserve equal credit. 

We often wonder just what induced these men and women to 
leave the security of well-settled and safe communities and under- 
take the hazardous journey over the Overland Trail. Was it the 
lust of gold? Yes, the California gold rush and the rush to the 
Atlantic and South Pass regions testify to that. Men have always 
gone the limits of human endurance in search of the yellow metal 
— the metal miners dig out of the ground today and Uncle Sam 
puts right back in tomorrow. Was it the love of adventure? Yes, 
there were always those who wanted to see what lay beyond the 
horizon. But we think there was a greater underlying urge, the 
burning desire in every man's breast to own a small piece of God's 
Foot Stool, thereon to build their home, to raise their family and 
to work out the destiny the Creator destined for them. 

It is hard to realize today, as we whiz along the old trail, the 
hardships and dangers that beset the early pioneers. Their speed 
was not 50 to 100 miles per hour — the old ox teams and the not 
much faster horse could only make about two miles per hour, 
plodding along, never stopping except for a night's rest, to give 
birth or bury the dead. The trip we make in a few hours took 
a month from the time they crossed the Big Blue River in Kansas 
until they reached the summit of the Continental Divide. They 
were in constant danger, danger from Indian attacks, from drown- 
ing while crossing swollen rivers, from disease; five thousand died 
in one season in the 1850's along the Platte. How many died from 
other causes, God only knows. The lonely graves along the old 
trail are mute testimony of the tragedies: a mother stricken 
from a bereaved family; a beloved son or daughter; or the head 
of the family stricken down by the relentless bullet or arrow of the 
red skins; the hastily dug grave, the rudely constructed coffin, 
more often a blanket served for both a shroud and a coffin. Think 
of the heartbreak, the anguish, when the caravan had to move on 
and leave the lonely grave to the solitude of the desert. Oh you, 
who came here within the last fifty years, think again; did you pay 
that price that was their price for pioneering? It is claimed there 
is not a mile of the old trail from the Platte to the crest of the 
Continental Divide but what claimed a human life; and then when 
they reached their destination, their danger. was still with them 


if on this side of the Divide — the same tribulations that beset 
them on the trail. 

The miners worked two by two, one working while the other 
stood guard. Those that settled on the streams and valleys never 
knew when the dread warwhoop would resound. The rifle was 
always carried across the plow handle. Young Irwin was struck 
down by Indians who had made the peace sign within the town 
limits of Atlantic City, then a town of two thousand people; Mike 
Heenan was killed on the divide between Beaver and Twin Creek 
while hauling hay; Doc Barr, Jerome Mason, and Harvey Morgan 
were killed while returning from the mines on a trip to this valley; 
Harvey Morgan's skull with the wagon hammer through it tells 
of the savagery of the Indians. 

Ed Young had a narrow escape from the same Indians that 
butchered the miners. The miners had put up such a stern fight 
that when E. F. Cheney, Charley Oldham, and Anthony came 
upon the scene of the battle, they found nine dead Indian ponies 
which testified to the courageous fight the miners had put up. The 
Indians that had lost their mounts in the fight were looking for 
remounts and came across Ed Young's location at the mouth of 
the Little Popo Agie Canyon. Young got up one morning and 
started for the well, a short distance from his back door, for 
water for breakfast. His old saddle horse, Button, let out a 
snort and cocked his ears up towards a ridge that ran north east 
and south west about 150 yards from the house. Young knew 
that horse had seen something that boded him no good and ducked 
back into the cabin and barred the door. He went to the west 
side of the cabin and studied that ridge by knocking a hole in 
the chinking. The first thing that caught his eye was a small 
shining disk reflecting the rays of the rising sun. He had never 
seen that object before and decided to see what made it tick. He 
reached over to the corner for his rifle and drew a fine bead on 
that shining disk, and at the crack of the rifle two Indians jumped 
up and started to run up the ridge. Young with two quick shots 
knocked one over. The other got away. In the afternoon, 
Cheney, Oldham, and Anthony, returning to the mines, decided to 
go by Ed's cabin and see if he was still alive. Young came out 
to meet them and told them about the brush he had had with the 
Indians that morning. They went up on the ridge where Young 
had seen the shining object, and there lay a dead Indian. Young 
had made a bull's eye on that disk. It was a little mirror with 
feathers radiating out from it such as you see Indians wearing now 
on their breast. It was a narrow escape for Young, or he would 
have paid the price for pioneering. 

Oliver Lamoreaux, William Hays, Frank Moorehouse, Bill 
Rhodes, Dutch Henry on Cottonwood, a man by the name of 
Camp, Mrs. Hall and her niece, Mrs. Richardson, were killed back 


of where Baldwin's Store now stands — and so many more. Read 
Captain H. G. Nickerson's history of the County, the price of 
pioneering. It is a strange thing, but the price of every precious 
thing has been purchased by the price of blood, man's salvation; 
the blood shed on Calvary, our nation, our constitution, our 
freedom purchased by the blood of our patriot dead; and we enjoy 
the homes we have today at the price of the blood of our pioneers. 
I have never seen the Taj Mahal; they claim it is the most beau- 
tiful building in the world. Maybe so, but the Federal Building 
on 3rd and Lincoln looks far more beautiful to me. I have never 
seen the River Shannon, so dear to the Irishman's heart; nor have 
I seen the Beautiful Blue Danube, so famed in song and story; 
but if I had, when I got home the crystal clear Popo Agie would 
have been far more beautiful to me. I have never seen Switzerland 
and its Alps, but the snow-capped and timber-crowned Wind River 
Mountains hold all the mountain grandeur and sylvan beauty I 
ever want to see. Why is this? because it is home — Home, that 
most beautiful word in the English vocabulary. What a world of 
meaning in that word. The most beautiful song ever written is 
John Howard Payne's "Home Sweet Home." I never come 
over the hills into this valley that I don't see how beautiful it is, 
beautiful because our pioneers by the help of the Almighty made 
it so. It was not always the beautiful spot it is now. It had to be 
reclaimed from a reluctant nature and the hand of the red man by 
the price of the blood of our pioneers; and while we have preserved 
the names of these old timers in ageless granite, let us keep them 
ever verdant in our memories. They paid a high price for the 
things we enjoy today. Thank God for our pioneers. 


On page 6 of the January 1954 Annals of Wyoming, the date 
on which the railroad reached Cody, Wyoming, should have read 
1901 rather than 1899. On page 96 under the gift of Mrs. Cyrus 
Beard, the date of the funeral of Judge Cyrus Beard should have 
read 1920 rather than 1921. 

Recent Acquisitions 


Carson, Iris, 100 year-old doll with original clothes; 

Wheatland horn spoon with whistle handle found 

in cave on Hunter Ranch. 

Clausen, E. C, Meerschaum cigar holder and case. 


Davis, Courtney C, Tubular kerosene lantern used on Van 

Horse Creek Tassel Ranch, Islay, Wyo. 

Emerson, Paul W., Bullet, 2 organ stops, 15 hat pins, pen, 

Cheyenne 1894 wooden knife, and ruler. 



Gooldy, John F., 

Henry, William M., 

Hones, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph. 

Leckemby. P. L., 

Lion's Club of Wyoming, 

Long, G. C.j 

McCreery, Mrs. Alice Richards, 
Los Angeles, Calif. 

Meng, Hans, 

Hot Springs, S. Dak. 

Moore, Jr., J. K., 

Noyes, H. L. 

Peterson, Robert A. 

Sargent, L. W., 

Sharp, Howard 

Stratton, Jr., Fred, 
South Pass City 

Swan, Henry, 
Denver, Colo. 

Thorp, Russell, 

Hand made trap from Jim Bridger estate. 

Telegraph pole insulator off Bozeman 
Trail at Brown Springs, also hand- 
made ox shoes. 

Civil War army coat which belonged to 
Louis Duval, dated 1887. 

Two metal insulators dug from 4 ft. 
depth at Barrel Springs stage station. 

Statuette given by people of Italy to 
Lion's Club of Wyoming for their help 
on the Friendship Train. 

Three iron railroad parts from Buffalo 
& Clearmont Railroad: rail section, 
rail p'ale, and 2 spikes. 

Spurs made for Edna Richards; metal 
ring found in Big Horn Country about 
1^89-1890 by W. A. Richards; Fron- 
tier Day ribbon from first show, Sep. 
23, 1897; medal for trans-Mississippi 
Exposition. Omaha. . 1898, (portrait 
used on it was composite picture of 
Miss Alice Richards); Army dog tag. 

Petrified tree section found 4 miles 
southeast of Hot Springs. 

Twenty post trader tokens: 10 tokens 
from Camp Brown, Wyo. Terr.. 4 
tokens from Fort Washakie, Wyo., 6 
tokens from Fort Bridger, Wyo. Terr. 

Seventy-five year old shaving kit in 
leather covered case: 1 strop and 5 

Two bottles from site of old Chugwater 
stage station found Oct. 9. 1953, by 
L. C. Bishop and donor. 

Three cartridges for 32 calibre National 
revolver; bison tooth dug up at Finley 
Site in Eden Valley. 

Indian drum from Crow Indian Reserva- 

Bricks and glass from Fort Stambaugh: 
brick from the brick kiln at South 
Pass City, Wyo., 1870. 

Dinner napkin of 1880's owned and used 
by Mrs. Thomas Swan. 

Colt six-shooter carried by Mike Shonsey 
during the Johnson County invasion: 
woman's slippers of the 1860's; wo- 
man's high-top shoes worn b yEstelle 
Brooks Vosberg about 1870; Navajo 
saddle blanket used by George Voor- 



Whitney, Jr., Fred 

Wilhelm, Fulton, 

Williams, L. O., 

Yoder, Dr. Franklin, 

Saddle 70 years old made in Oregon for 
the late Fred Whitney, Sr., of 21 
Ranch, Meeteetse, Wyo. 

Square iron railroad tie spike and part 
of an old wagon wheel rim found at 
the edge of the city park, Cheyenne. 

World War II foxhole cigarette lighter. 

Pieces of different kinds of glass tele- 
graph insulators and 3 iron rail spikes 
picked up on old railroad bed near 
Ames Monument. 


Adams, James H., and Senior 
Class of Campbell County 
High School, 

Bane, J. R.. 

Beard. Mrs. Cyrus, 
San Gabriel, Calif. 

Bernstein, Mrs. Martin, 

Bishop, L. C, 

Bragg, Jr., W. F., 

Brokaw, Mrs. Ralph H. 

Burden, Grant 
Omaha, Nebr. 

Connor, Rock H., 
Chicago, Illinois 

Manuscript, mimeographed, "History of 
Campbell County" by 1954 Senior 
English Class under direction of do- 

Manuscript, "Report on the Ellen Mc- 
Group of Lode Mining Claims which 
Covers the Mine, Methods, Costs, and 
Suggestions as to Future Prospects. 

Bulletin, The Hugenot, Vol. 2, No. 1, 
Feb. 1932; manuscript, "The Frewens 
of Powder River," by donor. 

Booklet, "The Women's Club of Chey- 
enne, 1907-08"; manuscript, "The Life 
of Max Idelman, Pioneer Citizen of 
Wyoming. And of His Relatives and 
Descendents" by donor. 

Map of U. S. showing early routes, 

roads, and highways, 1926 edition, 

General Land Office, Dept. of In- 

Pamphlets on the sesquicentennial anni- 
versary of the Louisiana Purchase and 
the Lewis and Clark Exposition. 

Manuscript, "A Brief History of Carbon 

Manuscript, "Plat of Iron Mountain 
Area"; U. P. news release on Iron 
Mountain deposits. 

Eight "clearing house certificates" used 
as substitute currency during 1907 



Cooper, Clara Chassell, 
Berea, Ky. 

David, Robert B., 

Davis, Courtney C. 
Horse Creek 

Booklet, "Christian Advocate," Oct. 15, 
1953; bulletin, "Account of Commem- 
orative Exercises Honoring Inyan 
Kara Methodist Episcopal Church"; 
newspapers. The Rapid City Daily 
Journal, Oct. 14, 1953, p. 4, "Com- 
memorative Exercises Honors Wyo- 
ming Church" and The Sundance 
Times, Oct. 10, 1953, p. 4, "Com- 
memorative Service for First Wyo- 
ming Country Church"; reprint from 
the Belle Fourche Bee, Oct. 10, 1953, 
"Inyan Kara Church Given Distin- 
guished Place in Wyoming Religious 
History"; two brochures, "Epworth 
League Prayer Meeting Topics, Jan. 
7 to June 24, 1894" and "Our Church 
Papers" by O. B. Chassell. 

Manuscript, "A Story of Early Days in 
Buffalo and Johnson County." 

W. C. Wilson and W. O. Owen Map of 
Albany County, 1886. 

Emerson, Dr. Paul W. 

Farlow, Jules, 

First Baptist Church 

Manuscript, "Freighters! Oh, freighters!" 

Manuscript, "Memoirs of E. J. Farlow." 
(on microfilm) 

Booklet, "Let Us Arise and Build for 
the Glory of God and the Salvation 
of Souls." 

Friend, Clarence L., 
Escondido, Calif. 

Manuscript, "This is the History of 
Northern Albany County by Clarence 
L. Friend and Starting in the Summer 
of 1886." 

Goodrich, Mr. and Mrs. Arlo, 

Horesky, C. J., 

Hunt, U. S. Sen. Lester C, 
Washington, D. C. 

Jenkins, Perry W., 
Salt Lake City, Utah 

Lynch, Frank H., 
Linville, Ohio 

Wheatland World, Vol. 1, No. 20, 
March 8, 1895. 

Letter press copy of an original message 
sent by UPRR regarding Wilcox Train 
Robbery on June 1, 1899. 

Seven sections of topographical map of 
the road from Missouri to Oregon 
with field notes and journal of Capt. 
J. C. Fremont compiled by Fremont's 
assistant, Charles Preuss, 1846. 

Souvenir program of "The Green River 
Rendezvous 1933-1944." 

Manuscript, "The Year 1919. Begin- 
ning of Oil Boom at Osage. Wyo- 



Marion, W. L. 

Mason, Tom, 

McCreery, Mrs. Alice Richards, 
Los Angeles, Calif. 

Merritt, Ernie O.. 

Metz, Mrs. P. W. 

Miller, Neal E., 

Moberly, W. E., 

Moore, Jr., J. K. 

Manuscript, "A History of South Pass" 
by Frank E. Hayes; copy of speech 
on history of Lander Valley and Fre- 
mont County in particular; short data 
on Fort Washakie; manuscript, "What 
Price Pioneering?" dedicatory address 
given at Fremont County Pioneer's 
meeting, Sept. 1953. 

Earliest type of money order: sample 
postal note in amount of 10 by assis- 
tant postmaster, Cheyenne to Hart- 
ford, dated July 24, 1884. 

Four Annals of Wyoming; W. A. Rich- 
ards' correspondence relating to U. S. 
Land Office, public lands, forest re- 
serves; administrative papers relating 
to Wyoming Batt. in Spanish-Amer- 
ican War, officers at Ft. Russell, 1898, 
Buffalo Bill; U. P. Railroad pass; 
notebook notes on interviews between 
President Theodore Roosevelt and W. 
A. Richards, 1902-06; manuscripts 
about the ranch life and experiences 
of the W. A. Richards, settlers, Ft. 
Russell, and Cheyenne. 

Thirteen letters written during Civil War 
by his second cousin. 

Two mimeographed pamphlets, "Greet- 
ings from Wyoming," and "Directory 
of Business and Service Agencies of 
the Big Horn Basin Area," Jan. 1951, 
by Northwest Junior College and Uni- 
versity of Wyoming. 

Typescript, "The History of 111 West 
Lincolnway, Rawlins, Wyo.," as Dr. 
Lillian Heath Nelson told it to Mr. 
Miller, April 1954. 

Petrified baculite fossil found on ranch 
25 miles west of Cheyenne. (Loan) 

Manuscript of two Lander broadcasts 
during Feb. and Mar., 1953, by donor 
entitled "Early Transportation"; mi- 
crofilm, "Ft. Washakie, Medical His- 
tory of the Post, April 1873-June 
1887"; six photostats, Treaty with 
Sho-Sho-Nee Indians, July 2, 1863, at 
Ft. Bridger in Utah Terr., letter of 
recommendation for father dated 
1864, LeClair scouting statement, Yo- 
der letter, clipping on passing of Jos. 
Rainey, copy of Wyo. Mail and Trans- 
portation Waybill (stage) from Ft. 
Washakie to Rawlins, 1900. 



Morrison, W. W., 

Manuscripts, "The Expedition of the 
Donnor Party and Its Tragic Fate" by 
Eliza P. Donnor Houghton; "Donnor 
Miscellany," typed by donor: type- 
script, "The Story as Told at the 
Grave of Mary Kelly near Little Box 
Elder Crossing; Sunday May 30, 

Nebraska State Historical Society, Twelve volumes Deseret Semi-Weekly 
Lincoln, Nebr. News, Salt Lake City, Utah: 1909 

July-Dec, 1910, 1911, 1912-1913; 
1914, Jan. -June; 1914 July-Dec; 1915 
Jan.-June; 1915 July-Dec, 1916, 1917; 
1917-18 (Dec. 1917-Aug. 1918). 

Nelson, Dr. Lillian Heath, 

Manuscript of poem, "Senator Beck- 
: with." 

Ohnhaus, Mrs. Charles J. 

Envelope addressed by her father, H. A. 
Parshall, to her mother, Annie Kil- 
bourne, Lexington, Michigan, return 
address stamped "Cheyenne & Black 
Hills Stage Co's Express. G.S. & P," 
postmarked Cheyenne, Wyo., Feb. 18. 
Envelope franked with stage postage 
imprint "1776-1876, U.S. Postage 
Three cents." 

Shad, Harry, 

Letters and newspaper clippings about 
Dr. Jewell, Isabelle Jewell, and the 
Oregon Trail. 

Smith, Clarence "Bud' 

Justice of the Peace docket kept by his 
father, C. F. Smith, at Shoshoni, 1906- 

Thomson, Frank, 
Spearfish, S. Dak. 

Typescript, "An Extract from the Life 
and Adventure of Bill Gay" by Wil- 
liam (Bill) Gay. 

Wyoming Cow-Belles Association Typescript, History of the Wyoming 
Laramie Cow-Belles for the year June 1. 1953 

to June 1, 1954. 


Beard, Mrs. Cyrus, 
San Gabriel, Calif. 

Presbyterian Aid Society, The Evanston 
Cookbook of Tested Recipes. 

Chamblin, Thos. S. 

Two volumes of The Historical Encyclo- 
pedia of Wyoming, edited by donor. 

Christie, Cameron, 
Aurora, 111. 

Bartlett, I. S., Historv of Wxominz. 
Vols. I, II, HI- 



Coe, W. R., 
New York City 

Adams, Ramon, F., Si.x-Gtins and Saddle 

Brcoks, Juanita, The Mountain Mea- 
dows Massacre. 
Graham, Col. W. A., The Custer Myth. 
Jackson, Alonzo C, The Conquest of 

Mercer, A. S., The Banditti of the 

Sachererell Sitwell-Handasyde Buchanan 

& James Fisher, Fine Bird Books 

Stewart, George R., The Opening of the 

California Trail. 

Cooper, Clara Chassell, 
Berea, Ky. 

Fifteen pamphlets: four journals of the 
Wyoming Mission of M. E. Church, 
1889-92; 11 Minutes of the Black 
Hills Mission Conference of M. E. 
Church, 1892 to 1904. 

Dunn, Mrs. Nora, 

Hook, James W., 
New Haven, Conn. 

Stone, Elizabeth Arnold, Uinta County 

Its Place in History. 
Strahorn, Robert E., The Handbook of 

Cook, James H., Fifty Years on the 

Old Frontier. 

Hook, James W., Lt. Samuel Smith His 
Children and One Line of Descendents 
and Related Families. 

Clay, John, My Life on the Range. 

Lloyd, S. A., 
Caldwell, Idaho 

Morton, Mrs. R. A., 

Ohnhaus, Mrs. Charles J., 

Rocky Mountain Directory Co. Wyoming State Directory, 1953-54. 

Pamphlet: Seventy-five Years of His- 
tory, 1869-1944, history of the First 
Presbyterian Church, Cheyenne. 

Allyne, E. E., First Round Trip Trans- 
continental Passenger Flight. 

Steege, Louis, 

Wells, Dr. N. E., 

Pamphlet, Fort Laramie National Mon- 
ument, Wyo., U. S. Dept. of Interior, 
National Park Service. 

Wells, Nathan E., M.D., Just Another 
Country Doctor. 


Bernstein, Mrs. Martin, 

Bond, Wallace, 

Photograph of Idelman Residence, now 
Schrader Funeral Home; 23 photo- 
graphs including the members of the 
Idelman family, P. Jacob Gauff, and 
other Cheyenne residents. 

Picture of first Wool Growers meeting. 



Chadey, Henry, 
Rock Springs 

Dunn, Mrs. R. L. 

Frink, Maurice, 
Boulder, Colo. 

Gillespie, A. S., 

Ledbetter, Jack, 

Love, Mrs. John, 

McCreery, Mrs. Alice Richards, 
Los Angeles, Calif. 

Metz, Mrs. P. W., 

Moore, Jr., J. K. 

Nelson, Dr. Lillian Heath, 

Schafer, Edwin C, 
Omaha, Nebr. 

Shiek, Mrs. Frank N.. 
Long Beach, Calif. 

Wagner, Howard, 

Zullig, H. C, 

Four photographs of Indian petro- 
glyphs near Rock Springs and Boer's 

Four photographs including Ollie Ar- 
nold, 1895; Mr. and Mrs. Floye, and 
members of their family. 

Two photographs of frozen cattle and 
snow drift after blizzard of 1949, 
photos taken by J. Elmer Brock of 


Five post card photographs of roping, 
riding, and catching wild horses. 

Thirteen photographs including early 
mining days around Battle, Wyo.; 
Edith Crow Haggarty and Mr. Hag- 
garty; Roman Tunnel, Breckenridge, 
Colo.; and memorial to Maj. T. T. 
Thornburgh, 1879. 

Photograph of St. Mathews Church, 
Laramie, with Rev. Cornell, Capt. 
Cratz (?), Mrs. Ferris, and young 

Nineteen tintypes of early Cheyenne 
residents, 1892; three photographs in- 
cluding the Dobbins house, Warren 
residence. Engrossing Committee of 
1895 or 1897 Legislature. 

Two picture post cards of Plaza Apts., 

Photograph of Edmo LeClair. 

Photograph of the Heath House, 1882. 

Fourteen photographs of early U.P.R.R. 
construction crews and locomotives of 
Wyoming and Utah. 

Two post card photographs, one of Ft. 
Russell about 1904, one of State Cap- 
itol Bldg. before the wings were 

Sixty-nine picture glass negatives, in- 
cluding 12 pictures of Cheyenne 
scenes and buildings, 15 pictures of 
Fort Francis E. Warren, and 4 pic- 
tures of Tom Horn. 

Photograph of officers of the 1st Batt., 
Wyo. Volunteer Inf., Spanish-Ameri- 
can War. 




Bolln, Henry, 

Employment Security 

Commission of Wyoming 

Highway Department, 

Livestock and Sanitary Board, 

Nicholas, Thomas A. 

State Board of Health, 

State Engineer, 

State Highway Commission, 

State Library, 

Unemployment Compensation 

U. S. Department of the Interior, 
Bureau of Reclamation, Mis- 
souri Basin Field Committee, 
Billings, Mont. 

Two volumes of Postmaster Account 
and Record Book and 8 books of rec- 
ords and registers of the U. S. Post 
Office at Douglas. 

Seventeenth Annual Report, 1953. 

Three issues of "The Highwayman," 
Dec. through Mar., 1954. 

Two reels of microfilm including Min- 
utes, Attorney General's correspon- 
dence and opinions, and Brand Divi- 
sion correspondence through the "F's"; 
8 publications for microfilming on 
quarantine proclamations and disease 

Eight photostats of the court records of 
Capt. C. G. Nickerson, U. S. Court 
Commissioner for the 3rd Judicial 
District, Wyoming Territory, 1869. 

"Studies of Tick and Rocky Mountain 
Spotted Fever," 1921-22. 

Received from the State Library, Docu- 
ment Section: Annual Report, Second, 
of the Territorial Engineer, 1889; Bi- 
ennial Reports, 1889-1906, Nos. 1-8. 

State Highway Department of Wyoming, 
by John R. Shanahan, a thesis for the 
Univ. of Wyo.; Wyoming Highway 
Laws and Related Statutes, 1953. 

Biennial Reports of the State Librarian, 
1892, 1894, 1896, and 1898; 3 lists of 
documents sent to states and territor- 
ies, 1900. 

Early Claimant Card, Jan. 3, 1939, from 
Worland Office; Unemployment Fund 
form of the Carya Mining and De- 
velopment Co., Atlantic City, Wyo., 
June 1937. 

Sixty-two issues of the Department of 
the Interior in the Missouri River 
Basin Progress Report Quarterly from 
July, 1948 to July 1954; Power Re- 
quirements and Supply Missouri Rivet- 
Region, May 1953, prepared by Sub- 
committee on Electric Power, Mis- 
souri Basin Inter-Agency Committee. 
souri River Region, May 1953, pre- 
pared by Sub-committee on Electric 
Power, Missouri Basin Tnter-Agency 



University of Wyoming, Agricul- 
tural Experimental Station, 

University of Wyoming, Office 
of Registrar, 

Wyoming Emergency Relief 

Wyoming Game and Fish 

Wyoming Liquor Commission, 

"Cattle Rate-of-Grazing Study on the 
Bighorn Mountains," circular No. 36, 
Jan. 1954. 

Statistical Summary, 
Annual Edition. 

1952-1953, 32nd 

Report of Wyoming's "Operation Snow 
bound, 1949." 

"Fishing Orders," 1954; "Wyoming Fur 
Bearers, Their Life Histories and Im- 
portance," by Earl M. Thomas. 

Plates from which Wyoming Liquor Tax 
stamps in the denominations of 2, 3, 
4, 41/2, 5, 6, 8, 10, 151/2, 20, 24, and 
3 1 cents were printed. Includes sam- 
ples of printed regular sized, non-col- 
ored stamps of 4, 4 : /2, 10, and 20 
cent denominations. 

Wook Keviews 

Jedediah Smith and the Opening of the West. By Dale L. Morgan. 
(New York and Indianapolis: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 
Inc., 1953. 458 pp. Preface, illustrations, appendix, notes 
and index. $4.50.) 

With the latest biography of Jed Smith comes proof that interest 
in the fabulous mountain men and their dramatic exploits has not 
slackened. In its various phases, the opening of the West saw a 
number of action-packed sequences which overshadowed the more 
plodding events of settlement. It was the most colorful frontier 
of all, and its many props — cowboys, stagecoaches, rough miners, 
steamboats, railroads, horse Indians, all spread over a panorama 
of magnificent distances — lent both movement and excitement to 
the development. Of all those who combed the farthest reaches 
of empire, in search of gain, the mountain men, first in sequence 
of time, have appealed to the American imagination ever since 
the time of Leatherstocking. Like later frontiersmen — from cow- 
boys to cavalrymen — these highly individualistic, enterprising souls 
have had top billing in the literature of the West. 

Mr. Morgan's book is well titled. If any improvement could be 
made upon it, that might be to call it "The Opening of the West, 
and Jedediah Smith," for the author (quite properly) has woven 
one individual's story into the larger mosaic of early exploration 
and fur trapping. In this, he has improved upon the work of 
Maurice Sullivan {Jedediah Smith, Trader and Trail Breaker, 
New York, 1936), who narrowed his sights somewhat, pin-point- 
ing the Smith story perhaps a little too closely. He has also had 
the advantage of some additional materials, not available to 

In this latest work on the mountain men, the reader will be 
able to renew old acquaintances. Jim Bridger, William Ashley, 
Hugh Glass, Andrew Henry, Thomas "Broken Hand" Fitzpatrick, 
Jean Gervais, Henry Fraeb — to mention only a few — will all come 
to life again through the graphic and spritely portraits painted by 
the author. Their relationships, friendly and otherwise, are set 
in proper perspective and the reader will almost wonder if it 
might not have been better for Mr. Morgan to have attempted 
their whole story, for at times Jed Smith gets lost in the crowd. 
This is partly because of the attempted balance in the account, but 
also because of the fragmentary nature of the documents Smith 
left behind. As always, the biographer is confronted with gaps 
which have to be filled, and in this case the problem is skillfully 
solved. He did, however, have the advantage of using a subject 
who was able to write and had the inclination, from time to time, 


to do so. The story of many of Jed Smith's companions, whose 
exploits were doubtless as exciting, will never be told, for some 
of them could not even sign their own names. 

The search for materials took the author on explorations which 
almost rival those of Jed Smith. He not only used materials 
available in the United States, but also in Mexico and England. 
Particularly welcome are his descriptions of the English aspect of 
fur trading and its relationship to that of the Americans. Smith's 
dealings with Dr. John McLoughlin and others of the Northwest 
reveal the international nature of beaver trapping at that time and 
throw a good deal of light upon the coming conflict between world 
powers over the Oregon country. Here, as in other places in his 
study, Mr. Morgan has done an excellent job, portraying the 
larger picture; it has lent added significance to his work. Writers 
and teachers of western history will find the information quite 

The very brevity of Jed Smith's active life on the frontier is 
characteristic not only of the trade in which he engaged, but in 
so many developmental phases of western settlement. It was short 
— only nine years — and dramatic. In those few years his travels 
took him into many hitherto unknown parts of the country. His 
crossing of South Pass, although possibly not the first westward 
one, was, as the author says, "a high moment in American history" 
for it meant "the linking of the pass in the lines of force along 
which the American people were sweeping to the Pacific." That 
single incident had many counterparts, and by the time the "path- 
finders" made their way west much of the region was already 
mapped out, if only in the heads of the mountain men who made 
it their place of business. 

So, too, when the pioneers commenced dragging their way 
westwardly, the principal routes of travel, used still today, were 
pretty well known — thanks to the Jed Smiths. And because of the 
pathfinding done among the documents, we know a good deal 
more today about these early trailbreakers — thanks to the Dale 

University of Colorado Robert G. Athearn 

The Journals of Lewis and Clark, Edited by Bernard DeVoto. 
(Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1953. lii + 494 pp., 
6 maps. $6.50.) 

In its infancy, the United States was blessed with an aggrega- 
tion of great men rare in the history of this nation, and among 
them Lewis and Clark must certainly be counted. Together, they 
planned and executed, almost flawlessly, the most brilliant explora- 
tion this continent has ever seen, one of greatest significance to 
our history. Yet, at their centennial exposition, their glory was 


stolen and given to Sacajawea; and with the loss of an historical 
sense that the West has experienced along with the rest of the 
country, the significance of their achievement has largely faded 
from view. 

In making generally available in a very readable edition the 
original Journals, DeVoto has done much to counteract their 
slump into oblivion. By eliminating the technical materials of 
value to specialists but not to the general reader, and by omitting 
unimportant entries and abbreviating others, DeVoto has short- 
ened the Journals to about one-third their length in the Thwaites 
edition. Yet the impression of the full journals is preserved and 
even somewhat intensified in the condensation. 

There are a few interpolations from the journals of Whitehouse, 
Ordway, Floyd, and Gass, a few from Biddle's History, and the 
whole of Clark's return trip up the Yellowstone is taken from 
DeVoto's narration in The Course of Empire. Otherwise, the 
journal entries are preserved as written, with their delightfully 
fluid spelling. On the whole, DeVoto lets the journals speak for 
themselves, confining himself to short summaries at the beginning 
of each phase of the journey; but his footnotes, used sparingly, 
are extremely valuable. He is especially helpful in explaining 
the significance of Indian tribes; and his comments on unusual 
geographical details, of which he is absolute master, do much to 
translate the journals from mere narration into a realized exper- 
ience of men engaged in dangerous, painful, backbreaking labor, 
as thsy towed their pirogues up the length of one of the most 
ornery rivers in America. 

The reader's participation is necessary to realize the extreme 
difficulties under which the party labored. The Captains barely 
had time to jot down essential details and descriptions urgently 
desired by Jefferson; and, as Clark remarks, "to state the fatigues 
of this party would take up more of the journal than other notes." 
Their difficulties appear in pithy remarks which spring to vivid 
life with a little reflection. For instance: "The men are much 
afflicted with boils." Boils from rowing a 55-foot keelboat, but 
for three more months they row on the boils. Shoed in moccasins, 
they transplant twenty tons of equipment eighteen miles over 
ground thick with prickly pear, in storms so violent that hailstones 
knock the men down. They tow pirogues all day, three-fourths 
submerged in icy mountain streams. But they hardly ever com- 
plained, and the party's morale was high, except for a moment 
when they had to double back from the Bitterroots to pick up 

This fact is largely due to the brilliant leadership of Lewis and 
Clark, who picked their men wisely, trained and disciplined them 
expertly, and commanded their trust and admiration. They in- 
spired respect for Indians and enthusiasm for the expedition — two 
vital factors in its success. Their remarkable intelligence and 


brilliant geographical sense, their superlative woodsmanship, their 
brilliant handling of Indians mastered a frontier environment vastly 
different from any previously known to Americans. In a group 
of outstanding men, they loomed head and shoulders; and De- 
Voto's subtle editing, which shifts the focus from Lewis' to Ciark's 
entries, shows the particular skills that made them together one 
of the greatest of all teams. 

Of the rest of the party, Drewyer was the most useful, Char- 
bonneau the least, and Saca'awea somewhere between. She did 
more than could be expected even of a squaw; but in an under- 
taking that depended so heavily on brute labor, the skills and 
ingenuity of frontiersmen, and the judgment and planning of the 
Captains, her best seems little. Clearly not a guide nor leader, 
she appears to have been more a member of her family group than 
of the party. 

DeVoto's long introduction relates the expedition to world 
forces of which it was a part in a way rare in the writing of 
Western history. 

University of Wyoming Ellsworth Mason 

Cheyenne Autumn. By Mari Sandoz. (New York: McGraw-Hill 
Book Company, Inc., 1953. xviii + 282 pp., index. $4.50.) 

Almost any recent American history text book mentions the 
nauseating corruption which disgraced the administration of the 
Indian Bureau for a quarter of a century directly following the 
Civil War. The effect of Bureau policy upon the Northern Chey- 
enne Indians in 1878-1879 is the main theme of Cheyenne Autumn 
by Mari Sandoz. 

A roaming, hunting society, the Northern Cheyenne pursued 
the rapidly disappearing buffalo in the approximate region that 
lies between the South Platte and Yellowstone Rivers. As white 
men began to crowd into this region the demand to clear the 
Indians out became loud and distinct. One by one, the Army 
rounded up the various Indian tribes and herded them off to live 
a restricted reservation life. 

"They [the Northern Cheyennes] surrendered to the promise of 
food and shelter and an agency in their hunting region." If they 
had to move to a reservation, the Northern Cheyenne wanted to 
live like the Sioux who were able to maintain some semblance 
of former freedom and dignity on the Red Cloud Agency. "But 
almost before the children were warmed on both sides, they were 
told they must go to Indian Territory (now Oklahoma), the far 
south country many already knew and hated . . . Now they were 
thrust upon the most shaming dependence of all — upon the hos- 
pitality of their relations, the Southern Cheyennes, with a cut 
below the appropriations that those people had last year just for 


themselves." According to Cheyenne Autumn this was the first 
Bureau betrayal of a promise made and lightly broken to the 
Northern Cheyennes. The rest of the book is a virtual river of 
betrayals, tragedy, despair, and more broken promises. 

Living with their near-starving relatives in Indian Territory, the 
Northern Cheyennes found agency life unbearable. Early in the 
autumn of 1878 a desperate group of about 300 men, women, and 
children made their bid for freedom. Led by Chiefs Dull Knife 
and Little Wolf, this little group cut a 1,500 mile trail through 
some 13,000 scattered soldiers, ranchers, and homesteaders who 
were ordered out to capture the Indians and return them to Indian 

After seven long months of eluding the Army, fighting and 
fleeing, the starving remnants of the Northern Cheyenne surren- 
dered in March, 1879. Their surrender took place in the Rosebud 
Valley of Montana near thear beloved hunting grounds, the Yel- 
lowstone River Valley. Out of some 200 warriors and boys old 
enough to ride and fight, only thirty-one ragged "fighting men" 
were left along with their mothers, wives, and children. Eventually 
they settled down in the region in which they surrendered which 
later became part of the Tongue River Reservation set up for the 
Northern Cheyennes. Their epic flight north now over, they be- 
came "agency Indians." Yet, they did achieve the goal they set 
out to achieve in the autumn of 1878, but at a terrific cost to 
their tribe. 

Cheyenne Autumn is definitely sympathetic toward the Northern 
Cheyennes. As such, Miss Sandoz did a great deal of research in 
trying to impart to the reader some idea of what the Indian thought 
and how he lived during this era in American history. She says, 
"To convey something of these deep, complex, and patterned 
interrelationships which I myself sense only imperfectly, I have 
tried to keep to the simplest vocabulary, to something of the 
rhythm, the idiom, and the figures of Cheyenne life, to phrases 
and sentences that have flow and continuality." 

Miss Sandoz, in Cheyenne Autumn, makes a serious attempt to 
capture what no Indian has written — his own history. At times 
the attempt to describe what was actually going on in the minds 
of this particular tribe of Indians tends to make the first part of 
the book slow reading. It is only after the actual flight from 
Indian Territory that the tempo of the book picks up and the 
reader begins to enjoy Cheyenne Autumn. As a whole, the book 
should prove of great interest to those who find as a source of 
reading pleasure the history of the western frontier and Indian 

Southeast University Center Wm. F. Bragg, Jr. 

Torrington, Wyoming 


Cow Country Cavalcade. By Maurice Frink. (Denver: Old West 
Publishing Co., 1954. 243 pp., illus. $4.50.) 

As the sub-title of this book, Eighty Years of the Wyoming 
Stock Growers Association, would indicate, this is a history of 
one of the most influential groups in Wyoming; and as a story 
of that Association it is an important part of the history of Wyo- 

Mr. Frink has given us a book which has long been overdue — 
a well written, readable, interesting story of the stockman and his 
problems, and an accurate and factual history of the Association. 

In the history of the West the stockman has been assigned an 
almost mythical status; he has often been much maligned; his 
aims and policies are frequently misinterpreted; and his position 
is too often misunderstood. 

Cow Country Cavalcade gives the reader an insight to the many 
and ever-changing problems the stockman must face, and shows 
the cowman as he really is, without the aura of the mythical West- 
ern cowboy or the cattle baron surrounding him. Because of his 
natural reticence, the stockman is ordinarily a poor salesman for 
himself. One must know him to understand his courage, resource- 
fulness, independence and individualism, qualities upon which a 
strong America was built, and qualities which must be preserved 
if America is to remain strong. 

Mr. Frink has covered the entire history of the range industry 
in Wyoming from its earliest days to the present. He has given 
free access to all records of the Association, and no restrictions 
were placed upon him in regard to his interpretation of those 
records. It is his own story, based upon the facts as he saw them. 

Cheyenne Lola M. Homsher 

The Government and Administration of Wyoming. By Herman 
H. Trachsel and Ralph M. Wade. (New York: Thomas Y. 
Crowell Company, 1953. xiv + 381 pp.) 

An American Commonwealth Series has been initiated with 
the publication of The Government and Administration of Wyo- 
ming, a most worthy contribution for students of government, by 
Herman H. Trachsel and Ralph M. Wade. This Series attempts 
to meet a dire need for a concise yet comprehensive explanation of 
the organization and administration of state governments as well 
as to provide interesting comparisons and contrasts so character- 
istic in these United States. 

Though Wyoming was the forty-fourth state to be admitted to 
the Union, its government has become as complexed as many 
older states. Departments not covered in our state constitution 
have been formed as the need arose, in a "piecemeal fashion". 
This has resulted in a rather disorganized system of administra- 


tion. Pointing out this fact as well as many other situations in 
their analysis of the government of Wyoming, the authors suggest 
recommendations for the improvement of the present system of 
governmental administration. 

Recently the reviewer had an occasion to catalog some forty 
boxes of official state publications, including annual and biennial 
reports, bulletins, circulars, etc., and noted that some fifty-six 
different state departments, boards and commissions were repre- 
sented among these publications. At present the Governor is a 
member of at least twenty-one of these boards and commissions. 
With so many separate boards and commissions within the state 
government it is impossible for the Governor to adequately super- 
vise them as the executive officer of the state. In pointing out 
this particular situation, Dr. Trachsel and Dr. Wade suggest that 
ths number of boards and commissions "should be small enough so 
the 'span of control' of the chief executive can be effective, per- 
haps somewhere between ten and fifteen for Wyoming. At the 
same time the departments should be unifunctional." 

Careful study and detailed explanation is given for most of the 
larger state departments, such as, to name a few, Public Health, 
Public Welfare, Public Education, Labor, and Agriculture, as 
well as the Legislature. A chapter is also devoted to municipal 
government and a chapter devoted to county government. On the 
other hand little or no mention is made of the smaller departments 
except for a mere listing, in name only, of their respective boards 
or commissions. 

The Constitution of Wyoming, the Compiled Statutes, the Ses- 
sion Laws, and reports of individual state departments are the main 
reference sources used in the preparation of this American Com- 
monwealth Series volume. Theses of University of Wyoming 
students, daily newspapers, personal interviews and Journals of 
the House and Senate are among other sources used. 

It can readily be realized that any book dealing with a subject 
of this nature could quickly become out-dated depending upon 
action of the legislature and the constant changing of state laws. 
This fact was brought to mind when it was noted, for example, 
that the status of the State Library and the Historical Department 
was changed by the 1951 and the 1953 Legislatures. The authors 
overlooked this change entirely. 

This book, easy to read and to comprehend, was written with 
the intent that it be used as an undergraduate college textbook. 
However, administrative officials of government and private citi- 
zens as well should find the factual material contained in The 
Government and Administration of Wyoming of great value in 
acquiring a better understanding of how their state, county and 
city governments operate. 

Cheyenne, Wyoming Herbert J. Salisbury 


The Doctor's Wyoming Children. By Woods Hocker Manley. 
(New York: Exposition Press, 1953. 266 pp. $3.50.) 

This family memoir is an interesting account of the impression 
left by Dr. William Arthur Hocker on his adopted state from 
1873 to 1919. As a physician Dr. Hocker's influence was felt 
in the early days of Evanston and Kemmerer, and in addition to 
those duties he found time to serve his state as a legislator. He 
helped obtain the appropriations for the state university at Lara- 
mie and the hospital for the mentally ill at Evanston. 

The members of the Hocker family were individualists as seen 
through the eyes of Woodie. Papa was tall and handsome and a 
safe repository of secrets. Mama was a tiny southern aristocrat, 
capable and understanding. Rob, the adored elder brother, was 
the only child not born in Wyoming. Woodie, the first daughter, 
considered her sisters, Edith, Effie, Virginia and Florence, much 
more beautiful than any of the babies Papa brought to the neigh- 
bors. William, or Bud, the youngest of the children, was an ardent 
dog lover and frequently referred to his five officious sisters as 
"The Hounds of the Baskervilles. ,, 

There is a strong current of friendliness running through the 
story, and it touches the lives of many people living in that part 
of the state. Some of them are Emma, whose illness was the 
reason for Dr. Hocker choosing Evanston as the family home and 
who was definitely not the "hired girl 1 ' but the "best friend"; the 
milkman who taught Mama how to make bread; the dentist who 
gave Virginia's doll a gold tooth; the jeweler who helped Rob and 
Woodie with their Christmas shopping; Grandma Ruff ley who 
played games with the children, and Chief Washakie, a dinner 
guest who appropriated the ice-cream freezer. 

Mrs. Manley tells an interesting story of family life in early- 
day Wyoming, amusing anecdotes of many of the State's notables, 
informal items of history as she saw it unfold, and gives us a vivid 
picture of many of the pioneer families who helped develop Wyo- 
ming Territory into a strong and growing state. 

Wheatland, Wyoming Leora Peters 

Mercer, A. S., The Banditti of the Plains (Norman: The Univer- 
sity of Oklahoma Press, 1954, 195 pp. $2.00.) 

No acquaintance with the epic history of Wyoming — or, for that 
matter, with the history of civilization in the trans-Missouri River 
country- — will be nearly complete without a careful study and 
analysis of what this little volume contains. Asa Shinn Mercer, 
an angry "cow-country Zola," pleads passionately for a cause, 
now six decades old but still fresh in many northern Wyoming 
memories, in which he firmly believed. For Mercer, the cattle- 
men's invasion of Wyoming in 1892 was "the crowning infamy 


of the ages." Modern, non-partisan readers will find his Banditti 
of the Plains, at the very least, a factual tribute to the Western 
tradition and a welcome account of one war that Texans did not 

The Johnson County war — the nesters versus the big cowmen 
— has, however, remained a cause celebre that echoes along the 
Powder River till this day. Mercer's book recounts compellingly 
the point of view of the settlers; the other side of the story must, 
in all justice, be sought after in other works — the Malcolm Camp- 
bell story as told by Robert B. David, for example. It is a wonder 
that Mercer's vehement and eloquent revelations, prejudiced as 
they may be, are available for a considerate judgment at all. The 
first printing of the book in 1894 was suppressed as far as pos- 
sible by the cattlemen who obtained possession of a large number 
of the books and burned them. "It is hard to avoid the conclu- 
sion," writes William H. Kittrell in his valuable foreword to this 
reprint, "that, had the cattlemen been possessed of clean con- 
sciences, they would, with the power they exercised, have been 
able to convict him . . . for slander and criminal libel. They 
chose, however, to suppress the book and hound its publisher and 
author." It is not hard to imagine present-day readers whose 
smoldering indignation will be rekindled by such an implication. 

Mercer's own conclusions about the range war and Mr. Kittrell's 
implications notwithstanding, this volume provides a significant 
addition to any collection of Western Americana, and it is con- 
siderably more provocative than most of the great body of fiction 
it inspired. 

Laramie Tom E. Francis 

Arrow in the Moon, by Margaret and John Harris. (New York: 
William Morrow & Co., 1954. 312 pp. $3.50.) 

Arrow in the Moon has all the elements of the usual western 
novel, but with one difference, it is an historical novel of the 
West and the setting is an authentic one. The authors did a good 
deal of research in the Wyoming State Historical Department so 
that the picture they presented of Cheyenne would be accurate; 
and it is accurate down to the fine details of early street names and 
places such as the famous Inter Ocean Hotel. 

The setting is the period of the Dull Knife Indian difficulties 
of the late 1870's, and the story of the Indians is written with 
sympathy and understanding. 

Cheyenne Lola M. Homsher 


Clarice Whittenburg was born at Marshfield, Missouri, and 
came to Wyoming in 1930, at which time she became a member 
of the faculty at the University of Wyoming where she now holds 
the position of Professor of Elementary Education in the College 
of Education. She holds a degree of B. S. in Education from 
Central Missouri State College and an M. A. from the University 
of Chicago. 

Virginia Cole Trenholm is a native Missourian, with B. J. 
and M. A. degrees from the School of Journalism, University of 
Missouri. She began her teaching career as Instructor in English 
and Journalism and Director of Publicity at Stephens College. 
She also served as a member of the English Department at Park 
College before coming to Wyoming to make her home. 

Now the wife of Robert S. Trenholm, a native son, she does free 
lance writing as a hobby. She is the author of Footprints on the 
Frontier and co-author, with Maurine Carley, of Wyoming Pag- 
eant. Mr. and Mrs. Trenholm, who reside on a ranch near 
Glendo, are the parents of two children, James R., now serving 
in the armed forces, and Mrs. Virginia Phillippi, of Bordeaux. 

Jean Hampton Gaddy was born in Michigan and received her 
high school education in Dayton, Ohio. She enlisted in the 
W.A.C., A.A.F. during the war and served in the C.B.I. Theater. 
In 1948 she married Albert M. Gaddy in Missouri and came to 
Wyoming where she studied at the University of Wyoming, grad- 
uating from there in 1950. 

Olive Garrett Kafka was born at Rock Creek, Wyoming. 
She received her education in the rural schools of Albany County 
and at the University of Wyoming, and she has taught thirty terms 
in the rural schools of the State. Her hobby for many years has 
been the collecting of the pioneer history of the state. She was 
married at her ranch home at Garrett, Wyoming, to Joseph Kafka 
and they have four children, Mary Barrett and John Kafka of 
Garrett, Thomas Kafka of Saratoga, Wyoming, and Joseph Kafka 
of Windsor, Colorado. 


Lee Crownover Stoddard born in eastern Nebraska, came 
to Wyoming as an infant and has spent his life in this state. He 
received his education in the schools of Douglas and Manville 
and took two years of law at Washington State in Seattle. He has 
been a rancher and businessman, having served as town clerk and 
treasurer of Manville for over thirty years and for eleven years 
as a member of the school board. One of his fond memories is of 
seeing some of the trail herds that passed near Douglas on their 
way from Orin Junction to northern points. He married Fama 
Hess, a member of the Jireh College group, and they have two 
children, Ray L., an aeronautical engineer now living in Cin- 
cinnati, and Miriam L. Eby (Mrs. D. L.) whose husband is a 
chemical engineer in St. Louis. 

Loujincy Polk (Lula Cobb Jones) of Billings, Montana, had 
her first poem published in the Forsyth Times, Montana, in 1907 
when a small girl. Born in Colorado, she lived for a short time 
in Texas and Oklahoma and arrived in Montana in 1905, receiv- 
ing her education in the Forsyth schools. She worked in the 
office of the Yellowstone newspaper in Billings and was historian 
for the National Cowboys' Association for two years. She is a 
member of the Montana Press Women, helped organize the first 
Little Theatre group in Billings, and is the author of a booklet 
The Plains Absarokee. She will shortly have a book of poems 
Breath of the Big Horns ready for publication. 

Qeneral Index 


Abbott, Ruth Hornecker, 58, 61. 

Absaroka Range, 5, 21. 

Act of Congress, Wyoming Terri- 
tory, 1868, 33. 

Adams, Mr., Lander Evening Post, 

Adams, James H., & Senior Class of 
Campbell County High School, 
Gillette, gift of, 215. 

Advertising, early newspaper, 20. 

Ahern, Army engineer, 13. 

Ainsworth, Dr. H. H., 21. 

Albany County Historical Society, 
209; museum, 115. 

Albany County, history, 138. 

Albany County Superintendent of 
Schools, 113. 

Albany County, Wyoming, 33, 83. 

Alexander, Robert, 161. 

Alger, Mrs. Homer, 54. 

All-American Indian Days, Sheri- 
dan, Wyo., 199. 

Allen, Charles, 64. 

Allen, Mrs. Mary Jester, 208. 

Allen, Obridge, 122. 

Allen, Mrs. Stasia, 53. 

Alton, Ed., 51, 63. 

American Fur Co., 121-5. 

American Legion Auxiliary, Lara- 
mie, 115. 

Anderson, Charles, 32. 

Anderson, Peter, 54, 60. 

Antelopes, 9. 

Antlers Hotel, 1905, 9. 

Appleby, C. S., 1. 

Appleby, Judge W. I., 161-3. 

Armstrong, Maj. George W., 170-2, 
180-3, 188-9. 

Arp, Henry, Sr., 32. 

Arrow in the Moon by Margaret and 
John Harris, reviewed by Lola M. 
Homsher, 231. 

Arrow Maker, author unknown, a 
poem, 194. 

Arthur, Pres. Chester A., 34. 

Ashley, William, 223. 

Athearn, Robert G., Westward the 
Briton, reviewed by Lola M. 
Homsher, 103; review of Jedediah 
Smith and the Opening of the 
West, by Dale L. Morgan, 223-4. 

Artifacts, see Indians. 

Atkins, J. J., 64. 

Atlantic City, Wyo., 212. 
Auguste, Lucian, 122. 
Austin, Gsorge, 129. 
Automobile, first in Cody, 18; com- 
peting with saddle industry, 31. 
Axe, Allen, 64. 

Babbitt, Almon W., 165. 

Bad Land Dave, see Dave McFall, 

7, 20-1. 
Baker, Mr. and Mrs., Lander, 57. 
Baker, Jim, cabin, 208. 
Baker, Mrs. Lillian H., 93. 
Baldwin, Mrs. Belle, 58. 
Baldwin, George L., first white 

child in Lander, 54. 
Baldwin, M. N., 53, 60, 64. 
Baldwin, Maj. Noyes, 58, 63. 
Baldwin, Mrs. Noyes, 52, 55. 
Baldwin Creek, Wyo., 135. 
Baldwin's Store, 212. 
Band, 1876, 111. 

Banditti of the Plains by A. S. Mer- 
cer, reviewed by Tom E. Francis, 

Bane, J. R., gift of, 215. 
Bank robbery, Cody, 5. 
Baptiste, (Batise), 144. 
Barber, Dr., Cheyenne dentist, 31. 
Barnett, Fred, 21. 
Barr, Doc, 212. 
Barrett, Sen. Frank A., gift of, 98; 

Governor, 109. 
Barrett, Tim, 61. 
Basin, Wyo., 8, 10, 15-6, 18. 
Bates, C. E., 60. 
Bates, Mrs. Charles, 53. 
Bates, Mrs. Elizabeth Carr. 58, .60. 
Bates, George, 10. 
Battleground relics, 208. 
Battrum, A. P., 60. 
Beals, Ira, 54. 
Bear Butte, S. Dak., 121. 
Bear River, 26, 172, 183, 186. 
"Bear" story by George B. Mc- 

Clellan, 39. 
Beard, Mrs. Cyrus, gift of, 96, 215, 

Beaton, Marguerite, 55. 
Bebee, James, 64. 
Beck, George T., 6-7, 13, 21. 



Bedell, Edward A., Indian agent, 

156-7; letters by, 147-51, 153-6. 
Beef price, 1885, 94. 
Beever Creek, Wyo., 212. 
Bellamy, Ben, 109, 112-6. 
Bellamy, Mrs. Beth, 109. 
Bellamy, Charles, 112, 115. 
Bellamy, Freeman, 112-3. 
Bellamy, Fulton, 109, 112-3. 
Bellamy, John, 109, 114-7. 
Bellamy, John Cary II, 109, 117. 
Bellamy. Mrs. John (Josephine 

Johnson), 109, 116. 
Bellamy, Mrs. Mary Godat. a 

photo. 108; 109-17. 
Bellamy. Mrs. Wilhemina, 109, 

Bennett, Mrs. Ed, 210. 
Bentzen, Dr. Raymond, 198. 
Bernhisel. Hon. John M., 166, 173, 

Bernstein. Mrs. Martin, gift of, 94, 

97-8, 215, 219. 
Berry, Sam, 19. 

Beetelvoun, Mrs. Isaac (Susan Bor- 
deaux), 119, 124, 127. 
Better Food Laws, Wyoming, 114. 
Big Horn Basin, 42. 
Big Horn County, 24. 
Big Horn Mountains, 6. 10. 39, 46. 
Big Mountain, 185. 
Bigler, John H., 162. 
Billboards, pioneer, 25. 
Bingham's Fort, 172. 
Biography of Christopher Merkley, 

Bishop, L. C, gift of, 193, 215; a 

photo, 108. 
Bishop, Mrs. T. K., gift of, 96. 
Black Hills road, Wyoming, 94. 
Black's Fork, 181. 
Blazzard Brewery, 162. 
Bliss, L. C, 51, 60, 63. 
Blizzards, '49, Cody in 1906, 22-3. 
Bogensberger, M. J., gift of, 96. 
Boland, Ed, 64. 
Bolander, Kate ( Mrs. Frank Mea- 

nea), 31. 
Bolln, Henry, gift of, 221. 
Bon, Stephen, 32; store, 27. 
Bond, Wallace, gift of, 219. 
Bordeaux, Alexander, 124. 
Bordeaux, Mrs. Alexander (Salayce 

Pratt). 127. 
Bordeaux, Alexander, Jr., 119; a 

photo, 120. 
Bordeaux, Mrs. Alexander, Jr. 

(Mary Julia Jordan), 127; a 

photo, 126. 

Bordeaux, Antoine, 124-7. 

Bordeaux, Felix, 119. 

Bordeaux, James, "Bear", 119-27; 
a photo, 123. 

Bordeaux, Mrs. James (Rhee In- 
dian), 121. 

Bordeaux, Mrs. James (Marie, Brule 
Sioux), 121-4; a photo, 123. 

Bordeaux, John, 124. 

Bordeaux, Kenneth, 119, 127. 

Bordeaux, Lema, 124. 

Bordeaux, Louis, 124. 

Bordeaux, Paul, 119. 

Bordeaux, Susan, 119, 124, 127. 

Bordeaux, William, 124. 

Bordeaux Bend, Wyo., 121-2. 

Bordeaux Creek, Nebr., 121. 

Bordeaux Ranch, 122-3. 

Bordeaux Story by Virginia Cole 
Trenholm, 119-27. 

Bordeaux, Wyo., 119-23, 27. 

Borland, Matt, 64. 

Borner, John, 64. 

Boswell, N. K., & Co., 93. 

Bovee, Mr., 162. 

Bower, Lawrence J., 56, 58, 61. 

Bowers, Mrs. Lawrence, 61. 

Bowers, Esther, 61. 

Bowman, Ike, 64. 

Bowron, Frank L., President's Mes- 
sage, 82-4, 191-3. 

Box Elder, 66-7. 

Boyce & Felloon, Messrs., 94. 

Boyd, William, 54, 64. 

Boys Industrial School, Worland, 
Wyo., 114. 

Bragg, Robert, 64. 

Bragg, William F., 92. 

Bragg, William F., Jr., gift of, 215; 
review of Cheyenne Autumn by 
Mari Sandoz, 226. 

Brandon, C. Watt, 129. 

Braten, Walter, 21-2. 

Bridger, Jim, guest of the Carters, 
34; Indian interpreter, 68; driven 
from his fort, 148, 151; ferry 
suit. 162, 164; Colonel, 183-4; 

mountain man, 223. 

Brigham's Destroying Angel by Wil- 
liam A. Hickman, 149. 

Brimmer, George, gift of, 97. 

Brininstool, E. A., Fighting Indian 
Warriors: True Tales of the Wild 
Frontiers, reviewed by Maurice 
Frink, 101. 

Brokaw, Mrs. Ralph H., gift of, 

Bronco busting, 1906, 22; drawing, 



Brothel, Mrs. Feeley's, 13. 

Brown, J. Robert, 183. 

Brown, James Stephens, 150-1, 157, 
161-2, 164-6, 168, 174, 179-81. 

Brown, Thomas M., gift of, 94. 

Bruce, J. E., 64. 

"Buckeye," pioneer vernacular, 26. 

Bucking Horse insignia, photo of 
drawing by Allen T. True, 128; 

Buffalo Bill, 10; relatives, 6; de- 
scription, 11; Oregon Basin Proj- 
ect, 13; show, 22; Cedar Moun- 
tain cairn, 23; mementos, 208. 

Buffalo country, 66. 

Buffalo, Wyo., 47, 111. 

Bugas, John S., 109; a photo, 108. 

Bullock, Isaac, Judge of Green Riv- 
er County, 158; Indian arbitrator, 
161-2, 185; letters by, 180-2, 

Bullock, Thomas, 182. 

Burden, Grant, gift of, 215. 

Burlington House, 1905, 9. 

Burlington, Wyo., 3-4, 8-10, 16. 

Burnett, F. G., 60, 63. 

Burnett, Finn, 52-4, 60. 

Burnett, John, 54. 

Burns. J. R.. 64. 

Burns, R. H., 209. 

Burnt Fork, Wyo., 38. 

Burrage, Frank Sumner, 35. 

Burritt, Wyoming State Engineer. 

Burton, Maj. R. T., 182. 

Busby, Joseph, 161, 164. 

Butler, Lewis, 137. 

Butler, Mrs. Mary, 58-9, 61. 

Button, saddle horse, 212. 

CCC at Jackson and Thermopolis, 

Wyo., 135. 
Cahokia Mounds, 111., 198. 
Caldwell, Dr. Robert T., minister, 

Caldwell, Samuel M., 162-3. 
Calgary, Canada, Stampede, 30. 
Calkins, J. K., editor, 14, 21. 
Callwell's Fort, Sam, 150-1. 
Camp, Mr., killed near Baldwin's 

store, 212. 
Campbell County Historical Society, 

Campbell County, Wyo., 83. 
Cantinas, Meanea, 28. 
Capitol Building Commission, gift 

of, 94. 
Carbon County News, 94. 

Carbon County, Wyo., 33. 

Carbon, Wyo., 111. 

Carey, Charles D., 32. 

Carey, Judge Joseph M., 35-6. 

Carey Act, 35. 

Careyhurst, near Casper, Wyo.. 35. 

Carlisle, Bill, gift of, 96. 

Carpenter, Miss Ellen, 54-5. 

Carr, James A., 60, 64. 

Carr, John, 53, 60. 

Carroll, Maggie, 111. 

Carson, Iris, gift of, 213. 

Carson County, 188-9. 

Carson Valley, 70, 72, 77-8. 157. 

Carter, Anne Fauntleroy, 34. 

Carter, Judge William, 33. 

Carter, Mrs. William, 34. 

"Carter County," Wyo., 33. 

Carter Mountains, 6, 22. 

Carvalho, S. N., 155. 

Cary, Beth (Mrs. Ben Bellamy), 114. 

Case, James, 173. 

Casper Chamber of Commerce, 85. 

Casper Junior College Building, 84. 

Casper, Wyo., 44, 134. 

Casto, Frank, 64. 

Catt, Mrs. Carrie Chapman, 115. 

Cattle whips, 28. 

Cattlemen of Wyoming, 228. 

Cattlemen and "nesters", 231. 

Cedar Mountain near Cody, 5, 11, 

Cedar Valley, 164. 
Chadey, Henry, gift of, 220. 
Chadron, Nebr., 123. 
Chamberlain, Mrs. Agnes. 7, 21. 
Chamberlain's, Dr. M., boarding 

house, 7, 21; home, 10. 
Chamblin, Thomas S.. gift of, 218. 
Champ, Mrs. Myrtle, 92. 
Champion, Nate, 48, 93. 
Chapman, William J., 15. 
Chaps, use in Wyoming, 28. 
Charter members of Wyoming State 

Historical Society, 89. 
Chase, Fred, 21. 
Chatterton, Fenimore, 92; gift of, 

94, 96-7. 

Cheese, Ed., 20. 
Cheney, E. F., 56. 60, 212. 
Cheney, Mrs. E. F., 57, 61, 63. 
Cheney, Ervin, 55, 57-8, 61, 63. 
Cheney, Mrs. Matilda, 57-8. 
Cheyenne Autumn by Mari Sandoz. 

reviewed by William F. Bragg. 

Jr., 226-7. 
Cheyenne - Deadwood stagecoach, 




Cheyenne-Deadwood Trail, 123. 
Cheyenne Leader, location of, 1876, 

Cheyenne Light and Power Co., 31. 
Cheyenne Post Office, 27. 
Cheyenne River, 94. 
Cheyenne Woman's Club, 113. 
Cheyenne, Wyo., 25-6, 54; gift of 

city, 94. 
Chipped Stone Artifacts by L. C. 

Steege, 194-7. 
Chivington, Col., 26. 
Christie, Cameron, gift of, 218. 
Chugwater, Wyo., 122. 
Churches, Cody, 1906, 22; in Chey- 
enne, 32. 
Cinnamond, Dave, 26. 
Civil Service Commission, 35. 
Civil War relics, 209. 
Clark, Clarence D.. Mr. and Mrs. 

(Alice), 37. 
Clark, O. M., 64. 
Clark, W. V., 64. 
Clausen, E. C, gift of, 213. 
Coachy's place, 47. 
Cobry. T. A.. 31-2. 
Cochrane, Mrs. Ben, 61. 
Cody, Irma (Buffalo Bill's sister), 

6, 11. 
Cody, William F., see Buffalo Bill. 
Cody Building and Loan Ass'n., 14. 
Cody Canal Co., 6. 
Cody churches, see Churches. 
Cody dam, 22. 
Cody Enterprise, 1, 6. 8, 10, 14-5. 

17, 20, 22. 
Cody Hospital, 21. 
Cody Light and Power plant, 7-8, 

Cody Lumber Co., 20. 
Cody Opera House, 15. 
Cody saloons, 15, 18-9. 
Cody, Wyo., 3-24; bank robbery, 5; 

photos. 1905-6, 2, 12; Christmas, 

1905, 13; description, 1905-6, 14; 
weather, 1906, 20; recreation, 

1906. 22-3. 

Coe, W. R.. gift of, 96-7, 219. 

College Building. Natrona County, 
Wyo., 84. 

Conchas, 28. 

Connell, Emmett, 55. 

Connor, Rock H., gift of, 94, 215. 

Conover, Col. Peter, 149. 

Constitutions, Wyoming State His- 
torical Society, 86; Wyoming Ar- 
chaeological Society. 199. 

Cook, Ada. 58. 

Cook. P. S.. 31. 

Cook, William, 57-8, 64. 

Coolidge, P. B., 56. 

Cooper, Clara Chassell, gift of, 96, 
216, 219. 

Cope, Edward, 34. 

Coster, Robert, 149. 

Cottonwood, Wyo., 212. 

Cottrell, C. P., 63. 

Couch, James, 63. 

Coughlin, Louis D., gift of, 96. 

Covert, Dean F., gift of, 98. 

Cow Country Cavalcade by Maur- 
ice Frink, reviewed by Lola M. 
Homsher, 228. 

Con-boy, a poem, 140. 

Cowpunchers, Cheyenne, 31. 

Cox, Mark T., 31. 

Coyotes, 9. 

Crisman, Rev. Homer C, 92. 

Crow Butte, Nebr., 124. 

Crowley, C. W., 64. 

Crowley, Cora, 61. 

Cumming, Gov., Alfred, Utah Terr., 

Cunney, Adolph, 94. 

Curry, John, 64. 

Custer Myth by Col. W. A. Gra- 
ham, reviewed by Alfred M. 
Pence, 101. 

Dakota Territory, 33. 

Danks, Jimmie, gift of, 95. 

Darrah, Hud, 21. 

Daughters of the American Revo- 
lution, Wyoming, 117. 

David, Robert B., gift of, 216. 

Davidson, Mrs. Leslie, 54. 

Davis, Dr. B. F., 31-2. 

Davis, Courtney C, gift of. 213, 

Davis, James, 161-2. 

Davis, J. R., 58. 

Davis, Mrs. L. C, 63. 

Dead Man, horse, 135. 

Deadwood Stage Coach relics, 208. 

Deming, William, editor, 35. 

Democratic Convention, 1915, 114. 

Denver-Cheyenne, Deadwood Stage 
lines, 138. 

Denver, Colo., 13, 26. 

Deseret, News, 162. 165. 168, 

Deseret, State of. 141-2. 

DeVoto. Bernard. The Journals of 
Lewis and Clark, reviewed by 
Ellsworth Mason, 224-6. 

DeWolf. Henry, 60. 64. 

DeWolf. Mrs. Henry. 53. 



Dibble, Charles E., 150. 

Dickinson, Norman, 91. 

Dickinson, P. P., 51, 63. 

Diemer. Bob, 58. 

Dildine, Fred R., gift of, 95. 

Dillon, Sidney, 34. 

Dinosaurs, exhibit, 209; bones, 210. 

Doctors, medical, 28. 

Doctor's Wyoming Children by 

Woods Hocker Manley, reviewed 

by Leora Peters, 230. 
Dr. Price's Cream Baking Powder, 

Doe, John, Sr., also Mrs., Miss, and 

John Doe, Jr., 15. 
Douglas, Wyo., 134. 
Dubois County, history, 92. 
Dudes from East, 14. 
Duell, carpenter, 7. 
Dunn, Mrs. Nora Gattis, biog. of, 

105; gift of, 219-20. 
Dunn, Mrs. Nora H., Frank A. 

Meanea, Pioneer Saddler, 25-32. 
Dunn, Mrs. Vallie, gift of, 96. 
Dupont, Mrs. Elizabeth Stevenson, 

Duponey, H. (Uncle Batt), 183. 
Dykes, George P., 157. 

Earl's and McDonald's grocery, 162. 
East Side School, Laramie, Wyo., 

Eastman, George, 30. 
Echo Canyon, 183. 
Eclipse of moon, 1906, 15. 
Ecoffey, Julies, 94. 
Elks Lodge, Cheyenne, 32. 
Elliott, Joseph R., 35. 
Elliott, Vern, 134. 
Ellswick, W. L., 10, 15, 24. 
Emerson, Dr. Paul W., gift of, 213, 

Emigrants, 34, 42, 70, 154-5, 159, 

162-3, 167-70, 179, 187, 189. 
Emigrating Fund Company, Per- 
petual, 159. 
Emigration, see Indians: Treaty of 

Empress Theatre, Laramie, Wyo., 

Evans, Ben, 64. 
Evens, William, 51, 63. 
Execution, first lawful, in Utah 

Territory, 164. 

Faris, Joe, 64. 

Farlow, Albert Jerome "Stub", 54-5, 
57, 61, 130, 133-6; a photo, 134. 

Farlow, Mrs. Albert Jerome "Stub", 

Farlow, Ed. J., 60, 133. 
Farlow, Mrs. Ed. J. (Lizzie Lamor- 

eaux), 52, 55, 60, 63, 133. 
Farlow, Etta, 56. 
Farlow, Henry, 64. 
Farlow, Netta, 61. 
Farlow, Jules, Sr., History of Fre- 
mont County Pioneer Associa- 
tion, 51-64, 105; biog. of, 92; 

gift of, 133, 210, 216. 
Fawcett, John, 161. 
Feed bags, 28. 
Ferris, Richard, review of Firearms 

in the Custer Battle by Parsons 

and DuMont, 102. 
Ferris Oil Field, 116. 
Ferry, Retta Iiams, 58. 
Ferry suit, Busby vs. Bridger and 

Lewis, 161-2. 
Fey, C. E., Mr. and Mrs., 117. 
Fields, J. H., 56. 
Fields, Mrs. Jess, 55. 
Fighting Indian Warriors: True 

Tcdes of the Wild Frontiers by 

E. A. Brininstool, reviewed by 

Maurice Frink, 101. 
Fillmore City, 154-5. 
Firearms in the Custer Battle by 

Parsons and DuMont, reviewed 

by Richard Ferris, 102. 
First automobile in Cody, 18. 
First Baptist Church, gift of, 216. 
First National Bank, Cody, 1905, 

First Ninety Years, by Clarice 

Whittenburg, 109-18. 
First white child in Lander, see 

George L. Baldwin, 
First Woman State legislator, 113. 
Fisher, Essie, 61, 63. 
Fitzpatrick, Thomas (Broken Hand), 

Fleming, 2nd Lt. H. B., 158. 
Fletcher, Mrs., 58. 
Fletcher, Charles, 64. 
Flint, Dr. Thomas, 148. 
Flu epidemic, 53. 
Fogg, Charles, 51, 63. 
Forrest, James, 64. 
Fort Augur, 52. 

Fort Bingham, see Bingham's Fort. 
Fort Bridger, 33-5, 66-7, 69, 74, 

148-50, 160, 177, 181, 183, 185-8, 

Fort Brown, 52. 
Fort Caspar, replica, 208. 
Fort C. F. Smith, 123. 



Fort D. A. Russell, 122. 

Fort Fetterman, 122. 

Fort Hall, 70, 76. 

Fort Keough, Mont., 134. - f . ,- 

Fort Laramie, 119, 122-3, 158, 160, 
174, 193, 209. 

Fort McKinley, 47. 

Fort Phil Kearny, 122. 

Fort Pierre, S. Dak., 121. 

Fort Randall, 124. 

Fort Reno, 123. 

Fort Robinson, Nebr., Indian bat- 
tle, 22; 127. 

Fort Sanders, 111. 

Fort Steele, Wyo., 111. 

Fort Supply, 150-1, 158, 161, 168, 
177, 179-82, 185-6. 

Fort Union, 121. 

Fort Washakie, 54. 

Fosher, Abe., 60, 63. 

Fosher, John, 51, 63. 

Fossils, 34. 

Four J Ranch, Lander, Wyo., 135. 

Fourt, Judge E. H., 52-4. 

Fox , Theatre, Laramie, Wyo., 109. 

Fraeb, Henry, 223. 

Francis, Tom E., review of The 
Banditti of the Plains, by A. S. 
Mercer, 230-1. 

Frank A. Meanea, Pioneer Saddler 
by Mrs. Nora H. Dunn, 25-32; 
description of, 30-2. 

Franzen, Frank, 138. 

Frazee, Bill, 92. 

Frazen, Asmus, 138. 

Freak animals, 210. 

Fredericks, Henry, museum, 209. 

Freeman, traders, 73. 

Free Silver Bill, 36. 

Fremont, John C, 119, 153. 

Fremont County Chapter of Wyo- 
ming State Historical Society, 91. 

Fremont County Pioneer Ass'n., 64, 
209-10; names on monument, 59, 

Fremont County, Wyoming, 51, 55, 
57, 83. 133. 

Frick, Fred, P. O., 112. 

Friend, Clarence L., gift of, 216. 

Frink, Maurice, review of Fighting 
Indian Warriors: True Tales of 
the Wild Frontiers by E. A. Brin- 
instool, 101; gift of, 220; Cow 
Country Cavalcade, reviewed by 
Lola M. Homsher, 228. 

Frontiers Day, Cheyenne, 134. 

Frost, Jesse, 15-7, 21. 
Froyd, Col. E. A., 92. 
Fry, Jake, 51, 63. 

Fuller, R. P., 31. 
Fulton, Hank, 21. 
Fur trade, 223. 

Gaddy, Jean C. (Hampton). Wyo- 
ming's Insignia — The Bucking 
Horse, 129-36; biog. of, 232. 
Gallatin and Gallup saddlery. Den- 
ver, 26. 
Gallatin, E. L., 26-7. 
Gallatin, Joe, 27. 
Gambling, 18-9. 
Gambling houses. 18-9. 
Gardner, George, 22. 
Gardner, Hattie, 10. 
Garland, town of, 16. 
Gautschi, Hans, 209. 
Geology exhibits, 208. 
Germania Bench, 3. 
Gervais, Jean, 223. 
Gettys, Claude, 199. 
Giesler, L. L., 64. 
Gillespie, A. S., gift of. 92, 95, 98, 

Glass, Hugh, 223. 
Godat, Marie, "Mollie", see Mrs. 

Mary Bellamy. 
Gold, Gus, 30. 
Gold, American, 67. 
Goodman, Finley, 21. 
Goodman, Mrs. Julia, 5. 
Goodrich, Mr. and Mrs. Arlo, gift 

of, 216. 
Goodrich, J. E., 64. 
Gooldy, John F., gift of, 213. 
Gopher Stamp & Die Co., St. Paul. 

Gordon, Thomas, 92; gift of, 95-6. 
Gore, Lord, 183. 
Goshen County Historical Society. 

Gould, Jay, 34. 
Governor's Office, Wyoming, gift 

of, 96. 
Government and Administration of 

Wyoming by Herman H. Trachsel 

and Ralph M. Wade, reviewed by 

Herbert J. Salisbury, 228-9. 
Graf, Mrs. George J. (Louise S.). 

gift of, 96, 98. 
Graham, Jim, 56. 
Graham, Col. W. A., The Custer 

Myth, reviewed by Alfred M. 

Pence, 101. 
Grand River. 157. 
Grand Teton National Park. 209. 
Grant, John, 64. 
Grant, Pres. Ulysses S., 35. 



Gratrix. William B. (Buck), 51, 53, 

Grattan, Lt., 122. 
Grattan Massacre, 121. 
Great Father, 70. 
Great Salt Lake, 73. 
Green. Richard. 55. 
Green River, 157, 159-60, 163, 

167-8. 177, 182-3. 
Green River bridge, 1852, 141-3. 
Green River ferry, 141-3, 159-61. 

Green River County, Utah Terr., 

157. 159-61. 172, 183, 186, 188. 
Green River mountain men, 151. 
Green River Valley, 186. 
Green River, Wyo., 66, 78-9. 
Greenhouse, Jack, gift of, 95-6. 
Greybull River, 10. 
Griffith, Dean Maurice, 84. 
Gunnison, Capt. John W., 149, 154. 
Gunnison party massacre, 149. 
Guns, exhibit, 209. 
Gustafasen, Martha, 55. 
Gustin. E. A., 64. 

'Hair pants", 28. 

Hall. Mrs., 52, 219. 

Hall, Clair, 63. 

Hall, Robert H., 52-7, 60, 63. 

Hammitt, Carl, Deputy Sheriff, 15. 

Ham's Fork, Utah Terr., 161. 

Hanke, L. F., gift of, 97. 

Harding, Clara, 21. 

Harding, Milo, 21. 

Hardy, Mrs. Roy, 92. 

Harnden, Grant, 92. 

Harness, work, 28. 

Harney, Gen. (Gene), 34. 

Harnsberger, Harry, 56, 59. 

Harnsberger, Mrs. L. C, 54. 

Harris, Margaret and John, Arrow 

in the Moon, reviewed by Lola 

M. Homsher, 231. 
Harris, W. W. (Curly), 64. 
Harrison, Charles B., 64. 
Harrison. W. Noble, 92. 
Harsch, Phillip, 64. 
Hart, Charles, 64. 
Hart Mountain Inn, 7. 
Harting, Henry, 64. 
Harvey, Alonzo, 51, 63. 
Haverly, Mr. and Mrs. Mark, gift 

of, 98. 
Hawkins, George, 15. 
Hawley, James H., 159, 162. 
Hayden, C. E., 21. 
Hayden, Ferdinand, explorer and 

geologist, 34. 

Hays, Mrs. Alice C, 61. 

Hays, Mrs. Park, 61. 

Hays, William, 212. 

Heart Mountain, 5. 

Heart Mountain Federal Irrigation 

Project, Cody, 116. 
Heath, W. A., 64. 
Hebard, Dr. Grace Raymond, 35, 

54, 174. 
Heenan, Mike, 64, 212. 
Henry, Andrew, 223. 
Henry, Dutch, 212. 
Henry, William M., gift of, 213. 
Henry Ford's Car Cavalcade, 137-8. 
Henry Morgan skull, 209. 
Hickman, William A., 148, 161-4, 

168, 182, 185-6, 188. 
Hicks, D. R., 209. 
Higgins, Maj., 153. 
Hildreth, Dr. A. C, Sup't., gift of, 

Hills, Ratcliff M., gift of, 98. 
Hilman, Fred, History of Wyoming 

Archaeological Society, 197-9. 
Hilman, Mrs. Fred (Alice), 198. 
Hirsig, Fred, 31. 
Hiscock, F. J., photographer, 21. 
Historical manuscripts, see Wyo- 
ming Zephyrs. 
Historical markers, 54. 
History News, 9 1 . 
History of Fremont County Pioneer 

Association by Jules Farlow, 51- 

History of Wyoming Archaeological 

Society by Fred Hilman, 197-9. 
Hitchcock, Bess, 21-2. 
Hitchcock, Jess, 21. 
Hockaday, Maj. John M., 144, 159. 
Hoffer, Florence, 57. 
Hoffer, Jack, 209. 
Hole-in-the-Wall gang, 46. 
Holeman, Maj. Jacob H., Indian 

agent, 65, 73, 76-8, 147, 151; 

letters by, 66-72, 145-6, 152. 

Hollister, Dwight, 21. 

Holm, Tex, 6, 21. 

Holnholz, Mrs. W. J. (Byrde Mea- 
nea), 31. 

Homesteaders, "nesters", 231. 

Homsher, Lola M., review of West- 
ward the Briton by Robert G. 
Athearn, 103; review of Cow 
Country Cavalcade by Maurice 
Frink, 228; review of Arrow in 
the Moon by Margaret and John 
Harris, 231; Director, Wyoming 
State Museum, 86, 208. 



Hones, Mr. and Mrs. Joseph, gift 

of, 214. 
Hook, James W., Seven Months in 

Cody, Wyoming, 1905-1906, 3-24; 

biog of, 105; gift of, 219. 
Hook, John, 3, 5, 10, 20-1. 
Hook, Orin, 8. 

Hooker, Claude, photographer, 10, 

"Hopalong Cassidy", 130. 
Horesky, C. J., gift of, 216. 
Hornecker, Ernest, 57, 63. 
Hornecker, J. M., 60, 64. 
Hornecker, Mart, 54, 56, 60. 
Horse Creek, 54, 125, 166. 
Horse, studies of aboriginal, 34. 
Hot Springs County Pioneer Asso- 
ciation, 210. 
Houx, Gov. Frank, of Wyoming, 

Howe, Alice, 21-2. 
Howe, Anna, 21. 
Howe, Julia Ward, 113. 
Howe, Dr. Louis, 21. 
Howe, Ruby, 21-2. 
Hoyle, Mr., 15. 
Hoyt, Percy, 30-1. 
Hudson, Dan, 56, 61. 
Hudson, Eddie, 58. 
Hudson, Hattie, 61. 
Huff, John, 64. 
Humbolt, 70. 

Humbolt River, 167, 172. 
Humphrey, Pres. George Duke, 

University of Wyoming, 109. 
Hunt, Mrs. Lenore, 55. 
Hunt, Sen. Lester C, 83-4; gift of, 

98, 216; governor, 58-9, Secretary 

of State, 129-30. 
Hunt, Mrs. Lester C, 58. 
Huntington, Dimick B., 78, 142-3, 

149, 153-5, 157, 168, 172-5. 
Huntington and Co., settlement on 

Green River, 144, 161. 
Hunton, John, 122. 
Hurt, Maj. Garland, 170-2, 176, 

182, 188-9. 
Hutchinson, Mr. (Mormon), 144. 
Hutton, William, private museum. 

Hutton's Ranch, 123. 
Hyde, George E., 125. 
Hyde, Hon. Orsen, 149-50, 161, 


Idaho Territory, 33. 
liams, Sam, 64. 

Incidents of Travel and Adventure 
in the Far West by S. N. Car- 
valho, 155. 

Indian Affairs, Report of the Com- 
missioner of, for 1855, 34th Con- 
gress, 1st Session, Senate Execu- 
tive Doc. V, Part I, 170. 

Indian Agencies, Shoshoni, 6; in 
Utah Territory, 157, 164 5, 167- 

Indian agents, 65-80. 

Indian arrowheads, 195. 

Indian arrows, 198-9. 

Indian artifacts, 198-9; wood, bone, 
and chipped stone flaking too!. 
196; Yuma and Fulsom, 196; 
scrapers, 199; willow leaf, 199. 

Indian battles, Fort Robinson, 122; 
Sioux and Utes, Uinta valley. 
147; Shoshoni and Utahs, near 
Provo City, 165; Shoshoni and 
Crow, 179. 

Indian collection, 208. 

Indian councils with whites, 67. 

Indian depredations and relations 
with whites, see Washakie and the 

Indian designs, Pima, 130. 

Indian documents, Shoshoni, 65. 

Indian education, 80. 

Indian massacre, Thornburg, 35. 

Indian reservations. Crow, 4-5; 
Rosebud, 121, 127; Wind River, 

Indian Simons, 143. 

Indian territory laws, 124. 

Indian trader, 69. 

Indian traders (Freemen), 144, 147. 

Indian tretament, 69. 

Indian treaty between the Shoshoni 
(Snakes) and the Utes, 172-6. 

Indian Wars, early definition of, 69. 

Indian wives, 34. 

Indians: Agriculture for a liveli- 
hood, 167-8, 170-1, 179. 

Indians: Ammon, Walker's brother. 

Indians: Arapahoe, 125. 

Indians: Bannack, 152, 155. 

Indians: Batieste, 174-5. 

Indians: Blackhawk, 183. 

Indians: Brazil, 184-5. 

Indians: Brule Sioux, 31, 121-4. 

Indians: Cheyenne, 74, 125-52. 

Indians: Chief Anker-howhitch. see 
Chief Ar-ra-peen. 

Indians: Chief Antero (Antaro), 
78, 149, 174. 



Indians: Chief Ar-ra-peen or Senio- 
roach (also, Arrow-pen, Arrow 
pine being sick, and Anker- 
howhitch), 78, 167, 174-6. 

Indians: Chief Bull Bear, 125. 

Indians: Chief Catalo (Katat or 
Ka-tat-o), 165, 168, 174-5. 

Indians: Chief Crazy Horse, 127. 

Indians: Chief Kenosh(a), 154, 167. 

Indians: Chief Little Soldier (Show- 
ets), 147, 172. 

Indians: Manitou or Great Spirit, 
78, 194. 

Indians: Chief Panawick, 153. 

Indians: Chief Parashunt, 154. 

Indians: Chief Persh e go, 78. 

Indians: Chief Pe-teet-neet, 153, 

Indians: Chief Sokoper, 163. 

Indians: Chief Sow-i-etts (Soweates, 
Sow-er-ette), 69, 78, 174. 

Indians: Chief Tab-be, 174. 

Indians: Chief Tavendu-wets, ap- 
pointed successor to Washakie by 
whites, 174. 

Indians: Chief Ter ret e ma, 78. 

Indians: Chief 34 Lodges, 78. 

Indians: Chief Ti-be-bu-tow-ats (Ti- 
ba-bo-en-dwart-sa or Tab-aboo- 
in-doweteey ), White Man's 
Friend or Son, 172-3, 175, 177, 
179-80, 182. 

Indians: Chief Tin-tick, 174-5, 189. 

Indians: Chief To ter mitch, 78-9. 

Indians: Chief T-shar-poo-e-ent 
(White Eye), 174. 

Indians: Chief 26 Lodges, 78. 

Indians: Chief Two Strikes, 124. 

Indians: Chief Walker (Wa chor), 
78-9, 153-5, 167. 

Indians: Chief Washakie (Washa- 
kik, Wah-sho-kig), 93; his char- 
acter, 174; a description, 184; 
see Washakie and the Shoshoni. 

Indians: Chief Wassahu, 183, 185. 

Indians: Chief Watche namp, 78. 

Indians: Chief Whirlwind, 122. 

Indians: Comanches, 124. 

Indians: Crow, 123; depredations, 

Indians: Cum-um-bahs, 168, 173. 

Indians: Diggers, 167-8. 

Indians: Elk Mountain Utes. 168, 

Indians: First difficulty between the 
Shoshoni and whites, 177-9. 

Indians: Inter-tribal relations, 152, 

Indians: Ivanpah, 189. 

Indians: Mary's River, 76-7, 171. 

Indians: Moquis, 79. 

Indians: Navijos, 176. 

Indians: Pah Utahs, 168. 

Indians: Panaks, 76. 

Indians: Parvante (also Parvon and 

Pauvant) Utes, 152, 154, 167-8. 
Indians: Pawnees, 125, 173. 
Indians: Phillip, 183. 
Indians: Piedes, 168. 
Indians: Pi-Utes, 152. 
Indians: Primitive rock chipping, 

Indians: Pottery in Wyoming, 198. 
Indians: Red Cloud's, 94, 127; 

agency on Wolf Creek, 21. 
Indians: Rhee, 121. 
Indians: Sandpitch, 173. 
Indians: See Washakie and the Sho- 
Indians: Shoshoni, See Washakie 

and the Shoshoni. 
Indians: Sioux, 21, 94, 152, 169-70, 

182, 187. 
Indians: Snakes, 65-9, 71, 158, 165, 

168, 171-7, 179, 183, 185, 188. 
Indians: Sosokos, 152. 
Indians: Spanish Fork band, 174. 
Indians: Squash, 174. 
Indians: Squash-Head, 153. 
Indians: Tecumseh, 183. 
Indians: Timpany Utes, 152. 
Indians: Timp-no-quint band, 174. 
Indians: Treaty of Laramie, 70-1. 
Indians: Tribes claiming title to 

Utah Territory, 152, 158-60, 62, 

166, 173, 178, 186. 
Indians: Uinta Utes, 65. 69. 74. 

147, 152, 165, 168. 
Indians: Utahs (Utes), 67, 78-9, 

147, 149, 155-6, 164-5, 168, 171. 

Indians: Walker War of 1853-54, 

Indians: Washaws, 152. 
Indians: Weber (Treaber) Utes, 

Indians: Yampah Utes, 65, 147. 
Irma Bar, Cody, Wyo., 11. 
Irma Hotel, 6, 11. 
Iron County, Utah Terr., 157, 165. 
Institute of Meteorology. Univer- 
sity of Puerto Rico, 116. 
Irwin, Charley, 134. 
Irwin, lames, 51, 63. 

lack rabbits, 9-10. 
lackson, George, 63. 
Jackson, Mrs. George, 60. 



Jay, Tom O., 31. 

Jaynes. William, 64. 

Jedediah Smith and the Opening of 
the West by Dale L. Morgan, re- 
viewed by Robert G. Athearn, 

Jeffries, Mrs. May, 55. 

Jenkins. Perry W., gift of. 216. 

Jenny's Stockade, 209. 

Jenson, Andrew, 150. 

Jireh. Wyo., 140. 

Johnston's army, 148. 

Johnson. Arthur, 4-5, 7. 

Johnson. Josephine, 116. 

Johnson. W. G., 64. 

Johnson County War, 44 5, 49. 

Johnson County, Wyo., 44; history, 

Jones. Dave, haberdasher, 21. 

Jones, David, 63. 

Jones, Mrs. K. C, gift of, 97. 

Jones, William T.. 57-9, 64. 

Jordan. Col., 127. 

Jordan, M. S., gift of, 99. 

Jordan. Mary Julia (Mrs. Bor- 
deaux), 127. 

Jordan Ranch, White River. Wyo., 

Journal of a trip across the plains 
of the U. S., from Missouri to 
California, in the year 1856 by 
J. Robert Brown, 183. 

Journals of Lewis and Clark edited 
by Bernard DeVoto, reviewed by 
Ellsworth Mason, 224-6. 

Kafka, Olive Garrett, Rock River 
Stage Coach, 137-9; biog. of, 232. 

Kane. Mr., 54. 

Kaycee. Wyo., 44. 

Kendrick, John B., 37. 

Kepford, Walter, of Ishwooa, 21. 

Kerr, John, 159. 

"Keystone State," (Wyoming), 33. 

Kime, James, 60, 63. 

Kinney's ferry, 162-3. 

Kissick. W. B., 21. 

Kiwanis Club, Casper, Wyo., 117. 

Knight, Jesse, 38. 

Knight, Dr. Sam, 117. 

Knott, John, 58, 64. 

Knott, Mrs. John, 54. 

Know Wyoming slogan, 113. 

Koch, Hugo, 63. 

Kunkel, Mrs. Millie Wenger. gift 
of. 95. 

Kuykendall, Judge, 52. 

L D Ranch, 123. 

La Bonte, 119. 

Ladeau, Antoine, 122. 

Ladies Aid, Presbyterian Church, 
Laramie, 115. 

Ladies Booster Park, Lander, Wyo., 
53, 59. 

Laird, Jim, 53, 64. 

LaJeunnesse, A. J., 64. 

Lake Marie, 112. 

Lakeview Cemstery, Cheyenne, 
Wyo., 32. 

Lambertson, Mrs., 54. 

Lamoreaux, Dick, 58. 

Lamoreaux, Jules, 58, 60. 

Lamoureaux, Mrs. Lema ( Bor- 
deaux). 124. 

Lamoreaux, Lizzie (Mrs. E. J. Far- 
low), 133. 

Lamoreaux, Oliver, 212. 

Lander Clipper, 55. 

Lander Commercial Club, 56. 

Lander Evening Post, 54. 

Lander Valley, Wyo., 58. 

Lander, Wyo., 51, 57, 59; photo of, 
50; band of, 52; mayor of. 133; 
Pioneer Days, 134. 

Lander's Pioneer Grounds, 135. 

Lane, A. D., 64. 

Lane, Dr. Francis, 21. 

Langewiesche, Wolfgang. 116. 

Langlois, George, 64. 

Lannigan, W. M.. 64. 

Lantry, Victor G.. 15, 21. 

Laramie County, 33. 

Laramie Daih Independent, 1871, 

Laramie High School, 111-2. 

LaRamie, 119. 

Laramie River, 125. 

Laramie Woman's Club, 113. 

Laramie. Wyo., description. 1873, 

LaRose, Joe, 94. 

Larson, Dr. T. A., 117, 92-7: gift 
of, 97. 

Latham. Dr., 94. 

Laucken, August. 51, 63. 

Lea, Luke, 65-80, 141, 145. 

Leaderer Novelty Co., Washington, 
D. C, 20. 

Leather workers, 28. 

Leckemby, P. L., gift of. 214. 

LeClair, Edmo. 54. 64. 

Ledbetter, Jack, gift of. 220. 

Lee. A. J., 56. 

Lee. Mrs. Joe, 55. 

Lee, John D., 157-8. 

Leidy, Joseph, naturalist. 34. 



Leonard, John, 161. 
Leseberg, Mrs. Anna L., 54. 
Leseberg, Fred, 54, 64. 
Leseberg, Harry, 61. 
Lewis, Charles E., 129. 
Lewis (Louis), Suiece, 161. 
Lewis and Clark Expedition, 225. 
License plates for advertising, 132. 
Life of a Pioneer by James S. 

Brown, 150. 
Lincoln Highway Garage, 138. 
Linford, Velma, 84. 
Linscott, Mr., 138. 
Lion Mountain, 42-4, 49. 
Lion's Club of Wyoming, gift of, 

Liquor, sold on Oregon Trail, 144, 

Little, Col. J. C, 155. 
Little Laramie, 93. 
Little Popo Agie Canyon, 212. 
Littleton, E. A., 91. 
Lloyd, S. A., gift of, 219. 
Lockhart, Caroline, writer, 21. 
Log Cabin Committee, Lander, 52. 
Logue, Harry, 64. 
Long, G. C, gift of, 214. 
Lost Cabin, Wyo., 45. 
Lost Pony Tracks by Ross Santee, 

reviewed by F. H. Sinclair, 100. 
Louisant, Baptiste, 150, 183. 
Louisiana Territory, 33. 
Love, Mrs. John, gift of, 220. 
Lowe, Mrs. Frank, 54, 63. 
Lowe, John, 15. 
Ludin, Jules, 64. 
Ludin, Mr. and Mrs. J. F., 54. 
Lynch, Frank H., gift of, 216. 

Maas, Maggie, 38. 

Maas, Mr. and Mrs. Phil, 38. 

Macfie, Mrs. Bill, 55. 

Maghee, Mrs., 52-3. 

Maghee, Dr. Thomas H., 52-3, 60. 

Mail carrier, 49. 

Mail, in Utah Territory, 1852, 72-3. 

Manley, Woods Hocker, The Doc- 
tor's Wyoming Children, reviewed 
by Leora Peters, 230. 

Manley, Mrs. Woods Hocker, gift 
of, 98. 

Manoun, Nova, 61. 

Mantey, L. T., gift of, 99. 

Manypenny, George W., Commis- 
sioner of Indian Affairs, 147, 151, 
156, 158-9, 164-6, 170, 182, 

Marble, Fred, 85. 

Marion, William L., 55. 58, 92, 

Mark Twain, 34. 

Marlow and Gebo, 15. 

Marquette, Wyo., 22. 

Mary's River, 76-7. 

Mary's River, Utah Territory, 157, 
167, 171, 189. 

Mason, Ellsworth, review of The 
Journals of Lewis and Clark, 
edited by Bernard DeVoto, 224-6. 

Mason, Jerome, 212. 

Mason, Joseph F., 187-8. 

Mason, Tom, gift of, 217. 

Masure, Mr., 183. 

May, James, 15. 

May, Maud, 112. 

McAuley, Robert, 64. 

McAvoy, James A., 63. 

McCabe, William, 63. 

McCarty, Eddie, 31, 134. 

McClellan, George B. "B e a r", 
Stories by, 39-50; biog. of, 105. 

McClintock, John, 198. 

McConnell, H. N., 198. 

McCray, Mormon, 181. 

McCreery, Mrs. Alice Richards, gift 
of, 214, 217, 220. 

McCullough Peaks, 6. 

McFadden, Archie, 51, 63. 

McFall, Dave (Bad Land Dave), 
7, 21. 

McGaw, Hon. James, 154. 

McGlashan, 22. 

McGrath, Thomas, 64. 

McGuffey brothers, 21. 

Mcintosh, Pauline, 198. 

McKellar, from Marquette, 22. 

McKenzie, Camille, 61. 

McLane, Mrs. Edith Nickerson, 55. 

McLaughlin, Carrie Fisher, 57-8. 

McLaughlin, Jim, 21. 

McMillan Fur and Wool Co.. Min- 
neapolis, Minn., 20. 

Meanea, Mrs., mother of Frank, 27. 

Meanea, Byrde, 31. 

Meanea, Theodore E.. 29. 

Medicine Wheel, 119. 

Meigs, Guy, 64. 

Memorial Bell Tower, Valley Forge, 

Memorial Field House, University 
of Wyoming, 109. 

Memorial of Fremont County Pio- 
neers, 210. 

Meng, Hans, gift of, 214. 



Mercer, A. S., The Banditti of the 
Plains, reviewed by Tom E. Fran- 
cis, 230-1. 

Merkley. Christopher, 150. 

Merritt, Ernie O., gift of, 217. 

Metz, Mrs. P. W.. gift of, 99. 217. 

Mexican cession, 33. 

Milford cemetery, 54. 

Milford-Hudson school bus route, 

Millard. Allie Hall. 58. 61. 

Millard, Mrs. Lyle, 59. 

Millard County, Utah Territory, 
157. 167. 

Miller, Bert, banker, 112. 

Miller, Gov. Leslie A., 130. 

Miller. Neal E., gift of, 217. 

Mineralogist, primitive, 196. 

Miners of Atlantic City, Wyo.. 212. 

Missouri River. S. Dak., 124. 

Mitchel. Dr. D. (Col.), 68. 

Mix, Charles. Co., S. Dak., 124. 

Mix, Tom. 134. 

Moberly, W. E., gift of, 217. 

Mockler, Mrs. Frank C, 92. 

Monument. Esther Morris, South 
Pass, Wyo., 56. 

Monument, Pioneers of Fremont 
County, 93; photo, 62. 

Moore, Charles, 57. 

Moore. J. K.. 58. 63-4, 91, 210. 

Moore, J. K.. Jr.. 59-60; gift of, 
217, 220. 

Moore, James, 57, 59. 

Moore, Mr., Mormon, 141. 

Moorehouse. Frank, 212. 

Morgan. Dale L., editor, Washakie 
and the Shoshoni, Part II, 65-80; 
Part III, 141-90; biog. of, 105; 
Jedediah Smith and the opening 
of the West, reviewed by Robert 
G. Athearn, 223-4. 

Morgan, Ed., 31. 

Morgan, Harvey, 52, 212. 

Moriarty, Mrs. Tom, 92. 

Moris Sulphur Springs, 6. 

Mormon, publication, 166. 

Mormon colonization on Green 
River area. 142-4, 149-51. 

Mormon difficulties, with the moun- 
tain men, 158, 161-3, 182; with 
Indians, see Washakie and the 

Mormon ferry, 83. 

"Mormon Mission to the Shoshoni 
Indians" by Charles E. Dibble. 

Mormon Wall, 209. 

Mormons, see Washakie and the 

Morris, Esther Hobart, 83-4; mon- 
ument at South Pass, Wyo., 56; 
chair, 209. 

Morris, Sidney, 138. 

Morrison, W. W., gift of, 218. 

Morse, Dick, 52. 

Mortgaridges, 47-8. 

Morton, Mrs. R. A., gift of, 219. 

Moto, Sioux name for James Bor- 
deaux, 119. 

Moudy, Mabel C, 61. 

Mount Vernon Ladies Ass'n.. of the 
Union, 93. 

Mountain climbers equipment dis- 
play, 209. 

Mountain Dell Creek, 185. 

Mountain man, the only one prose- 
lylized by the Mormons, 1853-4, 

Mountain men, 151, 158, 161, 167, 
181, 183. 

Mountaineer, old files, 57. 

Mumey, Dr. Nolie, gift of, 95, 97. 

Murals, Wyoming State Capitol, 

Murphey, Mrs. Alice (J. L.), 110. 

Murphey, J. L., 110. 

Murphey, Louis, 110. 

Murphy, Mike, 64. 

Murray, Mrs. Maud, 3. 

Museum acquisitions, recent, 94-6, 

Museum pictures, 98-9. 

Museums: 208-10; Albany County 
Historical, 115; Wyoming State, 
Cheyenne, 208, 213-5. 

My Pal — 57 Years, a poem, by 
"Harry Robb, 81. 

Myer, Jake, 64. 

Myres, O. O.. 64. 

Nails, Esther C, 56, 61. 

Nails, Stuart. 61. 

National Monument, Fort Laramie. 

National Park Service. 209. 
Natrona County Pioneer Ass'n. 85. 
Natrona County, Wyo., 59, 83-4. 
Nebraska State Historical Society, 

gift of, 218; Historical Library. 

Neff, Brunt. 21. 
Neff. J. W. and Son's Grocery, 7, 

Neff, Jim, 21. 
Neiderjohn, R. K., 137. 



Nelson, Dr. Lillian Heath (Mrs. 

Lou), gift of, 92, 95, 218, 220. 
Nelson, S. A., 24. 
Nephi, Utah Territory, 164. 
Newell, H. T. (Kid), 21. 
Newspapers, plant of the Enterprise, 

1905, 10; description, 20; pioneer 

carriers, 48; early, 93. 
Newton, A. C, 21. 
Newton, L. L., 54, 57, 133. 
Newton, Len, 21. 

Nicholas, Thomas A., gift of, 221. 
Nickerson. Edith, 58, 60. 
Nickerson, H. G., 51-2; Captain. 

54. 59-60, 63, 212. 
Nickerson, Mrs. Harriet J., 53. 
Nickerson, O. K., 55. 
Nicol, Frank, 60. 
Noble, W. P., 64. 
North Fork of the Platte, 187. 
Northwestern Live Stock Journal, 

Norton, C. C, 64. 
Nottage, Mrs., 56. 
Nottage, Emma Cheney, 56. 
Noyes, H. L., gift of, 214. 
Nye, Bill, exhibits, 209. 

Obert, Carl. 61. 

O'Brien, William, 64. 

O'Day, Tom, 45-6. 

Ogden City, 165, 168. 

Ohnhaus, Mrs. Charles J., gift of, 


Oil in Wyo., 1878, 94; in Cody, 3. 

Oldham, Charles, 64, 212. 

Olds, Kirby H., gift of, 97. 

Olson, Mrs. Martin, 92. 

O'Neal. William F., 64. 

One-Fourth Ranch, 44. 

Oregon Basin Project, 4, 11. 

Oregon Territory, 33. 

Oregon Trail by Francis Parkman, 

Oregon Trail relics, 208-9. 

Oregon Trail trek, 192. 

Orr, Mrs. Harriet Knight, Pioneer 
Culture When Wyoming was 
Young, 33 8; biog. "of, 105. 

Osborne, Tom, 56. 

Oswald, Walter, 54. 

Otter Creek, 39. 

Otto, Wyo., 10. 

Owen. Earl, gift of, 99. 

Page, Eliza, 111. 
Painter, George, 54. 
Painter, John, 64. 

Parkman, Francis, 119. 

Parks, Frank, 15. 

Parsons and DuMont, Firearms in 
the Custer Battle, reviewed by 
Richard Ferris, 102. 

Pass Creek, Mont., 43. 

Passing, H. E., 8. 

Passing of the Range by Lee Crown- 
over Stoddard, a poem, 140. 

Patrick Bros., 138. 

Patrick, Dr., of Rock River, 137, 

Patton, James I., 51, 60, 63. 

Payson, Utah Valley, 153. 

Peak, Mrs. J. H., 10. 

Peake, J. H., 8. 

Pearson, Cora, 111. 

Pecheau, Wiihemina, "Billie", 115. 

Pelon, John, 64. 

Pence, Alfred M., review of The 
Custer Myth, by Col. W. A. Gra- 
ham, 101. 

Perales, Clarence P., Jr., gift of, 95. 

Peralto, P. T., 64. 

Perkins, Ute, 161. 

Perrin, Jack, 55. 

Pershing, Frances Warren, 36. 

Pershing, John J., 37. 

Peters, Leora, review of The Doc- 
tor's Wyoming Children, by 
Woods Hocker Manley, 230. 

Peterson, Joe and H., 64. 

Peterson, Louie, 64. 

Peterson, Robert A., gift of, 214. 

Pioneer Cabin, Lander, Wyoming, 
53-5, 59. 

Pioneer culture, Wyo., 33-8, 211, 

Pioneer Culture When Wyoming 
was Young by Mrs. Harriet 
Knight Orr, 33-8. 

Pioneer's Day, a poem, by Wesley 
Beggs, 52. 

Pioneer Days, Lander, Wyo., 133-4. 

Pioneer Monument, Lander, Wyo., 

Pioneer Park, Lander, Wyo., 55-7. 

Pioneer picnic, Lander, date, 58-9. 

Pioneer pictures, location, 210. 

Pioneer relics, exhibit, 208. 

Pipe of peace, 78. 

Pitts, E. H., 64. 

Platte [River?], 182. 

Plunkett, Sir Horace, Irish, 35. 

Poire, Louis, 51, 63. 

Polk, Ed., 16, 19. 

Polk, Loujincy (Lula Cobb Jones), 
The West, a poem, 139; biog. of, 



Pony Express barn, 209. 

Pony Trails in Wyoming by John 
Rollinson, 21. 

Popo Agie River, Wyo., 213. 

Porcupine Creek, Wyo., 135. 

Powder River Expedition, 127. 

Powder River, middle fork, 47. 

Powell, Col., Frank, 11, 24. 

Powers, Mrs. Margaret, 198-9. 

Prairie chicken, 6. 

Prairie dogs, 9. 

Pratt, Lester, 127. 

Pratt, Salayce (Mrs. James Bor- 
deaux), 127. 

Presbyterian Church, First, Chey- 
enne, 32. 

President's Message by Frank L. 
Bowron, 82-4, 191-3. 

Prewitt, Fred, 123. 

Prisoners, white, 67. 

Provo City. 149, 164-5, 171. 

Pryde, George B., gift of, 99. 

Pulsifer, 8. 

Pulspher, Zera, Mormon, 180. 

Purdue Motor Club, 131. 

Railroad, C. B. & Q., 4, 6, 20. 

Railroad, U. P., 34; tracks, 26. 

Raney, Mrs. Ted, 58. 

Ranney, Mrs. Nellie, 58. 

Rattlesnake Mountain, 5. 

Rawlins, Wyo., 111. 

Rawson, Mrs. Alice Barber, gift 
of, 95, 98-9. 

Ray, Nick, 48, 93. 

Reform, moral in Wyoming, editor- 
ial. 15, 17; laws, 14-6. 

Reid, John, 64. 

Relics of the 90's, 210. 

Rhoads, Mrs. Abby, 55. 

Rhodes, Bill, 212. 

Rice, Clarke P., gift of, 95. 

Richards, D. E., 138. 

Richards, W. A., 44. 

Richardson. Mrs., 212. 

Richeau, 119. 

Richland, town, see Cody. 

Ricthart, John, 94. 

Riddle, Dewey, 22. 

Ridley, Charles E., gift of. 95. 

Riley, John, 64. 

Riley, R. W., gift of, 98. 

Riner, John Alden, 36. 

Riverton, Wyo., 57. 

Robb, Harry, My Pal, a poem, 81. 

Roberts, Walley and Benjamin, 182. 

Robertson. Dora, 54, 59-61. 

Robinson, Dora, 53. 

Robinson, George, 183. 

R.obinson, Harry, gift of, 97-8. 

Robinson, Jack, 183. 

Robinson, J. M., 64. 

Robinson, Uncle Billy, 42. 

Robison, Lewis, 159, 185-6, 188. 

Rock Creek, Wyo., 138. 

Rock River, 137. 

Rock River Stage Coach by Olive 

Garrett Kafka, 137-9. 

Rock River's First National Bank, 

Rockies, near Cody, 5, 22. 

Rocky Mountain Directory Co., gift 
of, 219. 

Rodeo Hall of Fame proposed, 135. 

Rodeos, 134. 

Rogers, Emma, 57. 

Rogers, Mrs. Jack, 61. 

Rogers, William, 64. 

Rollinson, John, forest ranger, 21. 

Roosevelt, Pres. Theodore, 35. 

Rose, Maj. Stephen B., Indian agent, 
letter by, 65-8, 147, 157. 

Rosenstock, Fred, gift of, 99. 

Ross, Edward, gift of, 95. 

Roubidoux, Louis, 125. 

Rudson, Capt., 21. 

Russell, Frances M., 160, 162-3. 

Russell, John M., 160. 

Russell's settlement on Green Riv- 
er, 144. 

Rustlers, cattle, 44-5. 

Ryan, Elisha, "L. B.", 151. 162. 

Rymill, W. L., gift of. 97. 

Saddle blankets, 28. 

Saddle dealer's wares, 25. 

Saddle decorations, 28. 

Saddle Shop, Meanea's, a photo, 25, 

Saddle trees, Visalia's, 28: White 

River, 29; Nelson, 29; Ladesma, 

29; The Denver citizen, 29. 
Saddlery, Gallatin and Gallup, 26. 
Saddles, pioneer, 27-9; prices. 1905. 

28, 30; Meanea, 29-30. 
Sage chickens. 9. 
St. John, Ed. T.. 52, 60, 63. 
St. Louis Post Dispatch, 130. 
Salisbury, Herbert J., review of The 

Government and Administration 

of Wyoming, by Herman H. 

Trachsel and Ralph M. Wade. 

Salt Lake City. Utah. 65-6. 153. 
Salt Lake road, 159. 



Sandoz, Mari, Cheyenne Autumn, 

reviewed bv William F. Bragg, 

Jr.. 226-7. 
Sanford Ink Co., head, 30. 
Santee, Ross, Lost Pony Tracks, 

reviewed by F. H. Sinclair, 100. 
Saratoga, Wyo., 52. 
Sargent, L. W., gift of, 214. 
Savage, Ann, 52. 
Scarlett, William, 55-8. 
Schafer, Edwin C, gift of, 220. 
Schlichting. William, 64. 
School bell. Lander, Wyo., 57. 
Schroer, Mrs. Blanche, 91. 
Schultz. Mrs. Fred, 55. 
Schwoob. Jacob M., 6, 15, 21. 
"Scientific Farmer," of Denver. 

Colo., 20. 
Scott, Anna L., 61, 63. 
Sertoma Club. Casper, 193. 
Seven Months in Cody, Wyoming, 

1905-1906 by James W." Hook. 

Sexton, Ben, 63. 
Shad, Harry, gift of, 218. 
Sharp, Howard, gift of, 214. 
Shaver, Hon. Leonidas, 164. 
Sheepherders Monument, a poem, 

by Ed. Wynn, 55. 
Sheldon, Alice, 60. 
Sheldon. Ben, 60, 64. 
Shells, gun, 42. 
Sherlock. Lydia. 56-8. 61. 
Sherlock. Richard, 64. 
Sherman, General, 34. 
Sherman, Jason, 64. 
Shiek, Mrs. Frank N., gift of, 220. 
Shockley. Mr., Mormon, 161, 163. 
Shoshone Dam. 11, 13, 22. 
Shoshone Electric Light and Power 

Co., Cody, Wyo., 7-8. 
Shoshone Lake, 22. 
Shoshone Milling Co., 20. 
Shoshone River, 4, 22. 
Shoshone River Canyon, 5-6. 
Shoshone River irrigation project, 4. 
Shoshone, town, see Cody. 
Shoshoni Indians, see Washakie and 

the Shoshoni. 
Shyrock, Mr., Engineer at Shoshoni 

Dam, 13. 
Simmons, George O., gift of, 97. 
Simpson, James, 55. 
Simpson. Milward, 53, 55. 
Simpson, W. L., 52-3, 57. 
Simpson, W. M., 54. 
Sinclair, Col. Burke, 129. 
Sinclair, F. H., review of Lost Pony 

Tracks, by Ross Santee, 100. 

Singapore, saddle order, 30. 

Sinks Canyon, near Lander, 56. 

Six-shooters, 18, 47. 

Sleeping car of train, 1905, 4. 

Sliney, George M., 54. 

Smith, Clarence "Bud", gift of, 218. 

Smith, George A., 166, 180. 

Smith, Capt. George R., 130. 

Smith, James, 64. 

Smith, Mrs. Janet, 53. 

Smith, John R., 111. 

Smith, Gov. Nels H., 56. 

Smith Premier Typewriter Co., 20. 

Smith's Fork, 177. 

Snow, Les, 31. 

Snow, Warren, 173. 

Snow blindness, 49. 

Snow shoes, 45-6. 

Society of California Pioneers, gift 
of, 99. 

Sorenson, Carl, 22. 

Souter, John, 58. 

South Dakota Historical Depart- 
ment, 119. 

South Pass City, 58, 83. 

Southern Wyo. Lumber Co., 138. 

Spangler, Sam, 64. 

Spaniards, 66. 

"Spanish Diggins", Wyo., 196. 

Spencer, Maj. J. H., 64. 

Spielman, Mrs. Alice, 92. 

Spring Creek, 42. 

Spring Creek Canyon, 49. 

Spring Creek, Wyo., 45, 49. 

Springville, Utah Territory, 153. 

Spurs, 28. 

Square dancing, 54. 

Squaw Creek — Baldwin Creek, 
school bus route, 135. 

Stagecoach, Denver-Cheyenne-Dead- 
wood, 138; Cheyenne-Deadwood, 
209; Rock River Stage, 137-9. 

Stagecoach, exhibit, 208. 

Stagner, Speed, 64. 

Stannard, Frank, 8, 13. 

Star Skating Rink, Lander, 1886, 

Statuary Hall, Washington, D. C, 
83-4, 192. 

Steege, L. C, Chipped Stone Arti- 
facts, 194-7; gift of. 219. 

Steers, John, 64. 

Stevens, George, 112. 

Stevens, Mrs. George (Maud May), 

Stewart, Levi, 157, 184, 187-8. 

Stock Growers collection, 208. 

Stockgrower and Farmer, 14. 



Stoddard, Lee Crownover, The 
Passing of the Range, a poem, 
140; biog. of, 233. 

Store, Stephen Bon's, pioneer, 27. 

Stories by "Bear" George B. Mc- 
Clellan, 39-50. 

Stone, V. H., 53-5. 

Stough, Charles, 63. 

Stout, Hosea, 144, 161, 164. 

Stowe, Milton, 59. 

Stowe, Mrs., 53. 

Stowe Grove, Lander, Wyo., 59. 

Stratton, Fred L, mayor of River- 
ton, 59. 

Stratton, Fred, Jr., 59; gift of, 214. 

Stratton, Mrs. Neh\ N., 57, 61, 63. 

Strongfellow, Mr., 162. 

Stuyvesant, H. S., New York City, 

Sublette Cutoff, 159. 

Sullivan, Dan, 15. 

Sulpher Creek, Utah Territory, 161. 

Sun Ranch Museum, 210. 

Sundin, Mrs. Cliff, 210. 

Supreme Court, Cheyenne, 16. 

Swan, Henry, gift of, 214. 

Swan Land & Cattle Co., 81. 

Swede Charley, 43. 

Sweetwater, Fremont County, Wyo.. 


Sweetwater County, Wyo., 83. 

Sweitzer, Maj. Nelson B., 122. 

Sweitzer Cut-off, road, 123. 

Sybille, John, 119-25. 

Sylvan Pass, 7. 

Sypes, Charles, 55. 

T. A. Ranch, 47, 49. 

Talaiferro, Mrs. T. S., 93. 

Taylor, Mrs. James, Jr., 86. 

Taylor, N. G., 94. 

Taylor saddle trees, 28. 

T. E. Ranch, 13. 

Teacher's salaries, Laramie, 1882, 

Terry, Joshua, 182, 185-6. 
Teton Mountain Museum, 209. 
Texas cession, 33. 
Texas Longhorns, 54. 
Texas trail, 129; bosses, 27. 
Thermopolis, Wyo., 54. 
Thompson, Gen., 112. 
Thompson, Gus, 6. 
Thomson, Frank, gift of, 218. 
Thornburg Indian massacre, see 

Thorp, Russell, gift of, 214. 
Thurston, Harry, 21. 

Tinkum, Mrs., 21. 

Toluca, Mont., 4. 

Trachsel, Herman H. and Ralph M. 
Wade, Government and Admin- 
istration of Wyoming, reviewed 
by Herbert J. Salisbury, 228-9. 

Traders, 70; French Canadian. 66. 

Travel, by wagon, 1905. 8. 

Travel dangers, 68. 

Trenholm, Virginia Cole, The Bor- 
deaux Story, 119-27: biog. of. 

Tromley, Louis, 151. 

Trout, Mrs. Nell, 57, 61. 

Trucky, Joe, 63. 

True, Allen T., 130. 

True, James B., 30. 

True, Laura B., gift of, 98. 

Tweed, William (Boss), 64. 

Twin Creek, Wyo., 212. 

Twin Mountains, 94. 

Uinta (Uwinta, Uwinty). Valley. 
65-8, 167. 

Uncle Billy's Flat, 49. 

Union Pacific Railroad. 1 10. 

U. S. Department of the Interior. 
Bureau of Reclamation, Missouri 
Basin Field Committee, gift of, 

U. S. International Boundary Com- 
mission, 37. 

University of Wyoming, 35-6; 
Home Economics Dept., 114; 
College of Agriculture, 114; Ag- 
riculture Experimental Station. 
222; Office of Registrar, gift of, 

Utah Territory, 33; naturalized citi- 
zens of, 148; natural resources, 
148, 166; laws of, 159; see Wash- 
akie and the Shoshoni. 

Utter, Vincent and Hattie. gift of. 

VanBenthuysen, Mrs. Estella M., 
gift of, 96. 

Van Horn. Dr. J. H., 21. 

Van Patten, William, 64. 

Vasques, Louis, 160, 162. 

Veterans of Foreign Wars, Auxil- 
iary, Laramie, Wyo., 115. 

Vidal. Phil, 64. 

Virginia Dale, 93. 



Wade, Ralph M. and Herman H. 
Traschel., Government and Ad- 
ministration of Wyoming, re- 
viewed by Herbert J. Salisbury, 

Wagner, Harry, 21. 

Wagner, Howard, gift, 220. 

Wagner, Joe, 64. 

Wallis, Martha, 112. 

Walls, W. L., attorney, 21. 

Wain boys' place, 49. 

Walton, James, 35. 

War Bonnet race, 135. 

Ward, Barney, 68, 151, 183. 

Ward, William Elijah, 142, 161-2. 

Warde, Elijah, interpreter, 78. 

Warren, Sen. Francis E., 36. 

Warren Frances, see Frances War- 
ren Pershing. 

Washakie by Grace Raymond He- 
bard, 174. 

Washakie and the Shoshoni, A se- 
lection of Documents from the 
Records of the Utah Superinten- 
dency of Indian Affairs, edited 
by Dale L. Morgan, Part II, 65- 
80; Part III, 141-90; Morman re- 
lations, 150-1; dissatisfaction with 
Wells Charter, 159-60. 

Washington County, Utah Territory, 
157, 165. 

Water Committee, Lander, Wyo.. 

Water, drinking, Laramie, 1873, 

Weber River, 164. 

Weber Station, 145, 161. 

Weedin, Netta Ann (Mrs: A. J. 
Farlow), 135. 

Weeks bros. murder, 164. 

Weiser, Phil, 64. 

Welch, J. M., 64. 

Welsh, Dr. C. H., 129. 

Wells, Daniel H., 159. 

Wells, Dr. N. E., gift of, 219. 

Welty, Mrs. Frank A., 92. 

Werlen, John, 64. 

West by Loujincy Polk, a poem. 

West, George B., 60, 64. 

West Side School, Laramie, Wyo., 

Weston, Harry, banker, 21. 

Westward the Briton by Robert G. 
Athearn, reviewed by Lola M. 
Homsher, 103. 

Whaples, Dr. F. A., 21. 

Wheatland, Wyo., 35. 

White, J. F. (Sam), 137-8. 

Whittenburg, Clarice, The First 
Ninety Years, 109-18; biog. of, 

Whitney, Fred, Jr., gift of, 215. 

Whitesides, Hugh, 122. 

Whiting, Mrs. Belle, 111. 

Whittlesey, Elisha Esq., 80. 

Wildcat, 9. 

Wild West Show, Charley Irwin's, 

Wilhelm, Fulton, gift of, 215. 

Wiliiams, Mr., Lander band direc- 
tor, 1938, 56. 

Williams, L. O., gift of, 215. 

Williams, T. S. & Co.'s store, 176. 

Willson, A., letter by, 142. 

Wilson, Ace, 64. 

Wiison, Pres. Woodrow, 37, 114. 

Winchester gun, 41-2. 

Winchester Repeating Arms Co., 
New Haven, Conn., 20. 

Wind River, 78. 

Wind River Mountains, 213. 

Wind River Mountaineer, 51. 

Winslow, Mr., 93. 

Wiskimins, "Bump" William, 81. 

Wittich, W. F., taxidermist, 20. 

Woman Suffrage Convention, 
Washington, D. C, 1918, 114. 

Women criminals, 114. 

Women in office, 113. 

Women in Utah Territory, 162. 

Women's Club, Laramie, 115. 

Womens Rights, Wyoming, 113-4. 

Woodruff, Willford, 168. 

Woodruff, J. D., 53, 60, 64. 

Woodward, Mr., contractor, 70. 

Worland, Wyo., 16. 

Wroe, George, 58, 64. 

Wyoming Archaeological Society, 

Wyoming Cow-Belles Association, 
gift of, 218. 

Wyoming Emergency Relief, gift of, 

Wyoming Employment Security 
Commission, gift of, 221. 

Wyoming Game and Fish Commis- 
sion, gift of, 222. 

Wyoming Government, 228. 

Wyoming Highway Commission, 
gift of, 221. 

Wyoming Highway Department, gift 
of, 221, 130. 

Wyoming Historical Landmarks 
Commission, 209. 

Wyoming License Plates, 130. 

Wyoming Liquor Commission, gift 
of, 222. 



Wyoming Live Stock & Sanitary 

Board, gift of, 99. 
Wyoming museums, see museums. 
Wyoming Press Women, 117. 
Wyoming State Archives, 85, 99, 

Wyoming State Board of Health, 

gift of, 221. 
Wyoming State Constitution, 208. 
Wyoming State Federation of Wo- 
man's Clubs, 1 13. 
Wyoming State Engineer, gift of, 

Wyoming State Historical Board. 

Wyoming State Historical Library. 

Wyoming State Historical Society: 

organization, 85; constitution, 86; 

charter members, 89; local chap- 
ters, 82, 91, 191-3. 
Wyoming State Library, 85; gift of, 

Wyoming State Museum, 208. 
Wyoming State Tribune, 35. 
Wyoming State Attorney General, 

1906, 16. 
Wyoming statute in Statuary Hall, 

Washington, D. C, 192. 

Wyoming Territory, Act of Con- 
gress, 33, 110-1; Legislature, 27; 
pioneers, 51; land office, 112. 

Wyoming Typewriter & Equipment 
Co.. gift of, 96. 

Wyoming Unemployment Compen- 
sation Commission, gift of, 221. 

Wyoming Weekly Leader, 94. 

Wyoming's Insignia — The Backing 
'Horse by Jean C. Gaddy, 129-36. 

Yarnell, Nelson, 64. 

Yates, E. R., trader, 183-5. 

Yellowstone National Park, 6, 21. 

Yoder, Dr. Franklin, gift of, 215. 

Young, Brigham, Supt. of Indian 
Affairs, 176-80; Mormon set- 
tlement on Green River, 142-4; 
as Indian agent, 65-7, 146-51. 
153-6; as Governor of Utah Ter- 
ritory, 146, 148, 160, 162, 181; 
letters by, 65, 73, 80, 156-8. 
164-73, 182-90. 

Young, Brigham H., 143. 

Young, Ed., 64, 212. 

Young, Grant, 55. 

Zorn, George W., 4. 
Zullig, H. C, gift of, 220. 


The Wyoming State Archives and Historical Department has as its func- 
tion the collection and preservation of the record of the people of Wyo- 
ming. It maintains a historical library, a museum and the state archives. 

The aid of the citizens of Wyoming is solicited in the carrying out of its 
function. The Department is anxious to secure and preserve records and 
materials now in private hands where they cannot be long preserved. Such 
records and materials include: 

Biographical materials of pioneers: diaries, letters, account books, auto- 
biographical accounts. 

Business records of industries of the State: livestock, mining, agricul- 
ture, railroads, manufacturers, merchants, small business establishments, 
and of professional men as bankers, lawyers, physicians, dentists, ministers, 
and educators. 

Private records of individual citizens, such as correspondence, manuscript 
materials and scrapbooks. 

Records of organizations active in the religious, educational, social, 
economic and political life of the State, including their publications such 
as yearbooks and reports. 

Manuscript and printed articles on towns, counties, and any significant 
topic dealing with the history of the State. 

Early newspapers, maps, pictures, pamphlets, and books on western 

Current publications by individuals or organizations throughout the 

Museum materials with historical significance: early equipment, Indian 
artifacts, relics dealing with the activities of persons in Wyoming and with 
special events in the State's history.